3 Early Indian culture Indus River Valley earliest village, (Mehgarh) 6,000 BCE Harappan culture (c BCE) (at height 2,500 1,900 BCE) -writing and counting
6 Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and 2,500 other cities -had brick-lined sewers, public baths, multi-storied buildings -traded with Mesopotamia & pre-persian cultures (Iraq & Iran)
8 Steatite Seals Unicorn Bull and Manger Brahmani Bull Rhinoceros
10 Priest-king or deity BCE
13 Mother Goddess First religion in Indus River Valley & India Linked with natural world Later incorporated into Hindu religion
14 Mother Goddess as a Yogini (late 9 th -early 10 th c)
18 Aryan ( Civilized People ) conquest from central Asia c BCE (Harappan empires collapsed over time) Brought class (caste) system, social structure Had elaborate palaces and arts Brought religious worship (centered upon sacrifices to personified nature deities (including Indra, the god of heavens who threw thunderbolts, Varuna, who created the cosmic order and maintained it, Agni the god of fire, Surya the Sun God, & Yama the god of death) Wrote the Vedas, religious texts that form the basis of Hinduism, including the concept of an endless cycle of rebirths
19 The Vedas Religious texts ( books of knowledge ) brought as oral literature from Aryans The basis of Hinduism Originally too sacred to put into writing; about 1,500 BCE written down in Sanskrit Sanskrit is only written now, but the sounds of the Vedas are still memorized and recited (syllable by syllable) by Brahmins (priestly caste), learned from fathers
20 Rig Veda Tells of war-like tribes that invaded India (the Aryans) Tells of Aryan gods (not originally Indian gods) Explains the four classes of society, as ordered by the gods
21 Caste Systems Class system, which became hereditary Brahmins, priests (highest caste) Warriors (Kshatriyas) Merchants (Vaisyas) Servants (Sudas) Untouchables, outside the caste system (Achutas)
22 Brahmins. Highest caste of Hindus. (1947)
23 Prince Siddhartha Gautama (lived 566?-486 BCE), the historical Buddha
24 Siddhartha Gautama (the historic Buddha) as a prince before becoming Buddha, before rejecting the world; lived happily but confined to palatial splendor until shocked by Four Sights that opened his eyes to suffering in the world: an old man, a sick man, a corpse, and a begging monk
26 Buddha Realized all beings experience suffering, and no material thing brings satisfaction Left palace and wandered for 6 years as an ascetic (severe fasting and austerities) When failed to reach enlightenment, relaxed ascetic disciplines, ate, and sat beneath bodhi tree, vowing not to move until reached enlightenment
27 Buddha as ascetic
31 Buddha s Enlightenment Revelation: Way of Salvation & 4 Noble Truths Life is suffering Desire is the cause of suffering Cessation of desire means cessation of suffering Suffering can be ended by following the Eight-fold Path Leads in time to nirvana, cessation of desire and liberation from cycle of rebirth
32 Buddha s first sermon Buddha s death (4 Nobles Truths) bodhisattva Wheel of Law flanked by deer (in the Deer Park) Buddha s last convert
33 Buddhism Much of the Buddhist art in India is from early Indian periods, Mauryan empire ( BCE) Andhras (c 32 BCE 320 CE) Guptas ( CE)
34 Stupa at Sanchi, late 1 st c BCE early 1 st c CE
35 Points to reliquary casket inside mound Stupa: funerary mound reliquary for Buddha s ashes symbol of life and teachings of Buddha
36 Torana gate to Sanchi Stupa Scenes of Buddha, winged lions, sun spirals, yakshi
40 Classical and Medieval periods in India (3 rd -13 th centuries) Hinduism was dominant religion in India (Buddhism ignored caste system & was eventually absorbed into Hinduism in India)
41 Brahmins. Highest caste of Hindus. (1947)
42 Hinduism & Brahman The only real existence is Brahman. Brahman is changeless and eternal, present in all things, the energy that sustains the universe. Brahman is the undifferentiated principle of existence. Brahman is illusory. Goal of HInduism: discover the true nature of self (atman) and Brahman and see them as one, without differentiation or separateness. (Reunify them.)
43 Hinduism & Release (moksha) The soul of the self (atman) is reborn (reincarnated) over and over, in a continuous cycle of lives (samsara). Future lives improve if religious duties are carried out faithfully and if one behaves righteously. (karma) Goal: To find a release (moksha) from this unsatisfactory existence Moksha is achieved when one discovers that atman (the self s soul) and Brahman are one.
