# Announcements. CS243: Discrete Structures. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Review of Last Lecture. Translating English into First-Order Logic

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Announcements. CS243: Discrete Structures. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Review of Last Lecture. Translating English into First-Order Logic"

Transcription

1 Announcements CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Tuesday Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 1/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 2/41 Review of Last Lecture Translating English into First-Order Logic Building blocks in FOL: constants, variables, predicates Formulas formed using predicates, connectives, and quantifiers Truth value of FOL formulas depend on universe of discourse and interpretation of predicates and variables Universal quantification is true if P is true for all objects in universe of discourse Given predicates student(x), atwm (x), and friends(x, y), how do we express the following in first-order logic? Every William&Mary student has a friend At least one W&M student has no friends All W&M students are friends with each other Existential quantification is true if there exists an object for which P is true Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 3/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 4/41 Satisfiability, Validity in FOL The concepts of satisfiability, validity also important in FOL An FOL formula F is satisfiable if there exists some domain and some interpretation such that F evaluates to true Example: Prove that Q(x) is satisfiable. An FOL formula F is valid if, for all domains and all interpretations, F evaluates to true Prove that Q(x) is not valid. Formulas that are satisfiable, but not valid are contingent, e.g., Q(x) Equivalence Two formulas F 1 and F 2 are equivalent if F 1 F 2 is valid In PL, we could prove equivalence using truth tables, but not possible in FOL However, we can still use known equivalences to rewrite one formula as the other Example: Prove that ( x. (P(x) Q(x))) and x. (P(x) Q(x)) are equivalent. Example: Prove that x. y.p(x, y) and x. y. P(x, y) are equivalent. Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 5/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 6/41 1

2 Motivation for Proof Rules Learned how to express various facts in logic, but this is not all that useful on its own The reason logic is useful: allows formalizing arguments, constructing validity proofs, and make inferences Rest of lecture: learn about proof rules for logic By applying proof rules, can make logical inferences that are correct by construction Rules of Inference Proof rules are written as rules of inference: An example inference rule: Hypothesis1 Hypothesis2... Conclusion All men are mortal Socrates is a man Socrates is mortal Valid inference rule, but too specific We ll learn about more general inference rules that will allow constructing formal proofs Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 7/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 8/41 Modus Ponens Example Uses of Modus Ponens Most basic inference rule is modus ponens: This rule is valid because we know is true, and by definition of implication, if is true, then must be true Modus ponens applicable to both propositional logic and first-order logic Application of modus ponens in propositional logic: p q (p q) r Application of modus ponens in first-order logic: P(a) P(a) Q(b) Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 9/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 10/41 Modus Tollens Example Uses of Modus Tollens Second imporant inference rule is modus tollens: Application of modus tollens in propositional logic: p (q r) (q r) Recall: and its contrapositive are equivalent to each other Therefore, correctness of this rule follows from modus ponens and equivalence of a formula and its contrapositive. Application of modus tollens in first-order logic: Q(a) P(a) Q(a) Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 11/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 12/41 2

3 Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) Or Introduction φ 3 φ 3 Correctness follows from definition of Basically says implication is transitive φ1 is true if either or is true. Example: P(a) Q(b) Q(b) R(c) Example application: Socrates is a man. Therefore, either Socrates is a man or there are red elephants on the moon. The book calls this rule addition feel free to use whichever term is more natural for you Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 13/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 14/41 Or Elimination And Introduction Either or is true. We know is false. Therefore, must be true. Example application: It is either a dog or a cat. It is not a dog. Therefore, it must be a cat. The book calls this rule disjunctive syllogism; I call it Or Elimination use whichever you prefer This rule just follows from definition of conjunction Example application: It is Tuesday. It s the afternoon. Therefore, it s Tuesday afternoon. The book calls this rule conjunction; I call it And Intro use whichever you prefer Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 15/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 16/41 And Elimination Resolution Final inference rule: resolution This rule also just follows from definition of conjunction Example application: It is Tuesday afternoon. Therefore, it is Tuesday. The book calls this rule simplification; I call it And Elimination use whichever you prefer φ 3 φ 3 To see why this is correct, observe is either true or false. Suppose is true. Then, is false. Therefore, by second hypothesis, φ 3 must be true. Suppose is false. Then, by 1st hypothesis, must be true. In any case, either or φ 3 must be true; φ 3 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 17/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 18/41 3

