1 Chapter 3: Basic Propositional Logic Based on Harry Gensler s book For CS2209A/B By Dr. Charles Ling;
2 The Ultimate Goals Accepting premises (as true), is the conclusion (always) true? Is the reasoning process valid? Premises: If you smoke, you can get lung cancer. You do not smoke. Conclusion: you cannot get lung cancer. Premises: If it rains and your tent leaks, your sleeping bag will get wet. Your sleeping bag did not get wet. Your tent leaks. Conclusion: it did not rain. Formalize and automate the deduction process First: how to express premises and conclusions?
3 3.1 Translation from English to Logic Need a (formal) language to deal with simple statements that may be true and false: use capital letters (P, Q, ) They are called propositions deal with if-then, and, or, not, etc. in NL
4 Well-Formed Formula (wff) 1. Any capital letter is a wff. 2. The result of prefixing any wff with ~ is a wff. 3. The result of joining any two wffs by or or or and enclosing the result in ( ) is a wff. Examples and usual meaning of connectives in NL
5 Parentheses are important
6 Examples of Invalid wff p, p q, p and q (~P), (Q), ((R)) P Q, P Q R, (P Q R) If p then q Logic (including wff) is very precise
7 Some useful rules in translation Rule: put ( wherever you see both, either, or if.
8 Rule: Group together parts on either side of a comma.
9 Rule: have your capital letters stand for whole statements
10 Exercise (also LogiCola C (EM & ET)) 1. Not both A and B. 2. Both A and either B or C. 3. Either both A and B or C. 4. If A, then B or C. 5. If A then B, or C. 6. If not A, then not either B or C. 7. If not A, then either not B or C. 8. Either A or B, and C. 9. Either A, or B and C. 10. If A then not both not B and not C. 11. If you get an error message, then the disk is bad or it s a Macintosh disk. 12. If I bring my digital camera, then if my batteries don t die then I ll take pictures of my backpack trip and put the pictures on my Web site.
11 Exercise LogiCola C (EM & ET)
12 LogiCola C-ET
13 OK if you use LogiCola notations in assignment and quiz
14 3.2 Simple truth tables: the meaning/semantics of wff A truth table gives a logical diagram for a wff. It lists all possible truth-value combinations for the letters and says whether the wff is true or false in each case. Define connectives first
17 Real-life or may have different meanings You can have all-you-can-eat soup or salad and bread. Inclusive or. Exclusive or : A or B but not both = ((A B) ~(A B)) Most logic books treat either A or B as exclusive or but this textbook treats either A or B as (A B)
19 Some interesting examples of if If A then B does NOT imply A but is often taken otherwise. In Death on the Nile If I did not sleep, if I walked on the deck, I might see who killed her The Conservatives have issued another apology, this time for comments caught on video Wednesday by an assistant to Transport Minister Lawrence Cannon. The exchange was caught on video and broadcast Wed. by the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. If you behave and you're sober and there's no problems and if you don't do a sit down and whatever, I don't care, said Mr. Cannon's assistant Darlene Lannigan to Mr. Matchewan. Are you calling me an alcoholic? replied Mr. Matchewan. She later added: One of them showed up the other day and was drinking.
21 3.3 Truth evaluations We can calculate the truth value of a wff if we know the truth value of its letters. LogiCola D (TM & TH)
22 3.3a Exercise Assume that A=1 and B=1 (A and B are both true) while X=0 and Y=0 (X and Y are both false). Calculate the truth value of each wff below.
23 3.4 Unknown evaluations We can sometimes figure out a formula s truth value even if we don t know the truth value of some letters. Exercise LogiCola D (UE, UM, & UH) T=1 (T is true), F=0 (F is false), and U=?
24 3.5 Complex truth tables A formula with n distinct letters has 2 n possible truth-value combinations:
26 The truth table for (P ~P) is true in all cases which makes the formula a tautology the law of the excluded middle, says that every statement is true or false (no other status, such as maybe true ). This law holds in propositional logic The truth table for (P ~P) is false in all cases which makes the formula a self-contradiction Otherwise, the formula is a contingent (either true of false; we do not know which one). 3.5a Exercise LogiCola D (FM & FH)
27 Logical Paradox Everything I say is a lie. Is this a lie? Barber paradox: An adult male barber shaves all and only men who do not shave themselves. Does he shave himself? One thing is certain in this world: nothing is certain.
