The Continuing Arab-Israeli Conflict: Who has the right to Control Palestine?

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1 The Continuing Arab-Israeli Conflict: Who has the right to Control Palestine?

2 How the Hebrew s Entered the Promised Land Ye shall drive out all the inhabitants before you... and ye shall dispossess the inhabitants of the land, and dwell therein... and ye shall divide the land by lot for an inheritance among your families (God to the Jews) NUMBERS 33:52-54 Edrei We took all the towns on the plateau, and all Gilead, and all Bashan as far as Salecah and Edrei.... Utterly destroying the men, women and children of every city DEUTERONOMY 3:6-10 When you come to the Ammonites, do not harass them or provoke them to war, for I will not give you possession of any land belonging to the Ammonites. I have given it as a possession to the descendants of Lot DEUTERONOMY 3:6-10 King David had subdued the Edomites, Moabites, the Ammonites and the Philistines, and the Amaleks. 2 SAMUEL 8:11-12 And they burnt all the cities wherein the Midianites dwelt, and all their goodly castles with fire NUMBERS 31:10 Ezion-geber

3 Palestine under control of the Israelites Solomon build s the First Temple in 960 BCE In the four hundred and eightieth year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, which is the second month, he began to build the house of the LORD 1 KINGS 6:1 HASMONEAN KINGDOM 165 BCE Jewish revolt against Syrian Rule 142 BCE Syrians recognize Jewish State 139 BCE Romans recognize Jewish State BCE Jewish Civil Wars 83 BCE Consolidation of the Kingdom 63 CE Beginning of the Jewish Diaspora 70 CE Fall of the Jewish Fortress at Masada

4 The Jews of Palestine (636 CE 1914 CE) 636 CE Palestine conquered by the Arabs 1099 & 1100 CE Jews fight along side Arabs to defend Jerusalem and Haifa during the Crusades CE Jews expelled from Europe begin returning to Jerusalem By 1500 CE Over 10,000 Jews allowed to live in the area around Safed Between CE Over 60,000 Jews enter Palestine from Russia and Europe APPROXIMATE POPULATIONS 1880: 440,000 Arabs 24,000 Jews 1914: 500,000 Arabs 90,000 Jews By 1914 CE Jews held the majority of the population in the cities of Jerusalem, Safed, Hebron, Haifa, Jaffa, Tel Aviv and Gaza

5 The Balfour Declaration for a Jewish Homeland The Balfour Declaration of 1917: "His Majesty's government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." Statement by Winston Churchill in 1920: The Response by Emir Feisal in 1919: We Arabs, especially the educated among us, look with deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement. We will wish the Jews a hearty welcome home... We are working together for a reformed and revised Near East. If, as may well happen, there should be created in our own lifetime, by the banks of the Jordan, a Jewish State under the protection of the British Crown, which might comprise three or four million Jews, an event will have occurred in the history of the world which would from every point of view be beneficial...

6 British Mandate of Palestine 1922 to Britain received the League of Nations Mandate over Palestine 1937 Britain proposed a separation of the Mandate are between Jews & Arabs (The Arabs rejected the offer) 1939 Britain announced a limit of 75,000 on future Jewish immigration to Palestine ESTIMATED POPULATION ARABS JEWS BY ,000 84,000 BY , ,000 BY , ,000 BY , ,000

7 FIRST ARAB-ISRAELI WAR: War of Independence PRIMARY CAUSES OF CONFLICT 1922 British Mandate of Palestine 1947 U.N. Partition Plan Establishment of the Israeli State 14 May 1948 Israeli Independence 15 May Arab Nations attack KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONFLICT 5 Arab Nations attacked Israel Unified Israeli Paramilitary Forces Arabs forced to surrender key areas EFFECTS OF THE CONFLICT Ended the British Mandate Confirmed Israeli Independence 15 May 10 June 1948 Established Israeli Military Power Caused Palestinian Exodus Crisis

8 CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT Military Coup in Egypt (Nasser) British Troops withdraw from Egypt Egypt Nationalized the Suez Canal Britain, France & the U.S. withdraw their financial support of the Aswan High Dam Soviets offer financial & military aid Nasser closed the Suez to use by Israel and its allies (Britain and France) KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONFLICT Joint Invasion by Israel, Britain & France Joint negotiations by the U.S. & U.S.S.R. EFFECTS OF THE CONFLICT SECOND ARAB-ISRAELI WAR: The Suez Crisis Reopening of the Suez Canal to all traffic Israeli occupation of the Sinai Peninsula Withdrawal of British & French forces Occupation of Suez by UN Forces 1 5 November 1956

9 THIRD ARAB-ISRAELI WAR: The Six Day War 5 10 JUNE 1967 CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT Arab refusal to recognize Israeli State Redirection of the Jordan River Israeli Raid on Jordan Military base Boundary conflict with Syria Egyptian closure of Straits of Titan Mobilization of Egyptian, Syrian, and Jordanian Forces along Israeli borders Breakdown of diplomatic relations EFFECTS OF THE CONFLICT Expansion of Israeli Territory by 1/3 Increased Palestine Refugee crisis Re-enforced Israeli Military Power U.N. resolution supporting Israel s right to secure the border

10 CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT 1970 Anwar Sadat vowed to regain the Sinai Peninsula Hafiz al-assad of Syria vowed to regain Arab control of the Golan Heights Neighboring Arab States reluctantly agreed to join coalition against Israel KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONFLICT Israeli s trap Egyptians in Sinai Peninsula Israeli s push Syrians out of Golan Heights U.S. & Soviets support opposing sides EFFECTS OF THE CONFLICT Israeli Military Superiority Reconfirmed Soviet influences removed from Egypt Led to the 1978 Camp David Accord Arab members of OPEC sought to punish the U.S. for backing Israel FOURTH ARAB-ISRAELI WAR: Yom Kippur War 6 26 October 1973

11 1982 LEBANESE WAR: Operation Peace for Galilee June September 1982 CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT Increased operations in southern Lebanon and northern Israel by the PLO Israeli support for the Christian dominated South Lebanese Army (Militia) Deployment of the Syrian Army into northern Lebanon to support the PLO EFFECTS OF THE CONFLICT Removal of the PLO forces from Lebanon Creation of a Security Buffer Zone U.S. brokered Israeli Lebanese Accord U.N. Peace Keeping troops stationed in Lebanon Weakening of the Syrian military Collapse of Soviet influence in Lebanon

12 CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT Israeli occupation of Palestinian areas of the Gaza Strip Uprising in the Jabalia Palestinian refugee camp INITIAL ACTIONS Non-violent Disobedience in the Gaza Strip, West Bank, and East Jerusalem Strikes & Boycotts of Israeli Goods Refusal to pay taxes in Israel Graffiti and Stone Throwing ESCALATION OF VIOLENCE Molotov Cocktails Assassinations & Executions of suspected collaborators Suicide Bombings Withdrawal of Arab Support THE FIRST INTIFADA: Palestinian Uprising Against Israel December 1987 April 1993

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