4 Resolution Example Example 1: Example 2: P(a) Q(b) Q(b) R(c) p q p Summary Name Rule of Inference Modus ponens Modus tollens Hypothetical syllogism φ 3 φ 3 Or introduction Or elimination And introduction And elimination Resolution φ 3 φ 3 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 19/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 20/41 Using the Rules of Inference Encoding in Logic Assume the following hypotheses: 1. It is not sunny today and it is colder than yesterday. First, encode hypotheses and conclusion as logical formulas. To do this, identify propositions used in the argument: 2. We will go to the lake only if it is sunny. 3. If we do not go to the lake, then we will go hiking. 4. If we go hiking, then we will be back by sunset. Show these lead to the conclusion: We will be back by sunset. s = It is sunny today c= It is colder than yesterday l = We ll go to the lake h = We ll go hiking b= We ll be back by sunset Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 21/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 22/41 Encoding in Logic, cont. Formal Proof Using Inference Rules It s not sunny today and colder than yesterday. We will go to the lake only if it is sunny If we do not go to the lake, then we will go hiking. If we go hiking, then we will be back by sunset. 1. s c Hypothesis 2. l s Hypothesis 3. l h Hypothesis 4. h b Hypothesis Conclusion: We ll be back by sunset Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 23/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 24/41 4

5 Another Example Encoding in Logic Assume the following hypotheses: 1. It is not raining or Kate has her umbrella 2. Kate does not have her umbrella or she does not get wet First, encode hypotheses and conclusion as logical formulas. To do this, identify propositions used in the argument: r = It is raining 3. It is raining or Kate does not get wet 4. Kate is grumpy only if she is wet Show these lead to the conclusion: Kate is not grumpy. u= Kate has her umbrella w = Kate is wet g = Kate is grumpy Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 25/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 26/41 Encoding in Logic, cont. Formal Proof Using Inference Rules It is not raining or Kate has her umbrella. Kate does not have her umbrella or she does not get wet It is raining or Kate does not get wet. Kate is grumpy only if she is wet. 1. r u Hypothesis 2. u w Hypothesis 3. r w Hypothesis 4. g w Hypothesis Conclusion: Kate is not grumpy. Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 27/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 28/41 Additional Inference Rules for Quantified Formulas Universal Instantiation Inference rules we learned so far are sufficient for reasoning about quantifier-free statements Four more inference rules for making deductions from quantified formulas These come in pairs for each quantifier (universal/existential) One is called generalization, the other one called instantiation If we know something is true for all members of a group, we can conclude it is also true for a specific member of this group This idea is formally called universal instantiation: (for any c) If we know All CS classes at W&M are hard, universal instantiation allows us to conclude CS243 is hard! Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 29/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 30/41 5

6 Example Universal Generalization Consider predicates man(x) and mortal(x) and the hypotheses: 1. All men are mortal: 2. Socrates is a man: Using rules of inference, prove mortal(socrates) Suppose we can prove a claim for an arbitrary element in the domain. Since we ve made no assumptions about this element, proof should apply to all elements in the domain. This correct reasoning is captured by universal generalization for arbitrary c Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 31/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 32/41 Example Caveat About Universal Generalization When using universal generalization, need to ensure that c is truly arbitrary! Prove x.q(x) from the hypotheses: 1. x. (P(x) Q(x)) Hypothesis 2. x. P(x) Hypothesis If you prove something about a specific person Mary, you cannot make generalizations about all people In a proof, this means c must be a fresh name not used previously Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 33/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 34/41 Existential Instantiation Example Using Existential Instantiation Consider formula. We know there is some element, say c, in the domain for which is true. This is called existential instantiation: (for unused c) Here, c is a fresh name (i.e., not used before in proof). Otherwise, can prove non-sensical things such as: There exists some animal that can fly. Thus, rabbits can fly! Consider the hypotheses and x. P(x). Prove that we can derive a contradiction (i.e., false) from these hypotheses. 1. Hypothesis 2. x. P(x) Hypothesis Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 35/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 36/41 6