44 A Hindu s main goal Transcendence of the world of the senses to unification with the Absolute (Moksha) Reached through ritual, self-control, and meditation, throughout many life-times
45 The four goals in a Hindu s life Spiritual transcendence Righteousness Acquisition of material property Enjoyment of refined, worldly pleasures
46 Uses of Art in Hinduism For instruction (teaches, indirectly, how to attain the 4 goals in life; helps man experience and therefore understand) For pleasure (suggesting transcendental ecstasy)
47 Hindu Gods All Hindu gods are aspects (parts) of Brahman, the only absolute reality. The primary personified gods are: Brahma, the creator god Vishnu, the preserver god Shiva, the god of destruction
48 "Only the unlearned deem myself (Vishnu) and Shiva to be distinct; he, I, and Brahma are one, assuming different names for the creation, preservation and destruction of the universe. We, as the triune Self, pervade all creatures; the wise therefore regard all others as themselves. ~ Vishnu explains the Nature of the Trinity (trimurti)~
49 Each of these gods inhabits the world in several separate avatars or manifestations, and in both male and female aspects.
50 Standing Vishnu. The Preserver, the sustaining god; the protector; Maintains and restores dharma, moral order.
51 Standing Vishnu. 4-armed; Rigid, upright pose: Sturdy axis of the universe upright pillar that joins earth to the heavens
52 disc/wheel/chakra, refers to the sun; Returns to owner, cyclical Conch. Om, first sound of Creation, Vishnu s breath Chin mudra: realization of the absolute Standing Vishnu. Lotus. Fertility, purity and water. Brahma comes from Lotus growing in Vishnu s navel.
53 Thus does Vishnu describe himself: "The world rests as the lotus in the palm of my hand, the cosmos revolves around my finger like a discus. I blow the music of life through my conch and wield my mace to protect all creatures."
56 Hindu Universe Cyclical At the end of each cosmic age, it s destroyed by fire and dissolved in the ocean, then reborn again.
58 Vishnu, the preserver god, reclining on a serpent, floating on the waters of the cosmic sea, dreams up the universe at the beginning of existence. We are living Vishnu s dream. What we perceive as reality is actually an illusion.
59 Ananta, giant serpent Lakshmi, Vishnu s wife/female aspect Vishnu, the 4-armed preserver god.
61 Lotus -grows out of Vishnu s navel. -supports 4-headed God of creation, Brahma.
64 Hindu Universe Like an egg, separated into 3 regions: gods, humans, demons All battle for control in a cosmic struggle of order vs. chaos
66 Vishnu s 10+ avatars: Krishna (blue) most popular avatar of Vishnu Hero prince Rama rescued his wife, Sita, killed demon Ravana Lakshmi, female counterpart, goddess of prosperity and good fortune Varaha the boar, saved the earth from the flood Narasimha half lion, defeated a demon king Kurma the turtle, helped create earth by carrying it on its back Matsya the fish, helped save earth from the flood Parasurama the Brahmin, destroyed the warrior caste Vamana the dwarf, subdued demon king Bali Buddha the enlightened one Kalki the horse; yet to come
68 Boar Avatar of Vishnu (Varada) rescuing the earth goddess from the ocean flood lotus Earth goddess, Bhu Devi Naga, demon snake king
69 Vishnu as Varada (boar) rescuing the earth
70 Vishnu (Krishna) Garuda, his vahana, man-bird Gajendra, lord of the elephants, seized by a makara; trapped for 1,000 years!
72 Rock-cut hall, Elephanta
73 Shiva the Destroyer Terrifying, protective, kind, and helpful Destruction he causes through fire makes way for creation to begin again; part of the necessary cycle
77 Fierce, destructive Shiva: with cobra, death s head on headdress Creative, feminine Shiva: with pearls and flowers in her hair, lotus bud in hand Benign Shiva: detached, otherworldly, serene
80 (Ardhanari) Androgynous composite of Shiva and his consort Shakti (Split down the middle); Showing how the female principle of God and the male principle of God are inseparable.
84 Durga ( She who is difficult to go against ) an 8-armed feminine aspect of Shiva) on her lion vahana Buffalo Demon
87 Ganges River descending to earth, (at Mamallapuram)
91 Shiva Skanda Uma
92 Shiva. Skanda. Uma/Parvati. Battle-axe, blackbuck. son. Shiva s consort. Fear not gesture. Citron. lotus. Lily. Identical mudras.