28 3.6 The truth-table test To prove a propositional argument (given premises and conclusion) Construct a truth table showing the truth value of the premises and conclusion for all possible cases. The argument is valid if and only if for all rows (cases) that the premises are all true, the conclusion is also true. Otherwise, the argument is invalid.
29 If you re a dog, then you re an animal. You re not a dog. You re not an animal So, cannot conclude (or invalid to deduce) you re not an animal
30 Short-cut table: do it faster Letter comb P1 P2 P3 C If any Pi is 0, no need to evaluate other P s and C (ignore this row and continue the table) If C is 1, no need to evaluate any Pi (ignore this row and continue the table) If C is 0, must evaluate Ps. If all Pi are 1, stop the table. The argument is invalid. If the above case does not happen when you complete the table, the argument is valid.? a Exercise LogiCola D (AE, AM, & AH)
31 A Note Reasoning (or argument) is valid or invalid, not true or false When valid conclusion cannot be drawn: not the same as drawing the negated conclusion. Previous example: invalid to conclude you are an animal In court, given evidence, if I can prove you are guilty, then you are guilty is true. But if I cannot prove you are guilty, then you can be either guilty or innocent.
32 3.6a Exercise (selected) 3. If television is always right, then Anacin is better than Bayer. If television is always right, then Anacin isn t better than Bayer. Television isn t always right. [Use T and B.] 4. If it rains and your tent leaks, then your down sleeping bag will get wet. Your tent won t leak. Your down sleeping bag won t get wet. [Use R, L, and W.] 7. If ethics depends on God s will, then something is good because God desires it. Something isn t good because God desires it. (Instead, God desires something because it s already good.) Ethics doesn t depend on God s will. [Use D and B; this argument is from Plato s Euthyphro.] 9. I ll go to Paris during spring break if and only if I ll win the lottery. I won t win the lottery. I won t go to Paris during spring break. [Use P and W.]
33 If an argument passes the truth-table test, it means that the premises entails the conclusion (in semantics). The truth-table test can get tedious for long arguments. Arguments with 6 letters may need 64 lines and ones with 10 letters need 1024 lines Can we do it based only on syntax? Yes, see 3.10-, Chapter 4,
34 3.7 The truth-assignment test Take a propositional argument. Set each premise to 1 and the conclusion to 0. The argument is VALID if and only if no consistent way of assigning 1 and 0 to the letters will make this work so we can t make the premises all true and conclusion false. You REFUTE the argument if you can find such an assignment Again, this does not prove the negated conclusion.
35 Is this method easier than the truth-table test? Exercise LogiCola E (S); E (E)
37 Read Chapter 3.8 by yourselves Read Chapter 3.9 by yourselves 3.8a Exercise LogiCola C (HM & HT) 3.9a Exercise LogiCola E (F I)
38 Some extra topics See extra slides posted Adequate set of connectives (set2)
39 3.10/3.11 S-rules, I-rules Inference rules, which state that certain formulas can be derived with validity from certain other formulas, mechanically Deduce, formally deducible : Will be building blocks for formal proofs Also check mechanically if a proof is valid They reflect common forms of reasoning What we hope to have (see later) Everything that is deduced is indeed valid. Sound Everything that is valid can be deduced. Complete
40 Each P and Q can match with any wff. E.g., (A (B C)) 3.10a Exercise LogiCola F (SE & SH)
42 All S-rules Also: P ~ ~ P
43 Modus Ponens Modus Tolens 3.11a Exercise LogiCola F (IE & IH)
45 3.12 Combining S- and I-rules 3.12a Exercise LogiCola F (CE & CH)
46 3.13 Extended inferences
48 Rules you can use
49 Sound but Incomplete These rules are certainly sound But incomplete Cannot prove these Next chapter: sound and complete proof system
50 3.14 Logic and computers Boolean Logic: used to design circuits in computers and digital devices Automated logical deduction, automated proof system Logic Programming: a logic-based declarative programming language AI: knowledge representation, reasoning, planning Hoare Logic: correctness of computer programs
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