7 Existential Generalization Example Using Existential Generalization Suppose we know is true for some constant c Then, there exists an element for which P is true Thus, we can conlude This inference rule called existential generalization: Consider the hypotheses atwm (George) and smart(george). Prove x. (atwm (x) smart(x)) 1. atwm (George) Hypothesis 2. smart(george) Hypothesis Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 37/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 38/41 Summary of Inference Rules for Quantifiers Example I Name Universal Instantiation Universal Generalization Existential Instantiation Existential Generalization Rule of Inference (anyc) (for arbitraryc) for fresh c Prove that these hypotheses imply x.(p(x) B(x)): 1. x. (C (x) B(x)) (Hypothesis) 2. x. (C (x) P(x)) (Hypothesis) Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 39/41 Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 40/41 Example II Prove the below hypotheses are contradictory by deriving false 1. x.(p(x) (Q(x) S(x))) (Hypothesis) 2. x.(p(x) R(x)) (Hypothesis) 3. x.( R(x) S(x)) (Hypothesis) Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference 41/41 7

### Announcements. CS311H: Discrete Mathematics. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Satisfiability, Validity in FOL. Example.

Announcements CS311H: Discrete Mathematics First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Instructor: Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now! Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Wednesday Instructor:

### Revisiting the Socrates Example

Section 1.6 Section Summary Valid Arguments Inference Rules for Propositional Logic Using Rules of Inference to Build Arguments Rules of Inference for Quantified Statements Building Arguments for Quantified

### Study Guides. Chapter 1 - Basic Training

Study Guides Chapter 1 - Basic Training Argument: A group of propositions is an argument when one or more of the propositions in the group is/are used to give evidence (or if you like, reasons, or grounds)

### Alice E. Fischer. CSCI 1166 Discrete Mathematics for Computing February, 2018

Alice E. Fischer CSCI 1166 Discrete Mathematics for Computing February, 2018 Alice E. Fischer... 1/28 1 Examples and Varieties Order of Quantifiers and Negations 2 3 Universal Existential 4 Universal Modus

### Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Alice Gao Lecture 6, September 26, 2017 Entailment 1/55 Learning goals Semantic entailment Define semantic entailment. Explain subtleties of semantic entailment.

### Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture- 10 Inference in First Order Logic I had introduced first order

### (Refer Slide Time 03:00)

Artificial Intelligence Prof. Anupam Basu Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 15 Resolution in FOPL In the last lecture we had discussed about

### Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture- 9 First Order Logic In the last class, we had seen we have studied

### Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5

Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations

### Logic: A Brief Introduction. Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University

Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University 2012 CONTENTS Part I Critical Thinking Chapter 1 Basic Training 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Logic, Propositions and Arguments 1.3 Deduction and Induction

### Day 3. Wednesday May 23, Learn the basic building blocks of proofs (specifically, direct proofs)

Day 3 Wednesday May 23, 2012 Objectives: Learn the basics of Propositional Logic Learn the basic building blocks of proofs (specifically, direct proofs) 1 Propositional Logic Today we introduce the concepts

### In this section you will learn three basic aspects of logic. When you are done, you will understand the following:

Basic Principles of Deductive Logic Part One: In this section you will learn three basic aspects of logic. When you are done, you will understand the following: Mental Act Simple Apprehension Judgment

### 10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers

M10_COPI1396_13_SE_C10.QXD 10/22/07 8:42 AM Page 441 10.3 Universal and Existential Quantifiers 441 and Wx, and so on. We call these propositional functions simple predicates, to distinguish them from

### Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 02 Lecture - 03 So in the last

### Philosophical Logic. LECTURE SEVEN MICHAELMAS 2017 Dr Maarten Steenhagen

Philosophical Logic LECTURE SEVEN MICHAELMAS 2017 Dr Maarten Steenhagen ms2416@cam.ac.uk Last week Lecture 1: Necessity, Analyticity, and the A Priori Lecture 2: Reference, Description, and Rigid Designation

### Transition to Quantified Predicate Logic

Transition to Quantified Predicate Logic Predicates You may remember (but of course you do!) during the first class period, I introduced the notion of validity with an argument much like (with the same

