Hezbollah; the Iran s Iron Fist to Israel

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Hezbollah; the Iran s Iron Fist to Israel"

Transcription

1 Hezbollah; the Iran s Iron Fist to Israel AUTHOR Mehdi A. Jovini January

2 Introduction & Historical Background: The social structure of the Shiite Lebanese community The last three decades of the twentieth century showed signs of the rise of the Islamic movements in the Middle East as they become a leading power factor in the resistance to the existent social and political order, that paved the way for the emergence of radical elements in the Shiite community. The social structure of the Lebanese Shiite community, until the mid 1960 s, can be separated into three strata: ZUAMA: The political- economic elite included the members of the rich families in the south of Lebanon. ULAMA: The religious elite included the members of the families comprising the Shiite religious establishment. All the peasants, laborers and small merchants The rise of new forces in the community in the 1960s, the move from the village to the city, the expansion of education, the change of employment patterns, the emergence of new competitors in the form of the Lebanese leftist parties, and the power struggles taking place within the elite posed an actual threat to this elite and gradually diminished its control over the power sources and its influence within the community. The role Imam Musa al-sadr in mobilizing Shiite community The most essential conceptual change in the Shiite community occurred in the 1960s. It symbolized most of all, the transition of the community, as a body, from passivity and political isolationism to activism and political involvement. It developed due to the feelings of discrimination and frustration, the acceleration of the processes of modernization and urbanization, and the appearance of a charismatic Shiite leadership in the form of Imam Musa al-sadr. The latter, using impressive rhetoric and organization abilities on the one hand and religious pedigree and economic independence on the other, succeeded in recruiting the support of the Shiite masses while simultaneously challenging the traditional elite and the political system. He demanded from them an end to the discrimination against the community by giving it the representation appropriate to its size in the Lebanese population. 2

3 The Shiite awakening in Lebanon is a social-political protest movement in its essence. The man who led and shaped the patterns of this social Shiite protest in the 1960s and 1970s was Imam Musa al-sadr, a Shiite cleric with the characteristics of a religious and political leader. He was born in Iran to a family of privileged religious scholars of Lebanese descent and was educated in the Shiite seminaries of Najaf and Qom. There he absorbed the fundamentals of the Shiite activist thought that was developed in those years by the greats of the Shiite Ulama. In 1959, he started to serve as the Shiite Imam of the city of Tyre. In less than two decades, he succeeded, with exhausting activity, charisma, and high rhetorical ability, in organizing the Shiite community, characterized for hundreds of years by passivity and isolationism, and in mobilizing it into collective activity for the realization of social and political goals. Birth of AMAL During the first half of the 1970 s Imam Musa al-sadr founded the Shiite militia AMAL and began establishing client- patron relations with Syria. He used Syria as his trump card to survive in the violent Lebanese arena and a counterbalance to his relations with the Shah s regime in Iran. This system of relations between the AMAL Movement and Syria was kept even during the days of his successors in the AMAL movement. The Islamic revolution in Iran and Israel s invasion of Lebanon shook the Shiite community in Lebanon and sparked an internal debate between followers of pan- Islamic approach, who advocated loyalty to Imam Khomeini s leadership and nor recognize the validity of the Lebanese state and the AMAL movement which perceived itself as a national- secular Lebanese movement operating within the framework of the Lebanese political system. Diversion from AMAL and crystallization of Hezbollah Hezbollah (God s party) grew on the infrastructure of pre -movement groups that took shape among the members of the Shiite community and within the AMAL movement on the 1970 s and early 1980 s. AMAL leader after Imam Musa al-sadr, Nebih Berri decided to join the Lebanese National Salvation Front. A break occurred in the movement following this step, and some of its members, including Berri s deputy, Hosssein al-mousavi, retired from it. 3

4 These dissidents, in full agreement with Shiite fighters and a group of young clerics who had graduated from the religious schools in Najaf, founded Hezbollah in the summer of 1982 with Iranian assistance. The fundamental trends in Hezbollah s development on the basis of the five stages model: 1. The foundation stage: This stage was characterized by uncontrolled acts of extreme violence, carried out by secret groups and cells with a kinship to the movement s framework. In late 1982, Iran s delegates in Lebanon succeeded in helping those radical groups get organized under the umbrella of Hezbollah around the pan-islamic vision and harnessed them for violent activity against the West in general and against Israel in particular. 2. The formation stage: ( ) During this stage, the ideological framework became crystallized, and the extreme violence, led by a charismatic pro-iranian revolutionary leadership, continued. The movement broke into international awareness in 1983, after a series of attacks against the multinational forces (MNFs) and the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) in Lebanon. They caused the withdrawal of the MNFs from Beirut (February 1984), the withdrawal of the IDF into the Security Zone (May 1985). 3. The expansion stage: Between 1986 and 1991, an developing institutional system of the movement appeared as a consequence of the increase in the number of its activists and the scope of its activities. Alongside this, the extreme violence continued and reached its peak in the late 1980s with the eruption of the struggle for control of the Shiite community against the AMAL movement. 4. The institutionalization stage: This is the stage at which the movement has been from 1992 on. During this stage, it integrated into the political system of Lebanon. Its activities are characterized by pragmatism and political realism, and it is driven by cost-benefit calculations. During the 1990s Hezbollah handled three significant challenges: The end of the civil war and the growth of the Lebanese regime. The establishment of Syrian hegemony in Lebanon. The peace process in the Middle East. 4

