Title: Frederick Douglass Footsteps Developed by: Sari Bennett & Pat Robeson: Maryland Geographic Alliance.

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1 Title: Frederick Douglass Footsteps Developed by: Sari Bennett & Pat Robeson: Maryland Geographic Alliance Grade Level: 4 Duration: class periods MD Curriculum - Grade 4: Geography A. Using Geographic Tools 1. Use geographic tools to locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics of those places a. Construct and interpret a variety of maps using map elements C. Movement of People, Goods and Ideas 1. Describe and analyze population growth, migration, and settlement patterns in Maryland and regions of the United States e. Identify the reasons for the movement of peoples to, from, and within Maryland and the United States History 4. Analyze how the institution of slavery impacted individuals and groups in Maryland a. Compare the lives of slave families and free blacks Maryland Common Core Standards - Standards for Reading Informational Text (RI) RI1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Participate actively and appropriately in discussions about informational text. (See CCSS 4 SL 1, 2, 3.) Rl2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. (SC, 4) Summarize an informational text, either orally or in writing, including the main ideas and significant supporting information from across the text. (See CCSS 4 RL 2; W9; SL4, 6;) RI5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. (SC, 4) Apply an understanding of text features (e.g., print features, graphic aids, informational aids, online features, etc.) to facilitate understanding. Objectives: Students will be able to: locate places on a map important in the life of Frederick Douglass. use images to identify important events in the life of Frederick Douglass, including why he moved from place to place. participate in discussion about informational text about the life of Frederick Douglass. apply an understanding of informational text to complete a chart. use evidence from informational text to explain why a statue of Frederick Douglass has a place of honor in our Nation s Capitol. Vocabulary: free African-Americans - African American who were born free or received freedom from their owners freedom papers - documents free African Americans had to carry to prove they were not an enslaved person trying to escape abolitionist - someone who wanted to end slavery ship caulker - a person who works to fill the cracks or holes in ships to keeps out water Emancipation Proclamation - Lincoln issued the Proclamation Jan. 1, It granted freedom to all slaves in all areas of the Confederacy still in rebellion. The Proclamation did not pertain to slaves in the border states, but it did allow for the use of African-Americans in the Union Army and Navy. Materials: Picture of Frederick Douglass - one copy for teacher or use PPT found on CD Frederick Douglass Sign - one copy for teacher or use PPT found on CD Handouts Frederick Douglass Footsteps one set for each student Handout, Places Frederick Douglass Lived & Worked - one for each student Frederick Douglass Footsteps Map and questions handout - one copy for each student

2 Web sites National Park Service websites: Museum Management Program: Frederick Douglass: American Visionaries exhibit Library of Congress: PBS feature: Frederick Douglass autobiography online: Frederick Douglass Timeline: Photographs: Baltimore s White House, Washington, DC 1800s Douglass Statue - Central Park New York City, NY New_york City: Teacher Background: This lesson offers opportunities not only to learn about the life of Frederick Douglass, but also to learn about other important aspects of African American history. Before teaching this lesson, it is important that students have background information in the following: Slavery in America, particularly in Maryland - MD was a slave state, but not all people in Maryland supported it. Enslaved people were critical for large tobacco farms because the crop demanded so much hand labor. Slave owners often sent their enslaved persons to work for other members of their families or for their neighbors. When a slave owner died, his enslaved persons were likely sold or inherited by others. Some may have been freed. Free blacks were required to carry freedom papers to prove they were not runaway slaves. The Fugitive Slave Act, passed by Congress in 1850, declared that all runaway slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their holder. African Americans who had escaped from slavery, including Frederick Douglass, lived in fear of being captured even if they were living in the North. In 1860, Baltimore had more free blacks than any other large city in the country. Some had been born free and others freed by their owners. Some free blacks might also have purchased their freedom, paying the owner with money they earned working for others. Baltimore was a center of shipbuilding, and African Americans, free and enslaved, could find work in the shipyards. They often worked as caulkers. In 1838, African-American workers formed the Caulkers Association, one of the first black trade unions in the U.S. Lesson Development: Step 1: 1. Show students a picture and ask if anyone knows who this is. Next show them the sign and ask what do we know about Frederick Douglass. Where was he born? (Talbot County, Maryland) What were clandestine schools? (African Americans in areas such as Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina had to secretly educate themselves through clandestine institutions and private instruction because laws forbid them to receive an education.) What were some of his accomplishments? (orator, editor, U.S. Marshall for DC and served as DC recorder of Deeds and US. Minster to Haiti. 2. Tell students Frederick Douglass became one of the most famous intellectuals of his time. This lesson uses historical markers, monuments, statues, etc. to capture his memory, places, and events in this life. Step 2: 1. Give each student handouts Frederick Douglass Footsteps or place students in pairs and give a copy of the story to each pair. Ask students to volunteer to read parts of the story aloud until the entire story has been read. Discuss the story with students and apply appropriate strategies before reading, viewing, and listening to a text. 2. Have students participate actively in discussions about the life Frederick Douglass by asking the following questions: Name the county and state where Frederick was born. (Talbot County, Maryland) How did he learn to read? (Mrs. Auld taught him the alphabet and from boys in the neighborhood in which he lived.)