### Informalizing Formal Logic

Informalizing Formal Logic Antonis Kakas Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus, Cyprus antonis@ucy.ac.cy Abstract. This paper discusses how the basic notions of formal logic can be expressed

### 9.1 Intro to Predicate Logic Practice with symbolizations. Today s Lecture 3/30/10

9.1 Intro to Predicate Logic Practice with symbolizations Today s Lecture 3/30/10 Announcements Tests back today Homework: --Ex 9.1 pgs. 431-432 Part C (1-25) Predicate Logic Consider the argument: All

### 16. Universal derivation

16. Universal derivation 16.1 An example: the Meno In one of Plato s dialogues, the Meno, Socrates uses questions and prompts to direct a young slave boy to see that if we want to make a square that has

### Also, in Argument #1 (Lecture 11, Slide 11), the inference from steps 2 and 3 to 4 is stated as:

by SALVATORE - 5 September 2009, 10:44 PM I`m having difficulty understanding what steps to take in applying valid argument forms to do a proof. What determines which given premises one should select to

### A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC FOR METAPHYSICIANS

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC FOR METAPHYSICIANS 0. Logic, Probability, and Formal Structure Logic is often divided into two distinct areas, inductive logic and deductive logic. Inductive logic is concerned

### Chapter 8 - Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms

Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8 - Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truth-value of a given truth-functional compound proposition depends

### PHI Introduction Lecture 4. An Overview of the Two Branches of Logic

PHI 103 - Introduction Lecture 4 An Overview of the wo Branches of Logic he wo Branches of Logic Argument - at least two statements where one provides logical support for the other. I. Deduction - a conclusion

### Exercise Sets. KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness. Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014

Exercise Sets KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014 1 Exercise Set 1 Propositional and Predicate Logic 1. Use Definition 1.1 (Handout I Propositional

### The way we convince people is generally to refer to sufficiently many things that they already know are correct.

Theorem A Theorem is a valid deduction. One of the key activities in higher mathematics is identifying whether or not a deduction is actually a theorem and then trying to convince other people that you

### Lecture 3 Arguments Jim Pryor What is an Argument? Jim Pryor Vocabulary Describing Arguments

Lecture 3 Arguments Jim Pryor What is an Argument? Jim Pryor Vocabulary Describing Arguments 1 Agenda 1. What is an Argument? 2. Evaluating Arguments 3. Validity 4. Soundness 5. Persuasive Arguments 6.

### Philosophy 1100: Ethics

Philosophy 1100: Ethics Topic 1 - Course Introduction: 1. What is Philosophy? 2. What is Ethics? 3. Logic a. Truth b. Arguments c. Validity d. Soundness What is Philosophy? The Three Fundamental Questions

### HOW TO ANALYZE AN ARGUMENT

What does it mean to provide an argument for a statement? To provide an argument for a statement is an activity we carry out both in our everyday lives and within the sciences. We provide arguments for

### Ling 98a: The Meaning of Negation (Week 1)

Yimei Xiang yxiang@fas.harvard.edu 17 September 2013 1 What is negation? Negation in two-valued propositional logic Based on your understanding, select out the metaphors that best describe the meaning

### How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail

How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail Matthew W. Parker Abstract. Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer

### An Introduction to. Formal Logic. Second edition. Peter Smith, February 27, 2019

An Introduction to Formal Logic Second edition Peter Smith February 27, 2019 Peter Smith 2018. Not for re-posting or re-circulation. Comments and corrections please to ps218 at cam dot ac dot uk 1 What

### Part II: How to Evaluate Deductive Arguments

Part II: How to Evaluate Deductive Arguments Week 4: Propositional Logic and Truth Tables Lecture 4.1: Introduction to deductive logic Deductive arguments = presented as being valid, and successful only

### CHAPTER THREE Philosophical Argument

CHAPTER THREE Philosophical Argument General Overview: As our students often attest, we all live in a complex world filled with demanding issues and bewildering challenges. In order to determine those

### There are two common forms of deductively valid conditional argument: modus ponens and modus tollens.

INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL THINKING Lecture 6: Two types of argument and their role in science: Deduction and induction 1. Deductive arguments Arguments that claim to provide logically conclusive grounds

