1 Expanding West Section 1: Trails to the West Section 2: The Texas Revolution Section 3: The Mexican-American War Section 4: The California Gold Rush
2 Section 1: Trails to the West Key Terms & People: John Jacob Astor- owner of American Fur Company one of largest trading Companies in America Mountain Men name for Fur traders and trappers Oregon Trail 2,000 mile long trail from Iowa & Missouri west to Oregon Country Santa Fe Trail wagon trail from Missouri to Santa Fe New Mexico Mormons members of Joseph Smiths church of Latter Day Saints Brigham Young Brigham Young became Leader of the Mormons & settled in Utah
3 Mountain Men Fur traders and trappers were some of the first Americans to explore the West
4 John Jacob Astor created one of the largest fur businesses. Astor founded Astoria, one of the first settlements in Oregon Country.
5 Oregon Trail Settlers were lured by rich resources and the mild climate. The trail was 2,000 miles beginning in Iowa or Missouri and ending in Oregon or California. Hard journey because of food shortages, bad weather, and mountains and rivers that were difficult to cross.
6 Oregon Trail
8 Santa Fe Trail The route led from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Was originally a Native American trading route Traders used the route to trade American goods for Mexican goods traders made high profits. Difficult journey due to hot desert and rough mountains
10 The Mormons traveled west in search of religious freedom Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in western New York in Church members were persecuted because of beliefs, including polygamy (one man married to several women). Joseph Smith was murdered by a mob in 1844 in Carthage Illinois.
12 Mormons move to Utah Brigham Young became the new head of the church and moved the group to Utah. Thousands of Mormons took the Mormon Trail to Utah. By 1860, there were about 40,000 Mormons in Utah.
13 Section 2: The Texas Revolution Key Terms & People: Father Hidalgo y Costilla Mexican Priest who led failed Mexican Revolution against Spain in 1810 Empresarios agents hired by Mexico to bring settlers to Texas Stephen F. Austin 1822 started Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Mexican General charged with putiing down the revolution in Texas The Alamo abandoned Mission near San Antonio that became an important battle in Texas Independence Battle of San Jacinto - Texans captured Santa Anna & forced him to declare Texas Independent
14 Many American settlers moved to Texas after Mexico achieved independence from Spain Mexico gained independence in The new Mexican government hired empresarios, or agents, to bring settlers to Texas.
15 Stephen F. Austin Empresario who started a colony on lower the Colorado River in Success attracted more settlers, who received free land in exchange for obeying Mexican laws. Mexico was concerned about the number of Americans and banned further settlement. Portrait of Stephen F. Austin, by William Howard, Miniature watercolor portrait on ivory, James Perry Bryan Papers.
16 General Antonio López de Santa Anna became the ruler of Mexico. called "the Napoleon of the West" Mexico lost half its territory under his leadership the Texas Revolution Mexican Cession of 1848.
17 Texans revolted against Mexican rule and established an independent nation War began October 1835 in a battle at Gonzales, Texas. Texans declared independence on March 2, The Republic of Texas was established. Sam Houston was named head of the Texas army. Stephen F. Austin went to the United States to seek money and troops.
18 Battle at the Alamo Texans actions angered Santa Anna. Texas force of fewer than 200, led by Colonel Jim Travis, occupied Alamo mission near San Antonio. From February 23 to March 6, 1836, Texans held out against huge Mexican army. All defenders killed in Mexican attack on March 6.
21 Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna chased Texans under Sam Houston. Texans took stand at San Jacinto River near Galveston Bay. Houston s forces attacked on April 21, 1836, Mexican army was destroyed. Santa Anna was captured He was forced to sign treaty giving Texas independence
23 Independent Nation Sam Houston was the hero of the new independent nation of Texas and was elected president. To increase population, Texas offered land grants to new settlers. Most Texans hoped that the United States would annex, or take control of, Texas and make it a state. President Jackson did not want to upset balance between slave and free states by letting a slave state enter the Union.
24 Section 3: Mexican-American War Key Terms & People: Manifest Destiny belief that Americans had a God given duty to expand westward James K. Polk Vaqueros Mexican Cowboys Californios Mexican settlers in California Bear Flag Revolt Americans declared California an Independence from the Californios Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Feb 1848 ended Mexican- American War, forced Mexico turn over its northern territories Gasden Purchase US paid Mexico $10 million for parts of AZ & NM fixed the present border with Mexico
25 Many Americans believed the nation had a manifest destiny to claim Americans new lands believed in the they West could build a new, better society founded on democratic principles. The United States had a booming economy and population in the 1840s. Needed more space for farms, ranches, businesses, and families. Looked to the West. Some believed it was America s manifest destiny, or obvious fate, to settle all land to the Pacific. Question was whether slavery would be allowed in new territories.
