Religion in Ancient India

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1 Religion in Ancient India

2 Hinduism

3 The Aryans Aryans Invaders from Central Asia Raja king / ruler of Aryan village Sanskrit स स क त व क writing system of the Aryans

4 The Vedas Vedas most important Sanskrit religious text

5 Social Classes Varnas social classes Caste System class system based on birth, wealth, and occupation

6 Varnas (Social Classes) Brahmins priests and teachers Kshatriyas rulers and warriors; rajas

7 Varnas (Social Classes) Vaisyas farmers, craftspeople, merchants Sudras laborers

8 Varnas (Social Classes) Untouchables outcasts

9 Gods of Hinduism Thousands of gods (devas) or one god with many forms? 10 forms of Vishnu

10 Gods of Hinduism Brahma the Creator universal spirit

11 Gods of Hinduism Vishnu the Preserver preserves dharma order, goodness, religion, law and duty

12 Gods of Hinduism Siva (Shiva) the Destroyer destroys the old so that the new can form

13 Reincarnation Reincarnation cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth the transfer of one s soul after death into another body

14 Reincarnation Karma sum of good deeds + bad deeds determines how you will live your next life

15 Reincarnation Supreme goal of mankind break cycle of reincarnation by achieving enlightenment

16 Meditation Meditation eliminate outside distractions, achieve peace, focus Om Yoga the most common form of meditation

17 Jainism Jainism teachings injure no life tell the truth do not steal own no property Ahisma non-violence

18 Jainism Swastika 卐 or 卍 ; derived from Sanskrit, meaning well-being used by Nazi s Adolf Hitler picked the swastika as the Nazi symbol because it was used by the Aryans Hitler considered the Aryan race to be superior blonde hair, blue eyes, white skin

19 Buddhism

20 Founder Siddhartha Gautama A Hindu prince in the Kshatriya caste

21 Reason Founded Luxury is Unfulfilling Gautama saw suffering; sick, old, etc. life of luxury was unfulfilling Poverty is Unfulfilling turned to religion and fasting life of poverty is unfulfilling

22 The Middle Path Middle Path (Middle Way) rejecting both luxury and denial; moderation

23 Awakening Great Enlightenment Gautama meditated gained understanding about suffering and overcoming it grew a second brain!?!? The Buddha the Enlightened One

24 Reincarnation Reincarnation birth, life, death, and rebirth Karma good Karma / bad Karma

25 Ultimate Goal Goal of Buddhism break cycle of reincarnation achieve enlightenment, or nirvana Nirvana state of bliss that comes from enlightenment

26 Comparison with Hinduism Unlike Hinduism Buddhists don t believe in the Caste System Buddhists don t follow the Vedas Buddhists don t worship Hindu gods

27 Four Noble Truths four realizations and guiding principles that became the heart of Buddhist teaching

28 Four Noble Truths 1. Suffering is a normal part of life.

29 Four Noble Truths 2. Our desire for pleasure and material goods is what brings us our suffering.

30 Four Noble Truths 3. It is possible to end suffering and reach nirvana if we overcome desire and ignorance.

31 Four Noble Truths 4. People can overcome ignorance and desire by following the Eight-Fold Path.

32 Eight-Fold Path eight guiding principles to help Buddhists follow the middle way to achieve nirvana

33 Eight-Fold Path 1. Right Thought (Understanding) Understanding that our selfish desires bring suffering

34 Eight-Fold Path 2. Right Intent Practice goodness and kindness to others.

35 Eight-Fold Path 3. Right Speech Be honest and kind. Avoid lies and gossip.

36 Eight-Fold Path 4. Right Action Do the right thing. Golden rule of Buddhism: Do no harm

37 Eight-Fold Path 5. Right Livelihood (Lifestyle) Live your life to end suffering and bring peace.

38 Eight-Fold Path 6. Right Effort Seek freedom from desire with the same effort as a drowning man struggles for breath. Prevent evil and do good.

39 Eight-Fold Path 7. Right Mindfulness (Awareness) Control your feelings and thoughts.

40 Eight-Fold Path 8. Right Concentration Focus on following the path to peace (the Eight-Fold Path) in order to achieve nirvana.