DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH WITH BACKSHIFT OF TENSES

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1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH WITH BACKSHIFT OF TENSES In indirect / reported speech, the tense used in the speaker s original words is usually (but not always) moved back a tense when the reporting verb (said, told, etc.) is in the past. INDIRECT / REPORTED STATEMENTS Tense changes Present Simple Past Simple He said: I know the way. He said he knew the way. Present Continuous Past Continuous She said: Peter is working. She said Peter was working. Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple She said: I have made a mistake. She said she had made a mistake. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous He said: We have been learning. He said they had been learning. Past Simple Past Perfect Simple They said: We sold the house. They said they had sold the house. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Bill said: I was sitting. Bill said he had been sitting. Past Perfect Simple = Past Perfect Simple She said: I had worked hard. She said she had worked hard. Past Perfect Continuous = Past Perfect Continuous Jill said: I had been cooking. Jill said she had been cooking. going to future was / were going to Bob said: I m going to resign. Bob said he was going to resign. shall / will would I said: He ll clean it. I said he would clean it

2 Conditional Clauses Type I Conditional Clauses Type II Bill said: If she sees me, she ll greet me. Bob said that if she saw him she would greet him. Conditional Clauses Type II = Conditional Clauses Type II He said: If it snowed in June, I would go skiing. He said that if it snowed in June, he would go skiing. Conditional Clauses Type III = Conditional Clauses Type III She said: I would have passed the exam if I had studied more. She said that she would have passed the exam if she had studied more. WHEN THE TENSE DOESN T CHANGE apart from the examples given above: All natural laws and eternal truths may remain in the Present Simple: She said: Water boils at 100 C. She said that water boils at 100 C. Assuming that the situation still exists, the verb can stay in the Present Simple or change to the Past Simple in reporting: He said: The Polytechnic enrolls new students every year. He said that the Polytechnic enrolls / enrolled new students every year. When the Past Simple Tense is used in a time clause, it does not generally change. The verb in the main clause can remain in the Past Simple or change into the Past Perfect: He said: When I got there time clause the place was almost empty. main clause He said that when he got there, the place was / had been empty

3 When the Past Simple is used to refer to a situation that still exists in the present, it does not generally change: She said: We didn t stay in the hotel because it was too expensive. (And presumably the hotel is still expensive now.) She said that they hadn t stayed in the hotel because it was too expensive. The Past Continuous used in time clauses does not normally change: George said: When I was living in Zagreb... George said that when he was living in Zagreb The verbs could (used for past ability can remain unchanged or become had been able to), should, would, might, must (used for deductions, permanent ruling / prohibition; otherwise must changes into had to), needn t ought to, used to, had better do not normally change: He said: She might be right. Ha said that she might be right. She said to me: You had better leave Tom alone. She told me that I had better leave Tom alone. They said to me: You needn t go. He told me I needn t go. Sheila said: I could swim when I was four. Sheila said that she could / had been able to swim when she was four. He said: Soldiers must wear uniforms. He said that soldiers must wear uniforms. permanent ruling but: Harry said: I must leave. Harry said that he had to leave

4 EXERCISE Put the following sentences into reported (indirect) speech: 1. She said to me: I am going to town with my brother. 2. They said: We are ready to come with you. 3. Kim said: We enjoyed ourselves at the party. 4. I said: I am not guilty. 5. She said to her mum: I have been learning all the morning. 6. He said: I don t like sweets. 7. Susan said: My parents never let me stay out late. 8. He said: I ve been on the web since I just don t want to visit them, she said. 10. We are going away, mother, he said. 11. The teacher said to me: You are not working hard enough. 12. The proverb said: The flock of a feather flock together. 13. I m sorry I couldn t come, she said. 14. He said to her: You look gorgeous! 15. My husband too often visits his mother, she said to her friend. 16. Charles said to Fiona: I love you. 17. Fiona said to Charles: I loved you once. 18. When they arrived, I was still reading the newspapers, she said. 19. We were planning to go out but then Joe started feeling sick, he said. 20. They said: We enjoyed ourselves. 21. The scientist said: Wood floats in water. 22. When the project first started, there was a lot of interest in it, she said. 23. He said: People must obey their country s law. 24. I must go home, she said. 25. My father said to me: You d better write a report. 26. She said, I must have a computer to teach online. 27. She said, I can teach English online. 28. My name is Rose, she said. 29. If it rains, I ll stay at home, Paul said. 30. If I married Harry, I would be happy, she said. 31. She said: We would have bought a car if my husband had won the lottery