5 5. Seizing rule/decline: This is the fifth stage in the model of the development of protest movements. Hezbollah has not reached this stage yet. The movement adopted a pragmatic Lebanese policy and diminished its revolutionary characteristics and pan-islamic approach. Decisions were translated into activities. The movement s delegates were elected to the 1992 parliament and from 2005 even served in the Lebanese government. The role of Iran and Syria The year 1976 was a turning point as far as the Syrian involvement in Lebanon was concerned. Syria entered Lebanon under the invitation of the Christian Lebanese government, which was about to collapse, and started acting to fulfill its policy and to maintain a new Syrian order in Lebanon. As more time went by, it became more apparent that the application of this policy was encountering difficulties stemming from the complex nature of the Lebanese society and the more the Syrian leadership tended to adopt an integrated policy that relied, on one hand, on a high absorption ability and, on the other hand, on the use of considerate diplomacy that made use of violence. The AMAL movement, which depended on Syria, became an instrument in its hands in carrying out its policy in Lebanon. This fact did not bother Syria in allowing the establishment of the Hezbollah movement, during the summer of 1982, despite the potential threat its establishment posed to AMAL s hegemony among the Shiite community. Iran Along with the increasing Syrian influence upon the community, changes occurred in the influence of the Imam Khomeini supporters on groups among the Shiite community, mainly among the graduates of the Shiite colleges in Najaf and their followers. This process was further accelerated after the outbreak of the revolution in Iran. The sympathy and the identification of the Lebanese Shiites with the new regime in Iran permitted the laying of the first foundation for the adoption of the Iranian model in Lebanon as well. Connections between the Lebanese Ulama and their Iranian colleagues and teachers, along with work contacts and proximity to the Iranian exiles who operated in Lebanon facilitated the distribution of the Islamic message and increased the affinity between the Shiites in Lebanon and the Iranian revolution. The new Iranian regime, under the pressure of the religious clerics, refused to acknowledge Lebanon s sovereignty and even regarded secular AMAL as a factor delaying the exportation of the revolution. 5

6 Revolutionary bodies established in Iran started organizing and supporting Islamic fundamentalist Shiite groups in the region s countries, including Lebanon. In 1982, after the outbreak of the first Lebanon War, Iran sent, in coordination with Syria, hundreds of Revolutionary Guard Corps activists to Lebanon, not only for the stated purpose of supporting the ongoing struggle against Israel, but also for the purpose of fulfilling the policy of exporting the revolution. These activists settled down in Baalbek and began operating among the Shiite population in the area. In June 1982, the Revolutionary Guard Corps activists helped the Islamic groups that operated in the AMAL movement s margins and outside of them establish an all-encompassing framework under the joint leadership of the Lebanese Ulama and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps. This loose organizational framework, founded in the summer of 1982, provided the organizational foundation upon which the Hezbollah movement was based. It also organizes training exercises between Iranian and Hezbollah military personnel. As a result of its success in bringing about Israel s withdrawal from Lebanon, Iran views Hezbollah as a model for leadership within the current Israeli-Palestinian struggle. The roots of Hezbollah s Ideology Hezbollah is a political, social, economic, and military organization whose focus and general identity in Lebanon resembles the militancy and ideology of the Iranian revolution. The organization is primarily inspired by the radical Shiite Islamist philosophy of the late Iranian revolutionary leader Ayatollah Khomeini, and sees the Iranian regime as the front line and new nucleus of the leading Islamic State in the world. Hezbollah is dedicated to the removal of all non- Islamic influences from the Middle East as well as the global exportation of their Iranian-inspired Islamic revolution, the final result of which is a worldwide Islamic republic headed by Shiite clerics and governed by Shiite Islamic law (Ja fri Sharia). There are two unique aspects of the Shii a doctrine and their importance in the present context: First: An absolute clerical hierarchy that is absent in Sunni Islam The Shi a hierarchy has two strands, the first of which being the Imamate, the spiritual leadership descending through the lineage of the movement s founder, Imam Ali ibnabi- Talib, and ended in 874 A.D. when the twelfth descendant went into a state of occultation. In the absence of the Imamate, a traditional clergy is tasked with leading the community, with the most prominent leaders attaining the unofficial rank of marja taqlid ( source of emulation ) 6

7 Second: The role of martyrdom in Shii a tradition The origins of the concept of martyrdom derive from the legend of Imam Ali s son Imam Hussayn dying on the battlefield in defense of the Shii a tradition. The leaders of the Islamic revolution in Iran (most notably Ayatollah Khomeni) centralized this issue and numerous times applied its lessons to the dynamic between the monarchy and the populace. Hezbollah s Objectives The original agenda of Hezbollah since the early 1980s centered on the eviction of Israeli military forces from Lebanon and, in the long-term, the conversion of Lebanon into an Islamic state. The group s stated objectives include: 1. The removal of all western influences from Lebanon and the region, to include the liberation and sovereignty of all claimed lands, the protection of Lebanese civilians, public relations campaigns with the Lebanese people, and more state involvement in this liberation struggle. 2. Creation of an Islamic republic in Lebanon modeled after the Islamic Republic of Iran and established on the concept of vali e-faqih, or political rule of the Islamic jurist. Specifically, this process would include the abolition of political sectarianism, a balanced electoral system, and the patronage-based government bureaucracy currently ruling Lebanon. 3. Liberation of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) via proxy Palestinian rejectionist groups such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ). 4. The creation of a pan-islamic International Community. Organizational Structure and Leadership Hezbollah is governed by the Majlis al-shura (decision making council; an oligarchy of religious authorities) with an executive Shura administering the organization s daily activities. 7