### What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece

What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece Outline of this Talk 1. What is the nature of logic? Some history

### Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism

Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning................... 3 1.1.1 Strong Syllogism......................... 3 1.1.2 Weak Syllogism.......................... 4 1.1.3 Transitivity

### MATH1061/MATH7861 Discrete Mathematics Semester 2, Lecture 5 Valid and Invalid Arguments. Learning Goals

MAH1061/MAH7861 Discrete Mathematics Semester 2, 2016 Learning Goals 1. Understand the meaning of necessary and sufficient conditions (carried over from Wednesday). 2. Understand the difference between

### Chapter 9- Sentential Proofs

Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University Chapter 9- Sentential roofs 9.1 Introduction So far we have introduced three ways of assessing the validity of truth-functional arguments.

### Complications for Categorical Syllogisms. PHIL 121: Methods of Reasoning February 27, 2013 Instructor:Karin Howe Binghamton University

Complications for Categorical Syllogisms PHIL 121: Methods of Reasoning February 27, 2013 Instructor:Karin Howe Binghamton University Overall Plan First, I will present some problematic propositions and

### Foundations of Non-Monotonic Reasoning

Foundations of Non-Monotonic Reasoning Notation S A - from a set of premisses S we can derive a conclusion A. Example S: All men are mortal Socrates is a man. A: Socrates is mortal. x.man(x) mortal(x)

### Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument

Broad on God Broad on Theological Arguments I. The Ontological Argument Sample Ontological Argument: Suppose that God is the most perfect or most excellent being. Consider two things: (1)An entity that

### What is an argument? PHIL 110. Is this an argument? Is this an argument? What about this? And what about this?

What is an argument? PHIL 110 Lecture on Chapter 3 of How to think about weird things An argument is a collection of two or more claims, one of which is the conclusion and the rest of which are the premises.

### PHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1. W# Section (10 or 11) 4. T F The statements that compose a disjunction are called conjuncts.

PHILOSOPHY 102 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC PRACTICE EXAM 1 W# Section (10 or 11) 1. True or False (5 points) Directions: Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. T F All true statements are valid. 2. T

### Overview of Today s Lecture

Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 Overview of Today s Lecture Music: Robin Trower, Daydream (King Biscuit Flower Hour concert, 1977) Administrative Stuff (lots of it) Course Website/Syllabus [i.e.,

### Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic

Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic Standardizing and Diagramming In Reason and the Balance we have taken the approach of using a simple outline to standardize short arguments,

### Logic for Robotics: Defeasible Reasoning and Non-monotonicity

Logic for Robotics: Defeasible Reasoning and Non-monotonicity The Plan I. Explain and argue for the role of nonmonotonic logic in robotics and II. Briefly introduce some non-monotonic logics III. Fun,

### MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC. 1. Logic is the science of A) Thought. B) Beauty. C) Mind. D) Goodness

MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC FOR PRIVATE REGISTRATION TO BA PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMME 1. Logic is the science of-----------. A) Thought B) Beauty C) Mind D) Goodness 2. Aesthetics is the science of ------------.

### Haberdashers Aske s Boys School

1 Haberdashers Aske s Boys School Occasional Papers Series in the Humanities Occasional Paper Number Sixteen Are All Humans Persons? Ashna Ahmad Haberdashers Aske s Girls School March 2018 2 Haberdashers

### Homework: read in the book pgs and do "You Try It" (to use Submit); Read for lecture. C. Anthony Anderson

Philosophy 183 Page 1 09 / 26 / 08 Friday, September 26, 2008 9:59 AM Homework: read in the book pgs. 1-10 and do "You Try It" (to use Submit); Read 19-29 for lecture. C. Anthony Anderson (caanders@philosophy.ucsb.edu)

### Conditionals II: no truth conditions?

Conditionals II: no truth conditions? UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Arguments for the material conditional analysis As Edgington [1] notes, there are some powerful reasons