5 Time and Place Changes It is often necessary to change time, place and other references in reported speech, depending on when and where the reporting takes place in relation to actual words: now then He said: I m really angry now. He said he was really angry (then). tonight that night She said: We are leaving tonight. She said they were leaving that night. yesterday the day before / the previous day; on + name of day She said: I saw him yesterday. She said she had seen him the day before. the day before yesterday two days before He said: We met the day before yesterday. He said they had met two days before. tomorrow the following day / the next day; on + name of day He said: We are leaving tomorrow. He said they were leaving the next day. the day after tomorrow in two days time He said: She s coming the day after tomorrow. He said she was coming in two days time. this morning that morning They said: It was raining this morning. They said it had been raining that morning. last week / month/ year the previous week / month/ year.. Bill said: I saw her last month. Bill said he had seen her the previous month. next week / month/ year the following week / month/ year She said: I ll work hard next week. She said she would work hard the following week

6 ago before Jill said: It happened 4 centuries ago. Jill said it had happened 4 centuries before. here there Bob said: I like it here. Bob said he liked it there. this + the place that / the + the place I said: This town is safe. I said that / the town was safe. this that / the Bill said: This coat is too short. Bill said that / the coat was too short. these those / the She said: These flowers are nice. She said that those / the flowers were nice. These equivalents should be used with common sense, and it is not always necessary to use any equivalents at all, as the past tense of the introducing verb is often quite sufficient: He said: I m coming to see you now. He said he was coming to see me. (then is not wanted) This garden is not nice, she said. She said that the garden wasn t nice. (the, not that, unless this is stressed) EXERCISE Imagine you want to repeat sentences that you heard two weeks ago in another place. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Change tenses, pronouns and expressions of time and place where necessary: 1. They said, "This is our book." 2. She said, "I went to the cinema yesterday." 3. He said to us, "I am writing a test tomorrow." 4. You said, "I will do this for him."

7 5. She said to her granny, "I am not hungry now." 6. They said, "We have never been here before." 7. They said to us, "We were in London last week." 8. He said, "I will have finished this paper by tomorrow." 9. He said to his wife, "They won't sleep." 10. She said, "It is very quiet here." 11. He said: The competition will take place next month. 12. Mark said to me: We are going to the cinema tonight. 13. The carpenter said to them: I shall have finished my work by the end of this month. 14. She said: Two days ago I bought a computer. 15. I said to him: I don t want to stay here. 16. She said to me: You must leave now. 17. He said to his partner: This town isn t big enough for the two of us. 18. She said: I left my gloves here two days ago. 19. Peter is coming home tonight, she said to Margaret. 20. She said: I can t move these desks. INDIRECT / REPORTED QUESTIONS When reporting a question with the reporting verb (said, asked, etc.) in the past, not only the same changes which apply to reporting when a reporting verb is in the Present Simple, future or the Present Perfect are necessary, but also the change of tenses (backshift), time and place. EXERCISE Imagine you want to repeat questions that you heard two weeks ago in another place. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Change tenses, pronouns and expressions of time and place where necessary: 1. She said to me: How old are you? 2. She said to her sister: What are you doing now? 3. She said to me: Do you always sing under the shower?

8 4. The man said to us: Why don t you open the door? 5. He said to me: Will you be back soon? 6. Mike said: Did she buy that car after all? 7. Hugh said to his friend: Do you always do your homework in the evening? 8. Simon said to Julia: Where is the nearest post office? 9. Sally said to Betty: Did you finish your essay yesterday? 10. The man said: How long does it take to come to Brighton? 11. Dolly said to her friend: Do you want me to accompany you? 12. Mabel said to Nora: Is Thomas just a friend of yours? 13. Mandy said to Jim: Are you reading that book now? 14. Jason said to me: Who gave you the book yesterday? 15. Robert said to Peter: Are you leaving next Friday? 16. Daniel said to his friend: Do you think it will rain tomorrow? 17. Jennifer said to her boyfriend: Where do you play football today? 18. Nancy said to us: Why didn't you go to New York last summer? 19. Barbara said to her teacher: Must I do the homework this week? INDIRECT / REPORTED COMMANDS When reporting commands or orders with the reporting verb in the past, the same rules which apply to reporting when a reporting verb is in the Present Simple, future or the Present Perfect are necessary, as well as the change of time and place. EXERCISE Put the following sentences into reported (indirect) speech: 1. He said to me: Leave me alone! 2. They said to little Rosemary: Play the piano, please! 3. My mum said to me: Wash the dishes. 4. We said to our guests: Come in