8 Majlis al-shura Convened on May 28, 1986, the Majlis al-shura is the supreme decision-making authority and consists of seven committees: ideological, financial, military, political, judicial, informational, and social affairs. Each of these committees is replicated in regional areas. The Supreme Shura Council, consisting of seventeen members, meets frequently to set policies, and makes decisions based on majority vote. However, in the case of a deadlock, they are referred to the vali al-faqih, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in Iran, as the definitive jurisconsult. The Executive Shura The Executive Shura, under the control of Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, oversees daily Hezbollah activities, conducts meetings, and makes all financial, military, judicial, social, and political decisions. Said Hassan Nasrallah In February of 1992, Said Hassan Nasrallah was unanimously elected commander of operations after Hezbollah Secretary-General Abbas Mussawi was killed in an IDF helicopter raid on February 16 of that year. Nasrallah was reelected to this post in 1993, and has served in this capacity ever since. Like his predecessor, he was a founding member of the Islamic Resistance. Born in 1960, he was a key figure in the AMAL movement before joining Hezbollah in The Hezbollah Israel Summer 2006 War In 2006, Hezbollah militants kidnapped two Israeli soldiers patrolling the border between Lebanon and Israel, provoking a month long war in which 1,200 Lebanese, most of them civilians, and 128 Israelis, most of them soldiers, were killed. For weeks, Israeli warplanes bombarded Hezbollah strongholds in Beirut s southern suburbs and in southern Lebanon. Hezbollah militants fired thousands of rockets into Israeli army zones and fought Israeli forces in Lebanon s border villages, in the heaviest fighting in Lebanon since the end of its civil war in In the war between the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and Hezbollah revealed the Lebanese militant organization s effective efforts at improving both its defensive and offensive military capabilities since the IDF s withdrawal from southern Lebanon in May

9 With Syrian and Iranian (particularly IRGC) assistance, Hezbollah utilized the intervening six years of relative calm to build up an advanced arsenal as well as organize itself much like a modern army, complete with specialized intelligence, antitank, explosives, engineering, and communications units. In addition, it established an elaborate network of defensive positions throughout southern Lebanon, its traditional stronghold, specifically designed to exploit both this indigenous environment and IDF tactical weaknesses. Conclusion: These days Hezbollah acts in order to promote the resistance and the movement s interests. The revolutionary elements were removed from the movement and its institutions. Thus Hezbollah is a revolutionary Lebanese social movement that has been through procedures of change from a pan-islamic revolutionary movement to a pragmatic Lebanese movement, which uses a combination of open activity within the Lebanese political system and confidential, violent activity outside this system. Hezbollah operates in the environment of three different systems: the Lebanese, the regional, and the international. These systems uphold complex and dynamic reciprocal relations between themselves that influenced and still influence the movement s directions of development. Bibliography Eitan Azani, Hezbollah: The Story of the Party of God (From Revolution to Institutionalization)- Palgrave Macmillan, Yonah Alexander and Milton Hoenig, The new Iranian leadership: Ahmadinejad, terrorism, nuclear ambition, and the Middle East, Praeger Security International, Augustus Richard Norton, Hezbollah: a short history, Princeton University Press,, Mehdi A. Jovini- Contributor Analyst, Strategic Outlook and Independent Journalist 9

WORKING PAPER 19 JULY 2013

WORKING PAPER 19 JULY 2013 WORKING PAPER 19 JULY 2013 The European Union Blacklisting Hezbollah Testimony of Dr. Eitan Azani before the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament, Brussels, July 9, 2013 International

More information

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) leadership recently visited Iran and Lebanon to meet with

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) leadership recently visited Iran and Lebanon to meet with January 3, 2019 Senior Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas figures praise Iran's military support and threaten that in the next war the rocket fire from the Gaza Strip will reach all the cities in Israel

More information

CUFI BRIEFING HISTORY - IDEOLOGY - TERROR

CUFI BRIEFING HISTORY - IDEOLOGY - TERROR CUFI BRIEFING HEZBOLLAH - THE PARTY OF ALLAH HISTORY - IDEOLOGY - TERROR Who is Hezbollah Hezbollah, an Arabic name that means Party of Allah (AKA: Hizbullah, Hezbullah, Hizbollah), is a large transnational

More information

Dr. Raz Zimmt. Executive Summary. On March 12, the conservative Iranian website Farda News published a full transcript of a

Dr. Raz Zimmt. Executive Summary. On March 12, the conservative Iranian website Farda News published a full transcript of a Iranian Website Published a Speech Delivered by Hezbollah Secretary General at a Closed Forum Expressing Total Devotion to Iran s Supreme Leader. Similar Statements were Issued Previously by Hezbollah

More information

Politics and the Clergy Mehdi Khalaji

Politics and the Clergy Mehdi Khalaji Politics and the Clergy Mehdi Khalaji For several decades, Iran s Shiite clerical establishment has proven extremely effective at mobilizing the Iranian masses. The Shiite clergy were historically independent

More information

138 th IPU ASSEMBLY AND RELATED MEETINGS. Consideration of requests for the inclusion of an emergency item in the Assembly agenda E#IPU138

138 th IPU ASSEMBLY AND RELATED MEETINGS. Consideration of requests for the inclusion of an emergency item in the Assembly agenda E#IPU138 138 th IPU ASSEMBLY AND RELATED MEETINGS Geneva, 24 28.03.2018 Assembly A/138/2-P.6 Item 2 22 March 2018 Consideration of requests for the inclusion of an emergency item in the Assembly agenda Request