### Workbook Unit 17: Negated Categorical Propositions

Workbook Unit 17: Negated Categorical Propositions Overview 1 1. Reminder 2 2. Negated Categorical Propositions 2 2.1. Negation of Proposition A: Not all Ss are P 3 2.2. Negation of Proposition E: It is

### Recall. Validity: If the premises are true the conclusion must be true. Soundness. Valid; and. Premises are true

Recall Validity: If the premises are true the conclusion must be true Soundness Valid; and Premises are true Validity In order to determine if an argument is valid, we must evaluate all of the sets of

### Deductive Forms: Elementary Logic By R.A. Neidorf READ ONLINE

Deductive Forms: Elementary Logic By R.A. Neidorf READ ONLINE If you are searching for a book Deductive Forms: Elementary Logic by R.A. Neidorf in pdf format, in that case you come on to the correct website.

### Essential Logic Ronald C. Pine

Essential Logic Ronald C. Pine Chapter 11: Other Logical Tools Syllogisms and Quantification Introduction A persistent theme of this book has been the interpretation of logic as a set of practical tools.

### PHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy

PHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy Session 3 September 9 th, 2015 All About Arguments (Part II) 1 A common theme linking many fallacies is that they make unwarranted assumptions. An assumption is a claim

### Lecture 17:Inference Michael Fourman

Lecture 17:Inference Michael Fourman 2 Is this a valid argument? Assumptions: If the races are fixed or the gambling houses are crooked, then the tourist trade will decline. If the tourist trade declines

### SOME RADICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GEACH'S LOGICAL THEORIES

SOME RADICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GEACH'S LOGICAL THEORIES By james CAIN ETER Geach's views of relative identity, together with his Paccount of proper names and quantifiers, 1 while presenting what I believe

### INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms

1 GLOSSARY INTERMEDIATE LOGIC BY JAMES B. NANCE INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms This glossary includes terms that are defined in the text in the lesson and on the page noted. It does not include

### Facts and Free Logic. R. M. Sainsbury

R. M. Sainsbury 119 Facts are structures which are the case, and they are what true sentences affirm. It is a fact that Fido barks. It is easy to list some of its components, Fido and the property of barking.

### Facts and Free Logic R. M. Sainsbury

Facts and Free Logic R. M. Sainsbury Facts are structures which are the case, and they are what true sentences affirm. It is a fact that Fido barks. It is easy to list some of its components, Fido and

### The Perfect Being Argument in Case-Intensional Logic The perfect being argument for God s existence is the following deduction:

The Perfect Being Argument in Case-Intensional Logic The perfect being argument for God s existence is the following deduction: - Axiom F1: If a property is positive, its negation is not positive. - Axiom

### Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics. Critical Thinking Lecture 1. Background Material for the Exercise on Validity

Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics Critical Thinking Lecture 1 Background Material for the Exercise on Validity Reasons, Arguments, and the Concept of Validity 1. The Concept of Validity Consider

### Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions

Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions Christopher Menzel Texas A&M University March 16, 2008 Since Arthur Prior first made us aware of the issue, a lot of philosophical thought has gone into

### 9 Methods of Deduction

M09_COPI1396_13_SE_C09.QXD 10/19/07 3:46 AM Page 372 9 Methods of Deduction 9.1 Formal Proof of Validity 9.2 The Elementary Valid Argument Forms 9.3 Formal Proofs of Validity Exhibited 9.4 Constructing

### Session 10 INDUCTIVE REASONONING IN THE SCIENCES & EVERYDAY LIFE( PART 1)

UGRC 150 CRITICAL THINKING & PRACTICAL REASONING Session 10 INDUCTIVE REASONONING IN THE SCIENCES & EVERYDAY LIFE( PART 1) Lecturer: Dr. Mohammed Majeed, Dept. of Philosophy & Classics, UG Contact Information:

### What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic?

1 2 What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? Wilfrid Hodges Herons Brook, Sticklepath, Okehampton March 2012 http://wilfridhodges.co.uk Ibn Sina, 980 1037 3 4 Ibn Sīnā

### Definite Descriptions: From Symbolic Logic to Metaphysics. The previous president of the United States is left handed.