9 5. Our friends said to us: Stay in this hotel. 6. The teacher said: Stop talking and take your pencils! 7. He said to me: Don t do that again! 8. She said to him: Don t try to be funny! 9. The policeman said: Don t move! 10. My granny said to me: Please, buy some milk! 11. The old man said: Open the window! 12. Bill said to Bob: Don t sit on my desk! 13. My dad said to us: Don t sit on the floor! 14. He said to Jim: Sit down! 15. She said: Let s play basketball! 16. Search the house, said the detective. 17. Park your car somewhere else, madam, the policeman said. 18. Do not eat any citrus foods because you are allergic to them, my uncle said to me. 19. The teacher said to us: Do your homework next week. 20. Andrew said to me: Clean this bike. 21. Jessica said to her sister: Write a letter now, please! 22. Anna said to me: Take these keys! 23. Mr. Wilkes said to his son: Come home tomorrow at Tom said to Karen: Dance with me, please! 25. Yvonne said to us: Don't talk to your neighbour. 26. Sabine said to her children: Next week don't play football in the garden! REVISION EXERCISE 1 REPORTED SPEECH WITH BACKSHIFT OF TENSES Put the following sentences into reported (indirect) speech: 1. The teacher said: Salt melts in water. 2. Richard said: Peg is boring. 3. I ve made a terrible mistake, said Ronald. 4. I have something to show you, I said to her. 5. Will you help me or shall I ask someone else? she said

10 6. What is your new house like? I asked him. 7. Emily said to me: What do you think about my new boyfriend? 8. Donald said to Peter: Leave the room immediately! 9. Miriam said to her sister: Don t run so fast! 10. They said: We can move the sofa ourselves. 11. My granddad said to me: Don t forget to buy the newspapers! 12. She said: I like it here. 13. He said to us: Where did you spend your holidays last year? 14. Ann said: Is your father an architect? 15. The boy said: If we invite Mary to the party, John will come, too. 16. Denise said to me: Don t open the door! 17. Robert said to me: Are you leaving next Friday? 18. He said: If they had been more careful, they wouldn t have had the accident. 19. She said to me: Was the train full? 20. She said to him: How do you like these cakes? 21. He said to Sue: They do not know you. REVISION EXERCISE 2 Read the following text in the indirect form. The authentic sentences are listed below: When the Headmaster discovered that Henry bates in the Fourth Form had been playing truant, he summoned him to his study. He looked at the boy and asked him (1). Bates replied that (2). The Headmaster looked astonished and asked him (3). Bates explained (4), but that (5). The headmaster asked (6), and the boy said (7). Then the Headmaster enquired whether (8). Bates answered that (9) and added that (10). The Headmaster thought for a moment and then remarked that (11). He went on to say, however, that (12)

11 (1) What did you run away for? (2) I don t know, sir. (3) What do you mean? (4) I haven t any particular reason. (5) I don t like school and want to leave. (6) How old are you, Bates? (7) Fifteen and a half, sir. (8) Do you know what you want to do if you leave school? (9) I want to join the Royal Navy. (10) My parents are willing to let me. (11) Perhaps that is the best thing you can do. (12) I am still going to punish you for taking the law into your own hands. Write a dialogue: REVISION EXERCISE 3 When I woke up I asked my wife what the weather was like. She looked out of the window and said it was raining hard. Then she asked me what I wanted for breakfast. I said I wanted a glass of milk and a roll with jam. She said we didn t have any jam and asked if I wanted honey instead. I said that was all right. Then I asked if she wanted to go out to dinner. She said she had already prepared some food for dinner. She also thought her mother would come to have dinner with us. She asked if I minded. I said I hoped there was a football match on TV that afternoon. He: She: He: She: He: She: He:

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH WITH BACKSHIFT OF TENSES

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