26 Acquiring New Territory Democrat James K. Polk elected in 1844; favored acquiring Texas and Oregon. Oregon Polk avoided war with Britain over Oregon and negotiated treaty for land south of forty-ninth parallel. Oregon organized as territory in Texas Texas was annexed (added on) in 1845, but this action angered Mexico.
28 California under Mexico Mexico had lost Texas but controlled other areas in the present-day Southwest New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The mission system was important in California, carrying out huge farming and ranching operations. Missions were broken up in the 1830s by Mexico. Land grants given to wealthiest California settlers Created huge ranches Worked by cowboys Settlers from the United States started to arrive in small numbers. They began calling for independence.
29 Mexican-American War Conflict Breaks Out The United States and Mexico were engaged in border disputes. John Slidell went to Mexico to try to buy New Mexico and California for $30 million. Mexican officials refused to speak to him. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor and his army into the border region around the Rio Grande in U.S. troops clashed with Mexicans in April. War Begins Congress declared war on Mexico in April. Taylor s forces won battles south of the Rio Grande. General Stephen Kearny seized control of New Mexico.
31 Bear Flag Revolt Settlers Revolt John C. Frémont U.S. Forces Only about 500 Americans were in California in Americans seized Sonoma and declared California to be an independent nation on June 14, starting the Bear Flag Revolt. Frémont, leader of a U.S. Army mapping expedition, entered California to support its independence. U.S. naval and military forces invaded California in June 1846 and claimed California for the United States.
33 War s End Buena Vista General Taylor s forces defeated the Mexican army under Santa Anna at Buena Vista in February The Mexican army had fled overnight. It was a fierce battle with heavy casualties on both sides. Veracruz General Winfield Scott s forces seized the port of Veracruz in March Veracruz was the strongest fortress in Mexico. Mexico City Scott s troops took Mexico City in September 1847 after a brave defense by Mexican soldiers.
34 As a result of the Mexican-American War, the United States added territory in the Southwest Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the war in 1848 Mexican Cession included present-day California, Nevada, Utah, parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming Also included area claimed by Texas north of Rio Grande Increased size of United States by almost 25 percent
36 Gadsden Purchase oin the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the United States paid $10 million for southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico.
38 American settlement in the Mexican Cession produced conflict and a blending of cultures Surge of American Settlers Americans flooded into the Southwest. New settlers battled longtime residents to control land, water, and minerals. Most Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans faced legal, economic, and social discrimination from settlers. Cultural Encounters Different cultures shaped one another in the Southwest despite conflicts. Names of places showed Hispanic and Native American heritage. Mexican and Native American knowledge and traditions also shaped many local economies.
39 Section 4: California Gold Rush Key Terms & People: John Sutter 1839 first gold strike found on his land Donner Party settlers stranded in the Sierra Nevadas who had to resort to canabalism to survive Forty-niners gold seeking migrants in California Prospect to search for gold placer miners prospectors who panned for gold in rivers and streams
40 The discovery of gold brought settlers to California California controlled by Mexico before Mexican-American War. Population was mostly Mexicans and Native Americans. Mexican officials gave Swiss immigrant John Sutter permission to found a colony there in Became a popular rest stop for immigrants.
41 Gold in California Gold was discovered at Sutter s Mill in January About 80,000 gold-seekers came to California in 1849; they were called forty-niners. They would prospect, or search for gold, along banks of streams or in surface mines. Placer miners used pans to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock and gravel. California produced $60 million in gold in 1853.
42 Life in the Mining Camps Mining camps sprang up wherever enough people gathered to look for gold. Miners came from many cultures and backgrounds. Most were young, unmarried men in search of adventure. 80% were Americans; the rest came from around the world. Only 5 percent of gold-rush immigrants were women or children. Women generally made good money by cooking meals, washing clothes, and operating boardinghouses. Miners paid high prices for basic necessities because the huge amount of gold in circulation caused severe inflation in California.
43 Westward Movement in the United States Causes Americans believe in idea of manifest destiny United States acquires vast new lands in West Pathfinders open trails to new territories Gold is discovered in California Effects Native Americans are forced off lands Americans travel west to settle new areas United States stretches to Pacific California experiences population boom
44 Immigrants to California The lure of gold attracted miners from around the world. Many Chinese men came in hopes of making great wealth and then returning to China about 24,000 from 1849 to Many Americans did not welcome the Chinese, but the Chinese still worked in gold mines, opened their own businesses, and held other jobs. In 1853, California placed a high monthly tax on foreign miners. The legal system favored Americans over immigrants. In 1849 alone, about 20,000 immigrants arrived in California from China, Europe, Mexico, and South America.
45 The gold rush had a lasting impact on California s population and economy Population Boom Population explosion quickly made California eligible for statehood. Became 31st state in Economic Growth New businesses and industries transformed California. Completion of transcontinental railroad in 1869 ended isolation from rest of country and aided economy.
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