Definite Descriptions: From Symbolic Logic to Metaphysics Recall that we have been translating definite descriptions the same way we would translate names, i.e., with constants (lower case letters towards

### CRITICAL THINKING (CT) MODEL PART 1 GENERAL CONCEPTS

Fall 2001 ENGLISH 20 Professor Tanaka CRITICAL THINKING (CT) MODEL PART 1 GENERAL CONCEPTS In this first handout, I would like to simply give you the basic outlines of our critical thinking model

### GENERAL NOTES ON THIS CLASS

PRACTICAL LOGIC Bryan Rennie GENERAL NOTES ON THE CLASS EXPLANATION OF GRADES AND POINTS, ETC. SAMPLE QUIZZES SCHEDULE OF CLASSES THE SIX RULES OF SYLLOGISMS (and corresponding fallacies) SYMBOLS USED

### UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016

Logical Consequence UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Intuitive characterizations of consequence Modal: It is necessary (or apriori) that, if the premises are true, the conclusion

### CONCEPT FORMATION IN ETHICAL THEORIES: DEALING WITH POLAR PREDICATES

DISCUSSION NOTE CONCEPT FORMATION IN ETHICAL THEORIES: DEALING WITH POLAR PREDICATES BY SEBASTIAN LUTZ JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY DISCUSSION NOTE AUGUST 2010 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT SEBASTIAN

### A Guide to FOL Proof Rules ( for Worksheet 6)

A Guide to FOL Proof Rules ( for Worksheet 6) This lesson sheet will be a good deal like last class s. This time, I ll be running through the proof rules relevant to FOL. Of course, when you re doing any

### Class 33: Quine and Ontological Commitment Fisher 59-69

Philosophy 240: Symbolic Logic Fall 2008 Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays: 9am - 9:50am Hamilton College Russell Marcus rmarcus1@hamilton.edu Re HW: Don t copy from key, please! Quine and Quantification I.

### Logic I or Moving in on the Monkey & Bananas Problem

Logic I or Moving in on the Monkey & Bananas Problem We said that an agent receives percepts from its environment, and performs actions on that environment; and that the action sequence can be based on

### Quantificational logic and empty names

Quantificational logic and empty names Andrew Bacon 26th of March 2013 1 A Puzzle For Classical Quantificational Theory Empty Names: Consider the sentence 1. There is something identical to Pegasus On

### Inference in Cyc. Copyright 2002 Cycorp

Inference in Cyc Logical Aspects of Inference Incompleteness in Searching Incompleteness from Resource Bounds and Continuable Searches Efficiency through Heuristics Inference Features in Cyc We ll be talking

### Evaluating Classical Identity and Its Alternatives by Tamoghna Sarkar

Evaluating Classical Identity and Its Alternatives by Tamoghna Sarkar Western Classical theory of identity encompasses either the concept of identity as introduced in the first-order logic or language

### A Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic

A Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic Sungwoo Park Pohang University of Science and Technology South Korea Estonian Theory Days Jan 30, 2009 Outline Study of logic Model theory vs Proof theory Classical

### Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: Jonathan Chan

A03.1 Introduction Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: With valid arguments, it is impossible to have a false conclusion if the premises are all true. Obviously valid arguments play a very important

### Lecture Notes on Classical Logic

Lecture Notes on Classical Logic 15-317: Constructive Logic William Lovas Lecture 7 September 15, 2009 1 Introduction In this lecture, we design a judgmental formulation of classical logic To gain an intuition,

### Module 5. Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5 Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Lesson 12 Propositional Logic inference rules 5.5 Rules of Inference Here are some examples of sound rules of inference. Each can be shown

### ILLOCUTIONARY ORIGINS OF FAMILIAR LOGICAL OPERATORS

ILLOCUTIONARY ORIGINS OF FAMILIAR LOGICAL OPERATORS 1. ACTS OF USING LANGUAGE Illocutionary logic is the logic of speech acts, or language acts. Systems of illocutionary logic have both an ontological,

### Artificial Intelligence. Clause Form and The Resolution Rule. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Artificial Intelligence Clause Form and The Resolution Rule Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 07 Lecture 03 Okay so we are