More information

Overview. Iran is attempting to downplay the involvement of the Qods Force of the Iranian

Overview. Iran is attempting to downplay the involvement of the Qods Force of the Iranian Spotlight on Iran April 29 May 13, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Iran is attempting to downplay the involvement of the Qods Force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in launching rockets

More information

Politics and the Clergy

Politics and the Clergy Politics and the Clergy Mehdi Khalaji For several decades, Iran s Shiite clerical establishment has proven extremely effective at mobilizing the Iranian masses. The Shiite clergy were historically independent

More information

Overview. The decision of United States (U.S.) President Donald Trump to withdraw American forces

Overview. The decision of United States (U.S.) President Donald Trump to withdraw American forces Spotlight on Iran December 16, 2018 - December 30, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview The decision of United States (U.S.) President Donald Trump to withdraw American forces from Syria was met in Iran

More information

Overview. Against the backdrop of European efforts to place limitations on Iran s ballistic missile

Overview. Against the backdrop of European efforts to place limitations on Iran s ballistic missile Spotlight on Iran March 4 March 18, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Against the backdrop of European efforts to place limitations on Iran s ballistic missile program and curtail its regional influence

More information

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC)

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC) April 29, 2007 Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC) In an interview granted to an Iranian TV channel, Sheikh Naim Qassem, Hassan

More information

I. Conceptual Organization: Evolution & Longevity Framework (Dr. Allison Astorino- Courtois, 3 NSI)

I. Conceptual Organization: Evolution & Longevity Framework (Dr. Allison Astorino- Courtois, 3 NSI) I. Conceptual Organization: Evolution & Longevity Framework (Dr. Allison Astorino- Courtois, 3 NSI) The core value of any SMA project is in bringing together analyses based in different disciplines, methodologies,

More information

IRAN S SIGNALS, CALLS, AND MARCHES

IRAN S SIGNALS, CALLS, AND MARCHES IRAN S SIGNALS, CALLS, AND MARCHES TERRORISM RESEARCH CENTER Vol. 40 September 24, 2013 Terrorism Research Center Inc. 5765 F Burke Center Parkway-PMB 331, Burke, Virginia 22015 Phone (703) 232-1601 Fax

More information

Overview. As tensions mount between Iran and the United States, the Commander of the Qods

Overview. As tensions mount between Iran and the United States, the Commander of the Qods Spotlight on Iran July 22 August 5, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview As tensions mount between Iran and the United States, the Commander of the Qods Force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC),

More information

Overview. Iran is keeping a low profile with regards to the Northern Shield operation carried

Overview. Iran is keeping a low profile with regards to the Northern Shield operation carried Spotlight on Iran December 2, 2018 December 16, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Iran is keeping a low profile with regards to the Northern Shield operation carried out by the Israeli Defense Forces

More information

Regional Issues. Conflicts in the Middle East. Importance of Oil. Growth of Islamism. Oil as source of conflict in Middle East

Regional Issues. Conflicts in the Middle East. Importance of Oil. Growth of Islamism. Oil as source of conflict in Middle East Main Idea Reading Focus Conflicts in the Middle East Regional issues in the Middle East have led to conflicts between Israel and its neighbors and to conflicts in and between Iran and Iraq. How have regional

More information

Backgrounders. Iran's reform movement. Listen / Download. Zachary Fillingham - Jan 10, 10.

Backgrounders. Iran's reform movement. Listen / Download. Zachary Fillingham - Jan 10, 10. Backgrounders Listen / Download Iran's reform movement Zachary Fillingham - Jan 10, 10 http://www.geopoliticalmonitor.com/irans-reform-movement-1 Geopoliticalmonitor.com Backgrounder 1. Executive Summary

More information

"Military action will bring great costs for the region," Rouhani said, and "it is necessary to apply all efforts to prevent it."

Military action will bring great costs for the region, Rouhani said, and it is necessary to apply all efforts to prevent it. USA TODAY, 29 Aug 2013. Syrian allies Iran and Russia are working together to prevent a Western military attack on Syria, the Iranian president said, as Russia said it is sending warships to the Mediterranean,

More information

The Iranian Modus Operandi

The Iranian Modus Operandi The Iranian Modus Operandi by Lt. Col. (res.) Dr. Dany Shoham BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,029, December 6, 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Time and again in recent decades, Iran has used its Islamic Revolutionary

More information

Iranian Targets Hit in Syria by the IDF and Responses in Iranian Media

Iranian Targets Hit in Syria by the IDF and Responses in Iranian Media Iran Following the Latest Confrontation with Israel in the Syrian Arena Dr. Raz Zimmt January 24, 2019 Iranian Targets Hit in Syria by the IDF and Responses in Iranian Media On January 21, 2019, the Israeli

More information

Overview. Against the backdrop of the latest escalation between Iran and Israel and Israeli threats to

Overview. Against the backdrop of the latest escalation between Iran and Israel and Israeli threats to Spotlight on Iran ` January 27, 2019 - February 10, 2019 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Against the backdrop of the latest escalation between Iran and Israel and Israeli threats to continue acting against

More information

Iranian Responses to Growing Tensions with Israel and an Initial Assessment of Their Implications from an Iranian Standpoint. Dr.

