1 7-1: Austin Establishes a Colony Created By Mrs. Phillips
2 Moses Austin Paves the Way Moses Austin was the first Anglo American to get permission from Spain to bring American settlers to Texas. He lost his business in Missouri during a depression in A depression is a period of unemployment and low economic activity. Austin knew that many Anglo Americans wanted good farmland at low prices.
3 NO! In 1820, Austin and an enslaved African American named Richmond set out on an 800-mile journey to Texas to meet with Governor Antonio Martínez. At first, the governor refused to allow Austin to bring in American settlers because he thought it was just an excuse for the U.S. to get more land.
4 Governor Martinez Says YES!!! However, Austin ran into an old friend, the Baron de Bastrop outside Martinez office who just happened to be a personal friend of Governor Martinez. Baron de Bastrop helped convince the governor to allow Austin to colonize Texas.
5 Moses Austin Dies of Pneumonia Unfortunately, Austin became ill and died of pneumonia before his plans could be carried out. His dying wish was that his son Stephen F. Austin would colonize Texas in his place.
6 Stephen Fuller Austin was 27 and studying law in New Orleans when he heard of his father s death. Austin had grown up on the frontier and attended Transylvania University in Kentucky, served in the Missouri legislature, and had been a circuit judge in Arkansas. Determined to carry out his father s colonization plan, Austin and Erasmo Seguin went to San Antonio to see Governor Martinez.
7 On the way, Austin explored Texas and decided that the fertile area between the Colorado and Brazos rivers would be a good place for a colony.
9 This region had had fertile soil, abundant water, natural resources, a mild climate, and no other settlements.
10 In his journal, he described Texas as having the richest kind of black land creeks of excellent water heavily timbered, beautifully rolling. What is a Primary Source?
11 Austin made a request for additional land along the coast. In order to be successful, Austin knew he would need a port for landing the groups of settlers and needed supplies.
12 One early disappointment was the loss of the Lively, a ship Austin had purchased to bring supplies and people to the colony. It wrecked on Galveston Island.
13 Advertising for Colonists Austin began advertising for settlers to come to his colony. The advertisements appeared in newspapers in the southern states. One add said the following: No Drunkards! No Gamblers! No Profane Swearers! No idlers!
14 Each settler would receive 640 acres for himself 1 acre = 320 acres for his wife 160 acres for each child 80 acres for each slave
15 How much did 1 acre cost? 12.5
16 12.5 Cents Per Acre
17 The majority of colonists in the 1820 s were from the United States. U.S.
18 In order to settle in Texas you had to meet requirements:
19 1. You had to become a Spanish Citizen
20 2. You had to take an Oath of Allegience
21 3.You had to join the Catholic Church (This was very hard to enforce due to a shortage of priests)
22 4. You had to be of Good Moral Character
23 The first settler to enter the land claimed by Austin was Andrew Robinson. He set up a ferry across the Brazos River. That site later became the town of Washington-on-the- Brazos. Robinson would later open a hotel and saloon in town.
24 Most of the early colonists owned small farms and a few cows or horses. Some early settlers, however, brought slaves to Texas. The wealthiest of the new colonists was Jared E. Groce, a planter and lumberman from Alabama. He brought 50 wagons and 90 slaves with him.
25 Mexico Becomes a Republic In March 1822, Austin learned that Mexico had won its independence from Spain and had a new government. NEW MEXICO SPAIN
26 This new government did not recognize Austin s right to colonize Texas, so Austin had to go to Mexico City, which was 1,000 miles away, to again ask for permission to settle Texas.
27 In Mexico City, Austin found much confusion. However, Austin was given a new colonization contract under the Mexican Colonization Law of 1823, in which the amount of land given to each settler was increased.
28 Austin would be able to settle 300 families. Although Austin s trip to Mexico City was long and costly, he learned much about Mexican customs, got to know many important Mexican leaders, and learned the Spanish Language.
29 Problems in the Colony While Austin was in Mexico City, a serious drought occurred. Some colonists gave up and went back to the U.S. There were disagreements among colonists and there were Indian raids, but many people stayed despite the troubles.
30 Native Americans did not like the settlers intruding on their territory. When they continued to raid, Austin commanded a militia, a temporary army unit, to protect the colony. By the end of 1824, relations between the Native Americans and the settlers quieted.
31 The Old 300 By 1825, Austin had issued land titles to almost 300 families. Austin s original settlers became known as the Old 300.
32 San Felipe de Austin Austin chose a place along the Brazos River to build a town that would serve as the capital of his colony. It was named San Felipe de Austin, honoring both the patron saint of the governor of Texas and Stephen F. Austin.
33 7-2: The Colonies Grow
34 Mexican Constitution of 1824 After the Mexican emperor was overthrown a new type of government was formed by the Federalists in Mexico. The Federalists believed in sharing power between the states and the national government. This Constitution was similar to that of the U.S.
35 While a Federalist believes in sharing the power, a Centralist believes that that government power should be concentrated within the national or central government.
36 It was decided that Coahuila and Texas would be united as a Mexican state and called Coahuila y Tejas. The capital of Coahuila y Tejas would be Saltillo. Saltillo
37 The Colonization Law of 1824 The Mexican government made each Mexican state responsible for their own settlement plans, but there were certain rules that must be followed by everyone.
38 The Colonization Law of Families could receive 4,428 acres after first payment of $30 2. Single Anglo man receives 1,107 acres and another 3,321 acres if he marries. Another bonus of 1,107 if he marries a Mexican woman! 3.All settlers must follow the 4 RULES!
39 Stephen F. Austin continued to be the most successful empressario for several reasons. An empressario is a land agent who brings settlers to a new area.
40 He demonstrated from the beginning his ability to deal successfully with Mexican authorities.
41 His colonists had little difficulty getting title to their land and making improvements..
42 Native Americans became less of a threat.
43 In addition, Austin's contracts included lands with some of the most fertile soil in Texas.
44 The 2 nd most successful empressario was Green DeWitt. He brought 400 families into Texas and his colony was situated west of Austin's first colony. The town of Gonzales was established as headquarters for the colony.
45 Green DeWitt 2 nd Most Successful Empressario
46 Another successful empresario was Martín de León. De León, a native of Mexico, was an expert horseman and rancher. He brought Mexican settlers into Texas and settled families along the Guadalupe River near the coast. Patricia de la Garza de León helped her husband, Martín, found the town of Victoria
47 Slavery in Texas The Mexican government opposed slavery but the Anglo American colonists argued that slave labor was needed to clear land, cultivate cotton, corn and sugarcane and to make profit.
5-1.1 Discussion Notes: Austin Establishes a Colony Moses Austin Paves the Way Moses Austin was the first Anglo American to get permission from Spain to bring American settlers to Texas. He lost his business
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