### SYLLOGISTIC LOGIC CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS

Prof. C. Byrne Dept. of Philosophy SYLLOGISTIC LOGIC Syllogistic logic is the original form in which formal logic was developed; hence it is sometimes also referred to as Aristotelian logic after Aristotle,

### Introduction. I. Proof of the Minor Premise ( All reality is completely intelligible )

Philosophical Proof of God: Derived from Principles in Bernard Lonergan s Insight May 2014 Robert J. Spitzer, S.J., Ph.D. Magis Center of Reason and Faith Lonergan s proof may be stated as follows: Introduction

### Logic and Argument Analysis: An Introduction to Formal Logic and Philosophic Method (REVISED)

Carnegie Mellon University Research Showcase @ CMU Department of Philosophy Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences 1985 Logic and Argument Analysis: An Introduction to Formal Logic and Philosophic

### Chapter 1. What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life

Chapter 1 What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life Why Study Philosophy? Defining Philosophy Studying philosophy in a serious and reflective way will change you as a person Philosophy Is

### 7. Some recent rulings of the Supreme Court were politically motivated decisions that flouted the entire history of U.S. legal practice.

M05_COPI1396_13_SE_C05.QXD 10/12/07 9:00 PM Page 193 5.5 The Traditional Square of Opposition 193 EXERCISES Name the quality and quantity of each of the following propositions, and state whether their

### Does Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction?

Does Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction? We argue that, if deduction is taken to at least include classical logic (CL, henceforth), justifying CL - and thus deduction

### Logic for Computer Science - Week 1 Introduction to Informal Logic

Logic for Computer Science - Week 1 Introduction to Informal Logic Ștefan Ciobâcă November 30, 2017 1 Propositions A proposition is a statement that can be true or false. Propositions are sometimes called

### Unit. Categorical Syllogism. What is a syllogism? Types of Syllogism

Unit 8 Categorical yllogism What is a syllogism? Inference or reasoning is the process of passing from one or more propositions to another with some justification. This inference when expressed in language

### Criticizing Arguments

Kareem Khalifa Criticizing Arguments 1 Criticizing Arguments Kareem Khalifa Department of Philosophy Middlebury College Written August, 2012 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Step 1: Initial Evaluation

### CHAPTER 1 A PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF ASSERTIVE ILLOCUTIONARY ARGUMENTS OCTOBER 2017

CHAPTER 1 A PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF ASSERTIVE ILLOCUTIONARY ARGUMENTS OCTOBER 2017 Man possesses the capacity of constructing languages, in which every sense can be expressed, without having an idea how

### Logic & Proofs. Chapter 3 Content. Sentential Logic Semantics. Contents: Studying this chapter will enable you to:

Sentential Logic Semantics Contents: Truth-Value Assignments and Truth-Functions Truth-Value Assignments Truth-Functions Introduction to the TruthLab Truth-Definition Logical Notions Truth-Trees Studying

### Chapter 3: Basic Propositional Logic. Based on Harry Gensler s book For CS2209A/B By Dr. Charles Ling;

Chapter 3: Basic Propositional Logic Based on Harry Gensler s book For CS2209A/B By Dr. Charles Ling; cling@csd.uwo.ca The Ultimate Goals Accepting premises (as true), is the conclusion (always) true?

### A Model of Decidable Introspective Reasoning with Quantifying-In

A Model of Decidable Introspective Reasoning with Quantifying-In Gerhard Lakemeyer* Institut fur Informatik III Universitat Bonn Romerstr. 164 W-5300 Bonn 1, Germany e-mail: gerhard@uran.informatik.uni-bonn,de

### FIRST PUBLIC EXAMINATION. Preliminary Examination in Philosophy, Politics and Economics INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY TRINITY TERM 2013

CPPE 4266 FIRST PUBLIC EXAMINATION Preliminary Examination in Philosophy, Politics and Economics INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY TRINITY TERM 2013 Tuesday 18 June 2013, 9.30am - 12.30pm This paper contains

### Can Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem be a Ground for Dialetheism? *

논리연구 20-2(2017) pp. 241-271 Can Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem be a Ground for Dialetheism? * 1) Seungrak Choi Abstract Dialetheism is the view that there exists a true contradiction. This paper ventures