Iranian Responses to Growing Tensions with Israel and an Initial Assessment of Their Implications from an Iranian Standpoint. Dr. Iranian Responses to Growing Tensions with Israel and an Initial Assessment of Their Implications from an Iranian Standpoint February 11, 2018 Dr. Raz Zimmt Summary of Events The escalation along Israel

More information

What s Happening in Iran? A non-western Perspective by Peyman Vahabzadeh

What s Happening in Iran? A non-western Perspective by Peyman Vahabzadeh What s Happening in Iran? A non-western Perspective by Peyman Vahabzadeh 3 major themes Iran s Constitutional Dilemma The Rise of Military-Commercial Complex The Grassroots Social Movements Iran s Constitution

More information

ASSESSMENT REPORT. The Shebaa Operation: A Restrained Response from Hezbollah

ASSESSMENT REPORT. The Shebaa Operation: A Restrained Response from Hezbollah ASSESSMENT REPORT The Shebaa Operation: A Restrained Response from Hezbollah Policy Analysis Unit - ACRPS Feb 2015 The Sheeba Operation: A Restrained Response from Hezbollah Policy Analysis Unit ACRPS

More information

The ayatollah failed to recognize the mounting tension over this month's presidential election--what former president Ali Akbar Hashemi

The ayatollah failed to recognize the mounting tension over this month's presidential election--what former president Ali Akbar Hashemi Page 1 of 5 Published on The New Republic (http://www.tnr.com) Ayatollah Khamenei's massive miscalculation about the extent of his power. Author Info Needed June 17, 2009 12:00 am The Iranian regime is

More information

More Iran Background ( ) EQ: What was the cultural climate in Iran like before and after the Revolution?

More Iran Background ( ) EQ: What was the cultural climate in Iran like before and after the Revolution? More Iran Background (152-154) EQ: What was the cultural climate in Iran like before and after the Revolution? Introduction Iran comes from the word Aryan. Aryans settled here in 1500 B.C. Descendents

More information

Overview 1. On June 29, 2014, ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-baghdadi declared the establishment of the

Overview 1. On June 29, 2014, ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-baghdadi declared the establishment of the The Collapse of the Islamic State: What Comes Next? November 18, 2017 Overview 1 On June 29, 2014, ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-baghdadi declared the establishment of the Islamic Caliphate by the Islamic State

More information

Overview. Tehran continues to deny Israeli reports about Iranian involvement in the clashes last

Overview. Tehran continues to deny Israeli reports about Iranian involvement in the clashes last Spotlight on Iran February 4 February 18, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Tehran continues to deny Israeli reports about Iranian involvement in the clashes last weekend in Syria, which were triggered

More information

Security Threats in the Levant Basin

Security Threats in the Levant Basin Security Threats in the Levant Basin Overview Petrochemical interest in the Levant Basin lies overwhelmingly in recoverable natural gas, with an estimated 3,500 billion cubic metres (bcm) in existence;

More information

Overview. The Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, used his annual speech on the occasion of the

Overview. The Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, used his annual speech on the occasion of the Spotlight on Iran March 18 March 28, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview The Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, used his annual speech on the occasion of the Iranian New Year (Nowruz) to justify, once

More information

Perceiving the Shia Dimension of Terrorism. Hanin Ghaddar

Perceiving the Shia Dimension of Terrorism. Hanin Ghaddar Georgetown Security Studies Review 15 Perceiving the Shia Dimension of Terrorism Hanin Ghaddar In trying to figure out what to do about ISIS, the international community seems to have forgotten the other

More information

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS 58 EAST 68TH STREET NEW YORK NEW YORK 10021 Tel 212 434 9888 Fax 212 434 9832 Website www.cfr.org Summary: The Emerging Shia Crescent: Implications for the Middle East and

More information

Overview. Ahead of the summit between the American and Russian presidents in Helsinki, which

Overview. Ahead of the summit between the American and Russian presidents in Helsinki, which Spotlight on Iran July 8 July 22, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Ahead of the summit between the American and Russian presidents in Helsinki, which also discussed the future of Iran s involvement

More information

SIMULATION : The Middle East after the territorial elimination of the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria

SIMULATION : The Middle East after the territorial elimination of the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria SIMULATION : The Middle East after the territorial elimination of the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria Three foreign research institutions participate in the simulation: China Foreign Affairs University

More information

صفحه ویژه طرح پشت جلد

صفحه ویژه طرح پشت جلد صفحه ویژه طرح پشت جلد A Tribute to the Virtuous Theologian My Mentor HosseinAli Montazeri NajafAbadi Mohsen Kadivar 2015 A Tribute to the Virtuous Theologian (SoughNameye Faqih-e Pak-Baz Ustad Montazeri)

More information

Overview. and representatives from about 100 countries, including the Deputy Secretary

Overview. and representatives from about 100 countries, including the Deputy Secretary Spotlight on Iran November 18 December 2, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview The 32 nd annual Islamic Unity Conference was held in Tehran and attended by Iranian senior officials and representatives from

More information

Overview. The focal point of the week was the visit to Damascus of Iranian Minister of Defense,

Overview. The focal point of the week was the visit to Damascus of Iranian Minister of Defense, Spotlight on Iran August 19 September 2, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview The focal point of the week was the visit to Damascus of Iranian Minister of Defense, Amir Hatami. During the two-day visit,

More information

II. From civil war to regional confrontation

II. From civil war to regional confrontation II. From civil war to regional confrontation Following the initial legitimate demands of the Syrian people, the conflict took on the regional and international dimensions of a long term conflict. Are neighboring

More information

TERRORISM: NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY AND THE HOME FRONT. Stephen C. Pelletiere Editor. May 15, 1995

TERRORISM: NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY AND THE HOME FRONT. Stephen C. Pelletiere Editor. May 15, 1995 TERRORISM: NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY AND THE HOME FRONT Stephen C. Pelletiere Editor May 15, 1995 ******* The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official

More information

Since the outbreak of protests against the Syrian regime in 2011, Iran has been a

Since the outbreak of protests against the Syrian regime in 2011, Iran has been a Scramble for Syria A Winning Alliance with bashar Al-Assad Could Make Iran a loser in the Arab World By Mohammad-Reza Djalili and Thierry Kellner Since the outbreak of protests against the Syrian regime

More information

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC)

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC) Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC) February 18, 2008 Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah threatened revenge for the killing of

More information

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center August 26, 2009 Ahmad Vahidi, wanted by Interpol for participation in the 1994 terrorist attack in Buenos Aires, is the new designated defense minister of

More information

Is the Iranian Regime Collapsing?