3 What was the first city he was sent to work? (Baltimore) What kind of work did he do in St. Michaels? (worked in the farm fields) What type of transportation did he take to get to New York? (trains, ferries and steamboat) Name the two cities and states where he worked in a shipyard. (Baltimore, MD & New Bedford, MA) In his book,the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave what did he describe? (His life as an enslaved person in Maryland) In 1845, what European country did he go to in order to become a free person? How did his trip there allow him to become a free person when he returned to the United States? (England & he worked and had funding from friends which enabled him to buy his freedom) Why did he call his newspaper the North Star? (When enslaved people tried to reach freedom in the North they were often told to follow the North Star in the sky. ) What was the Massachusetts 54th Regiment? (one of the first Black army units formed) Where did Frederick meet with President Lincoln to discuss unfair treatment of Black soldiers? (White House, Washington, DC) During which war was Frederick an advisor to President Lincoln? (Civil War) What city and state did Frederick and his family live in for 25 years? (Rochester, NY) After leaving Rochester where did Frederick and family move? (Washington, DC) President Harrison appointed Frederick be a Minster and Consul to which country? (Haiti) Step 3: 1. Now, give each student the handout, Places Frederick Douglass Lived & Worked and tell them to cut out the ovals containing the pictures. 2. Tell students to reread the information in a footstep and match a picture to each one. Discuss the information with students and than tell them to paste the correct picture in the heel of each footstep. 3. Have students cut the footstep handouts down the middle on the dotted line. Next, sequence the footstep pages in chronological order. Staple them together at the top so each student will have a book to share about the life of Frederick Douglass. Closure: Tell students to apply what they have learned by using the information in the footsteps, images, photographs and the map to complete the chart and the map. Also use the information from the questions to place a number by each photograph and draw a line from the photograph to the state where each monument, sculpture, sign or building is located today. Check answers and locations with students. Answer Key: 1. Talbot County, Maryland 2. Baltimore, Maryland 3. New York City, New York 4. New Bedford, Massachusetts 5. Massachusetts 6. Rochester, New York 7. Washington, DC 8. Rochester, New York 9. Washington, DC Assessment: Tell students that Frederick Douglass, a former slave who became a champion for civil rights in the 19th century is now the fourth African-American with a statue in the Capitol, and the first representative of the District of Columbia. Emancipation Hall is also home to statues of Rosa Parks, Sojourner Truth and Martin Luther King Jr. Tell students to use what they know and have learned to write a paragraph that explains why Frederick Douglass deserved this place of honor in our Nation s Capitol. Their paragraph should include three reasons that explain why he was given this honor. Reasons could include: (He escaped slavery at age 20 and fled to New York, where he founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star and advocated women s suffrage. In 1845, he wrote a memoir, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became a best seller and an influential abolitionist text. He spent the last 23 years of his life in Washington where he asked President Abraham Lincoln to end slavery and endorse voting rights for black Americans. He also served in international affairs, in the Council of Government for the District of Columbia, and as US Marshal for the District.)

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6 1818 Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born on a tobacco, corn and wheat farm in Talbot County, MD. He was owned by Aaron Anthony who often sent his slaves to work for others At the age of eight Frederick was sent to Baltimore to live with Sophia and Hugh Auld as a house slave. Their home was located near the busy ship-building business. Mrs. Auld taught him the alphabet until her husband told her it was against the law to teach an enslaved person to read. Frederick often carried books with him and boys living in the neighborhood helped him to become a reader. FREDERICK DOUGLASS FOOTSTEPS