93 Shiva and Parvati On the Bull Nandi
95 Nandi, Shiva s vahana
96 Ganesha. One of Shiva s sons. God of auspicious beginnings, so invoked before every new undertaking.
97 Axe, used to remove obstacles Originally held book, Conch, or lotus bud Gesture of knowledge/ chinmudra bowl of sweetmeats Ganesha. Rat, his animal vehicle/vahana
99 Shiva as the Dancing Lord (Shiva Nataraja) Shiva dancing within a ring of flame the ring is the cosmos, the flames symbolize destruction of the cosmos
100 Shiva as the Dancing Lord (Shiva Nataraja) Shiva dancing within a ring of flame the ring is the cosmos, the cosmos comes into being through creative Dance. Simultaneous creation and destruction.
102 Ganga (Ganges River) in hair drum: Rhythm, heart-beat Of the cosmos: Maya Single destructive flame; balanced by creative drum Flames all around circle= destruction of the universe
103 Skull Reassuring/ Abhaya mudra deadly cobra worn as ornament Gaja hasta mudra: Imitating elephant trunk Arm and legs point to dwarf of ignorance which Shiva crushes
104 All together shows: -the unbounded compassion and universal power of the dancing creator-destroyer God. -the promise of release (moksha) from sufferings (from maya, the endless rhythm of the cosmos)
107 18 arms (9 each side); Can depict all of 81 arm positions (2 arms at a time) in classical south Indian dance.
111 A Hindu s main goal Transcendence of the world of the senses to unification with the Absolute (Moksha) Reached through ritual, self-control, and meditation, throughout many life-times
112 The four goals in a Hindu s life Spiritual transcendence Righteousness Acquisition of material property Enjoyment of refined, worldly pleasures
113 Goodness and pleasure If it s morally uplifting, it gives pleasure If it leads to prosperity, it gives pleasure If it despoils one s character, it can t be enjoyable
114 Uses of Art For instruction (teaches, indirectly, how to attain the 4 goals in life; helps man experience and therefore understand) For pleasure (suggesting transcendental ecstasy)
115 Abhinava gupta and Tantricism Tantric sect Life-affirming, sensual emphasis Identify with the Absolute through meditation and through sensual rituals (smelling and hearing special scents and sounds, eating forbidden meat, drinking wine, having ritual sexual intercourse,etc.) Sexual intercourse becomes a metaphor for union with the Absolute (transcendental ecstasy) Art can give pleasure
117 Rasa (major result of art) Emotional satisfaction one experiences in reaction to art State of a person immersed in experiencing a work of art taste, flavor, relish, delight, sensual pleasure Instantaneous experience of oneness between the viewer and the artwork (no boundary between self and the aesthetic response) and therefore all of creation
DEITIES Terms Brahman: the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space,
Religions of South Asia 2500 250 BC Hinduism gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism Christianity Jesus Christ, son of God the Bible Islam Muhammadlast prophet to talk to Allah t he Quran Do you think
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Key questions: Hinduism! Where did Hinduism originate?! Who founded Hinduism?! Hinduism is considered a major world religion. Why?! What is the goal or ultimate reality according to Hinduism? Basics of
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Welcome, Rob Reiter My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out Choose Another Program Home Select a Lesson Program Resources My Classes 3 - World Religions This is what your students see when they are signed
CHAPTER 9 ADVANCED PLACEMENT ART HISTORY ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 LECTURE SLIDES READING ASSIGNMENT 27: 291-302 South and Southeast Asia South and Southeast Asia South Asia Southeast
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1. Introduction This statue represents Rama, who is a role model as both a man and a ruler, in the way to live by the rules of dharma. In this chapter, you will learn about the origins and beliefs of Hinduism.