Is the Iranian Regime Collapsing? Vol. 9, No. 20 25 February 2010 Is the Iranian Regime Collapsing? Menashe Amir To grasp Iran s ambitions and foreign policy it is necessary to understand the Islamic Republic s religious ideology which

More information

Speech by Michel Touma, Lebanese journalist, at the symposium on Religion and Human Rights - Utah - October 2013.

Speech by Michel Touma, Lebanese journalist, at the symposium on Religion and Human Rights - Utah - October 2013. Speech by Michel Touma, Lebanese journalist, at the symposium on Religion and Human Rights - Utah - October 2013. The theme of this symposium, Religion and Human Rights, has never been more important than

More information

Iran s Unwavering Israel-Hatred

Iran s Unwavering Israel-Hatred Iran s Unwavering Israel-Hatred Dr. Doron Itzchakov BESA Center Perspectives No. 1,104, March 6, 2019 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Four decades ago, the revolutionary movement led by Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew

More information

Remember the war against Franco? We had all the good songs.

Remember the war against Franco? We had all the good songs. The Songs of Liwa a Abu Fadl al- Abbas: Militant Iraqi Shia Music & Syria By Phillip Smyth (psmyth@jihadology.net) Remember the war against Franco? That's the kind where each of us belongs. Though he may

More information

Saudi-Iranian Confrontation in the Horn of Africa:

Saudi-Iranian Confrontation in the Horn of Africa: Saudi-Iranian Confrontation in the Horn of Africa: The Case of Sudan March 2016 Ramy Jabbour Office of Gulf The engagement of the younger generation in the policy formation of Saudi Arabia combined with

More information

Iran s Hegemonic Drive and the Nuclear Talks

Iran s Hegemonic Drive and the Nuclear Talks Iran s Hegemonic Drive and the Nuclear Talks Dore Gold Paper No. 31 May 2015 Iran s Hegemonic Drive and the Nuclear Talks Precisely at a time at which Iran appears to be seeking to close an agreement with

More information

Hizballah in Lebanon: The Muqawamah as a Contra- Hegemonic Project

Hizballah in Lebanon: The Muqawamah as a Contra- Hegemonic Project Tel-Aviv University The Lester and Sally Entin Faculty of Humanities The School of History The Department of the History of the Middle East and Africa Hizballah in Lebanon: The Muqawamah as a Contra- Hegemonic

More information

THE ISIS CHALLENGE IN LIBYA

THE ISIS CHALLENGE IN LIBYA THE ISIS CHALLENGE IN LIBYA SIMULATION BACKGROUND With two rival governments and an expanding ISIS presence in between, Libya has more than its fair share of problems. Reactionary Arab regimes like Egypt

More information

Introduction. Measures to Reduce Tension and Conflict between Sunni and Shia. President of Arab League. TIANMUN 2018 Arab League 1

Introduction. Measures to Reduce Tension and Conflict between Sunni and Shia. President of Arab League. TIANMUN 2018 Arab League 1 TIANMUN 2018 Arab League 1 FORUM: ISSUE: STUDENT OFFICER: POSITION: Arab League Measures to Reduce Tension and Conflict between Sunni and Shia Isabel Lourie President of Arab League Introduction The Sunni-Shia

More information

Overview. Diplomatic efforts concerning the settlements of the Syrian war continue: In early

Overview. Diplomatic efforts concerning the settlements of the Syrian war continue: In early Spotlight on Iran November 4, 2018 November 18, 2018 Author: Dr. Raz Zimmt Overview Diplomatic efforts concerning the settlements of the Syrian war continue: In early November, the envoy of the Russian

More information

Comment - The Damascus December 2009 Bus Explosion December 7, 2009 Alessandro Bacci reports from Damascus, Syria

Comment - The Damascus December 2009 Bus Explosion December 7, 2009 Alessandro Bacci reports from Damascus, Syria Comment - The Damascus December 2009 Bus Explosion December 7, 2009 Alessandro Bacci reports from Damascus, Syria On the morning of December 3, 2009 an explosion occurred to a bus parked at a gas station

More information

Comment - Damascus' December 2009 Bus Explosion

Comment - Damascus' December 2009 Bus Explosion Comment - Damascus' December 2009 Bus Explosion Alessandro Bacci reports from Damascus, Syria December 7, 2009 On the morning of December 3, 2009 an explosion occurred to a bus parked at a gas station

More information

fragility and crisis

fragility and crisis strategic asia 2003 04 fragility and crisis Edited by Richard J. Ellings and Aaron L. Friedberg with Michael Wills Special Studies Terrorism: The War on Terrorism in Southeast Asia Zachary Abuza restrictions

More information

Executive Summary. by its continued expansion worldwide. Its barbaric imposition of shariah law has:

Executive Summary. by its continued expansion worldwide. Its barbaric imposition of shariah law has: Toppling the Caliphate - A Plan to Defeat ISIS Executive Summary The vital national security interests of the United States are threatened by the existence of the Islamic State (IS) as a declared Caliphate

More information

A new religious state model in the case of "Islamic State" O Muslims, come to your state. Yes, your state! Come! Syria is not for

A new religious state model in the case of Islamic State O Muslims, come to your state. Yes, your state! Come! Syria is not for A new religious state model in the case of "Islamic State" Galit Truman Zinman O Muslims, come to your state. Yes, your state! Come! Syria is not for Syrians, and Iraq is not for Iraqis. The earth belongs

More information

The United States proposed a UN General Assembly resolution condemning Hamas and other terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip.