7 1833 Frederick was sent back to the Eastern Shore to work in the fields on a farm near St. Michaels, MD He was sent back to the Aulds in Baltimore to work in a shipyard and learn to be a caulker. There he met many free African- Americans including Anna Murray who later helped him escape to freedom In September, Frederick borrowed freedom papers from a free black sailor and climbed onto a train. He wanted to live as a free man and not an enslaved person. He needed to reach a state in the North where slavery was illegal. On his journey, he was in danger of being caught and returned to his owner. Finally, after riding trains, a ferry and steamboat, he arrived in New York City In New York, he found a safe place to stay in the home of an abolitionist. Abolitionists were people who worked to end slavery. Anna Murray joined him and they were married. Frederick and Anna then moved to New Bedford, MA, a port city with many shipyards. There he found work as a caulker and later as a laborer. It was here that he changed his name to Frederick Douglass to make it difficult for slave-catchers to find him Frederick and his family moved to Lynn, MA. Later that year, Frederick made a powerful speech against slavery. He was hired as an antislavery lecturer after large crowds of white abolitionists began to attend his speeches.

8 1845 He wrote his autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. He told of his harsh life as an enslaved person in Maryland. The same year he met Susan B. Anthony, an advocate of women s rights, while on a speaking tour. Douglass became a champion of women's rights as well Douglass and his family returned to the United States and settled in Rochester, NY which was an important center for abolitionists. He started an anti-slavery newspaper along with Martin Delany, William Nell, and other free Blacks. The newspaper was called The North Star because enslaved people trying to reach freedom were often told to follow the North Star in the sky. His printing office was in the basement of an African American church. Douglass understood that the family of his original owner in Maryland still had papers that proved they owned him. In 1845, he left the United States for England where he would be free. There he made speeches and made friends who helped raise money to buy his freedom After President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation African Americans could join the Union Army. The Governor of Massachusetts asked Douglass to help recruit young black men to serve. The Massachusetts 54th Regiment was one of the first Black units to be formed. Two of his sons enlisted.

9 1860s Douglass became nationally known as a powerful speaker against slavery and racial prejudice. He was an important African American l leader Douglass went to the White House in Washington, DC to meet with President Lincoln because Black soldiers in the Union Army were not being treated equally to the white soldiers. Frederick Douglass served as an advisor to President Lincoln during the Civil War. When the War ended he fought for the adoption of amendments to the Constitution that abolished slavery and gave African Americans citizenship and the right to vote Douglass moved from Rochester, NY where he had lived for 25 years to Washington, DC. There he bought Cedar Hill" a 15-acre estate near the Anacostia River Douglass was appointed to a number of positions, including Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia. President Harrison appointed him as Minister and Consul to Haiti, a position he held for almost two years Douglass died at his home at the age of 72. He was buried in the family plot in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York.

10 Places Frederick Douglass Lived & Worked

11 Places Frederick Douglass Lived & Worked ANSWER KEY

12 Name Date Directions: Use the information from the questions to place a number by each photograph and draw a line from the photograph to the state where each monument, sculpture, sign or building is located today.

13 Directions: Apply what you have learned by using the information in the footsteps, images, photographs and the map to complete the chart and the map. Question Answer Photo 1) Name the county and state where Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born. Today a sign contains this information. #1 2) Name the city and state where Frederick, as a young man, was sent to work as a caulker in the shipyards. 3) Name the city and state in the north where Frederick found a safe place to stay in the home of an aboltionist. 4) Name the city and state where Frederick and his wife moved and he worked as caulker. Here he changed his name to Douglass. 5) Name the state that formed the 54th Regiment to serve in the Civil War. 6) Name the city and state where the Douglass family lived for 25 years. Frederick published his newspaper, The North Star, in this city. 7) Name the city where Douglass moved after the Civil War to serve in international affairs, in the Council of Government for the District of Columbia, and as US Marshal for the District. 8) Name the city and state where the Douglass family plot is located. 9) Name the city where a statue of Frederick Douglass was placed in the nation s Capitol in Today a sculpture is located near the place where he worked. Today a statue in the city s large park shows Frederick as a young man making a speech. Today a Memorial Tablet is located outside the city s library. Today a plaza commemorates the contribution of the 54th Regiment. Today a bronze statue standing on a granite base features quotes from speeches by Douglass. Cedar Hill was his home in this city. Today it is National Park Service s Frederick Douglass National Historic site. Many abolitionists are buried in Mount Hope Cemetery including Susan B. Anthony. Today this statue stands in Emancipation Hall and was dedicated to honor the slave laborers who helped build the Capitol. Douglass grasps a paper in one hand, his other resting upon a lectern. #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9

14 ANSWER KEY

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