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Origins of two belief Systems Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism: INtro Hinduism is an ancient religion whose origins predate recorded history. It has no single human founder, and it has developed over thousands
Hinduism and Buddhism WHAT ARE THE MAIN BELIEFS OF HINDUISM & BUDDHISM? MS. JEREMIE Starter: Creation Myth Reflection Using your notes from the presentations, answer the following prompt: What similarities
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A Study of Stylistic Concern Comparing and Contrasting Buddhist and Hindu Sculpture Aim Broaden students awareness of the artistic and cultural contributions of artists who lived and worked in the Indus
Ancient India Section Notes Geography and Early India Origins of Hinduism Origins of Buddhism Indian Empires Indian Achievements History Close-up Life in Mohenjo Daro Quick Facts The Varnas Major Beliefs
Post-visit Activity: Enrichment Reading Hinduism and the goddess Lakshmi Hinduism is considered to be one the major world religions. It originated on the Indian subcontinent and is comprised of several
Introduction to Hinduism There is only one God, but endless are his aspects and endless are his names! The vast majority of Hindus live in India and Nepal Goal of Hinduism Moksha: release or liberation
Unit 4: Ancient River Valley Civilizations - India Standard(s) of Learning: WHI.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the civilization of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography,
Team Quiz - Hinduism End of Topic Quiz Pit your wits again your classmates Team Name: Round 1 - Picture Round Score for Round 1: /10 Round 2 - General Knowledge Score for Round 2: /10 Round 3 - Top Five
Overview Hindu and Buddhist p. 7-17 Hindu Art p. 7-28 Buddhist Art HINDU Indus Valley Note: personification means the attribution of human characteristics to something nonhuman. As discussed in an earlier
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Ancient India & Its First Empires SSWH1b, 2a, 2c (Hinduism/ Buddhism) SSWH1 Analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of societies in the ancient world from 3500 BCE/BC to 500 BCE/BC. b. Describe
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UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture. UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.
EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Legalism Daoism Judaism Christianity (Islam will be in the next unit) Religions of South Asia Religion in the Subcontinent Hinduism What is Hinduism?
Hindu Beginnings: second century BCE to second century CE Chapter 2 While sacred scriptures of Hinduism date back to the middle of the first Millennium BCE, Hindu architecture and art are relatively late.
India has several unique geographical regions that helped to shape Indian culture and society. Aryan Warriors who spoke an Indo-European language invaded India, conquered the Dravidian people that lived
How did Buddhism begin? About 2500 years ago, a prince named Siddhartha Gautama began to question his sheltered, luxurious life in the palace. He left the palace and saw four sights: a sick man, an old
Early Hinduism Early Hinduism 1200 BC the composition of the first book of the Vedas (Rig Veda) c. 700-500 BC - Main composition of the first book of the Vedas (Rig Veda) Collection of hymns mainly addressed
Chapter Five: Ancient Civilizations of India and China Map 5.1 Indian Civilization The Indus River Valley Civilization Mohenjo-daro Agriculture-based society (cotton) Centralization Ecological disasters
People and Ideas on the Move Explain the Dynasty Cycle and Mandate of Heaven. Objectives Students will be able to describe the spread of Indo- Europeans Aryan Invasion Hittite Empire Terms: Caste, Vedas,
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52 Mämallapuram Varäha-II Cave-Temple The path by the Ga ë a Ratha leads, on the left, to a cave-temple which has been carved out of solid rock in the area behind the Penance Panel. This cave-temple, excavated
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HT3M- 2.3 Hindu Concept of God (b) Vishnu Vishnu The name Vishnu means to settle, to enter into, and to pervade To sum up we will refer to the name meaning, the All-Pervading One Vishnu Physical Characteristics
Classical Civilizations World History Honors Unit 2 Unit 2 India China Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Hinduism One of the oldest religions on earth today Probably created by combining traditions from Vedic
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Symbol of Buddhism Origin Remember the Buddhist and Shramana Period (ca. 600 B.C.E.-300 C.E.) discussed in the formation of Hinduism o We began to see some reactions against the priestly religion of the
Hinduism vs Buddhism Jennifer Vang 12/9/14 Hour 6 What is literal meaning for Buddhism? Buddhists means those who follow the teachings of the Buddha. What is the literal meaning for Hinduism? The followers
Eastern Religions Hinduism 4: Vedantic Hinduism 1. Trimurti and Brahma 2. Vishnu 3. The Avatars 4. More Vedantic Philosophy 5. Shiva Note: Gold and White 1 trimurti and brahma The 3 Faces of God Trimurti
Introduction World Religions Unit Why Study Religions? Religion plays a key role in our world today Religion is a major component of the human experience Knowledge of people s religions helps us understand
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Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, & the Philosophy of Confucianism This is a group of people who share a common culture and have a similar language. These characteristics have been part of their community