The United States proposed a UN General Assembly resolution condemning Hamas and other terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip. The United States proposed a UN General Assembly resolution condemning Hamas and other terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip December 6, 2018 Overview On November 30, 2018, the United States Mission

More information

Authors: Jonathan Masters, Deputy Editor, and Zachary Laub, Online Writer/Editor Updated: January 3, 2014

Authors: Jonathan Masters, Deputy Editor, and Zachary Laub, Online Writer/Editor Updated: January 3, 2014 1 of 5 3/30/2015 12:19 AM CFR Backgrounders Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah) Authors: Jonathan Masters, Deputy Editor, and Zachary Laub, Online Writer/Editor Updated: January 3, 2014 Introduction

More information

THE WORLD S NINTH NUCLEAR POWER: IRAN S AMBITIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND BEYOND

THE WORLD S NINTH NUCLEAR POWER: IRAN S AMBITIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND BEYOND THE WORLD S NINTH NUCLEAR POWER: IRAN S AMBITIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND BEYOND Iran is feared because of the nature of the Islamic Republican system. This system does not limit itself to the geographic

More information

The Islamic State's Fallback

The Islamic State's Fallback The Islamic State's Fallback June 8, 2017 Its strategy is changing, and our model must change with it. By Jacob L. Shapiro The Islamic State was the world s first jihadist group to make control of territory

More information

a war with Lebanon s Hezbollah was just a matter of time and that such a conflict would include Syria, most observers dismissed the comment as little

a war with Lebanon s Hezbollah was just a matter of time and that such a conflict would include Syria, most observers dismissed the comment as little A New Middle East War? Dispatches From the Edge Conn Hallinan 1615 words When Israeli Minister without Portfolio Yossi Peled said recently that a war with Lebanon s Hezbollah was just a matter of time

More information

The Difference Between Terrorism and Insurgency

The Difference Between Terrorism and Insurgency Like 0 Tweet 0 5 The Difference Between Terrorism and Insurgency Security Weekly JUNE 26, 2014 08:17 GMT! Print Text Size + By Scott Stewart Stratfor conventional military battles against the Syrian and

More information

Assessing ISIS one Year Later

Assessing ISIS one Year Later University of Central Lancashire From the SelectedWorks of Zenonas Tziarras June, 2015 Assessing ISIS one Year Later Zenonas Tziarras, University of Warwick Available at: https://works.bepress.com/zenonas_tziarras/42/

More information

IRAN. Part 3: Citizens, Society, & the State

IRAN. Part 3: Citizens, Society, & the State IRAN Part 3: Citizens, Society, & the State Cleavages Religion 90% are Shia Muslim 10% are Sunni Muslim 1% = Jews, Christians, Zoroastrian, Ba hai Although the constitution recognizes religious minorities

More information

Is a Sustainable Cease-Fire in Lebanon Realistic? If Not, What is the Alternative?

Is a Sustainable Cease-Fire in Lebanon Realistic? If Not, What is the Alternative? Vol. 6, No. 5 30 July 2006 Is a Sustainable Cease-Fire in Lebanon Realistic? If Not, What is the Alternative? Gerald M. Steinberg As intense discussions continue on the terms of a "sustainable cease-fire"

More information

Iranian Participation in the Liberation of Fallujah

Iranian Participation in the Liberation of Fallujah May 30, 2016 Iranian Participation in the Liberation of Fallujah Dr. Raz Zimmt Qasem Soleimani, second from left, in the operations room of the Shi'ite militias engaged in fighting alongside the Iraqi

More information

Syria Alert. Issue II, 24 October How can a war be prevented? The gates of hell are wide open and the fire is approaching. 1

Syria Alert. Issue II, 24 October How can a war be prevented? The gates of hell are wide open and the fire is approaching. 1 Syria Alert Issue II, 24 October 2011 How can a war be prevented? The gates of hell are wide open and the fire is approaching. 1 The Syrian uprising started 7 months ago as a fully nonviolent uprising.

More information

Will Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Pakistan Form a Coalition Against Iran?

Will Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Pakistan Form a Coalition Against Iran? 12 17 March 2015 Will Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Pakistan Form a Coalition Against Iran? Lindsay Hughes FDI Research Analyst Indian Ocean Research Programme Key Points Iran has troops and allied militias

More information

In recent years, a public debate has been underway in the Western world, both in

In recent years, a public debate has been underway in the Western world, both in Conflict or Alliance of Civilization vs. the Unspoken Worldwide Class Struggle Why Huntington and Beck Are Wrong By VICENTE NAVARRO In recent years, a public debate has been underway in the Western world,

More information

«The Shiite Marja iyya question» Summary

«The Shiite Marja iyya question» Summary «The Shiite Marja iyya question» Barah Mikaïl, Chercheur à l IRIS Jamil Abou Assi, Halla al-najjar, Assistants de recherche Etude n 2005/096 réalisée pour le compte de la Délégation aux Affaires stratégiques

More information

Weekly Geopolitical Report

Weekly Geopolitical Report Weekly Geopolitical Report By Bill O Grady February 6, 2017 Exit the Shark On January 8, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani died of a heart attack. The 82-year-old cleric was a major political figure in Iran and

More information

The Struggle on Egypt's New Constitution - The Danger of an Islamic Sharia State

The Struggle on Egypt's New Constitution - The Danger of an Islamic Sharia State The Struggle on Egypt's New Constitution - The Danger of an Islamic Sharia State Jonathan Fighel - ICT Senior Researcher August 20 th, 2013 The rise of the Muslim Brotherhood to power in Egypt in the January

More information

Asharq Al-Awsat Talks to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari Friday 22 October 2010 By Sawsan Abu-Husain

Asharq Al-Awsat Talks to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari Friday 22 October 2010 By Sawsan Abu-Husain Asharq Al-Awsat Talks to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari Friday 22 October 2010 By Sawsan Abu-Husain Cairo, Asharq Al-Awsat- Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, who accompanied Prime Minister

More information

Iran Sent Them to Syria. Now Afghan Fighters Are a Worry at Home.

Iran Sent Them to Syria. Now Afghan Fighters Are a Worry at Home. Iran Sent Them to Syria. Now Afghan Fighters Are a Worry at Home. The New York Times 2017-11-11 23:05:59 Iran has trained and deployed thousands of Shiite Afghans as shock troops in Syria s sectarian war.

More information

Iranian Kurds: Between the Hammer and the Anvil

Iranian Kurds: Between the Hammer and the Anvil Iranian Kurds: Between the Hammer and the Anvil by Prof. Ofra Bengio BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,103, March 5, 2019 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The new strategy toward Iran taken by Donald Trump, which

More information

Disintegrating Iraq: Implications for Saudi National Security

Disintegrating Iraq: Implications for Saudi National Security Disintegrating Iraq: Implications for Saudi National Security Washington, DC - November 9th Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Nawaf Obaid Managing Director Challenges Confronting Iraq Social,

More information

The killing of two Al-Qaeda leaders in Iraq and its implications

The killing of two Al-Qaeda leaders in Iraq and its implications Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center May 9, 2010 The killing of two Al-Qaeda leaders in Iraq and its implications The Al-Qaeda leaders killed in Iraq. Left: Abu Ayyub al-masri, the Al-Qaeda commander

More information

ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS

ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPTIAN POLITICS Also by Barry Rubin REVOLUTION UNTIL VICTORY? The History and Politics of the PLO 1ST ANBUL INTRIGUES MODERN DICTATORS: Third World Coupmakers, Strongmen, and

More information

Iran comes from the word Aryan Aryans settled here in 1500 B.C. Descendents were the Medes and the Persians Eventually, whole territory became known

Iran comes from the word Aryan Aryans settled here in 1500 B.C. Descendents were the Medes and the Persians Eventually, whole territory became known Iran comes from the word Aryan Aryans settled here in 1500 B.C. Descendents were the Medes and the Persians Eventually, whole territory became known as the Persian Empire 1935 Reza Shah changed the name

More information

"The Current State of Iranian Affairs: A Candid Discussion" Featuring Ramin Jahanbegloo and Mehdi Khalaji

The Current State of Iranian Affairs: A Candid Discussion Featuring Ramin Jahanbegloo and Mehdi Khalaji "The Current State of Iranian Affairs: A Candid Discussion" Featuring Ramin Jahanbegloo and Mehdi Khalaji Interview by Reza Akhlaghi, Foreign Policy Association November 15, 2011 1 REZA AKHLAGHI: In Iran's

More information

Divisions over the conflict vary along religious and ethnic lines Christianity in Syria Present since the first century Today comprise about 10% of the population: Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant; Arabs,

More information

Brief biography Recollection of Imam about prayers

Brief biography Recollection of Imam about prayers Brief biography Recollection of Imam about prayers Born as Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini to Sayed Moustafa Hindi and AghaKhanumin the village of Khomeyn, Iran. Young Khomeini was raised primarily by his mother,

More information

CHANGES IN HEZBOLLAH S IMAGE AND ROLE: DRIVING FACTORS AND SECURITY IMPLICATIONS

CHANGES IN HEZBOLLAH S IMAGE AND ROLE: DRIVING FACTORS AND SECURITY IMPLICATIONS CHANGES IN HEZBOLLAH S IMAGE AND ROLE: DRIVING FACTORS AND SECURITY IMPLICATIONS A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Georgetown University in partial fulfillment

More information

Israel in the Middle, Syria, Iran and the Gulf States

Israel in the Middle, Syria, Iran and the Gulf States Israel in the Middle, Syria, Iran and the Gulf States 27. August 2013 um 11:00 Israel in the Middle, Syria, Iran and the Gulf States by Stephen E Hughes 26 Aug. 2013 Iran & Syria s Bashar Hafezal-Assad

More information

Iran had limited natural resources Water was relatively scarce, and Iran s environment could only support a limited population Because of the heat,

Iran had limited natural resources Water was relatively scarce, and Iran s environment could only support a limited population Because of the heat, Ancient Iran Geography and Resources Iran s location, bounded by mountains, deserts, and the Persian Gulf, left it open to attack from Central Asian nomads The fundamental topographical features included

More information

Lesson Plan: Day 5 Iran: Resistance & Revolution

Lesson Plan: Day 5 Iran: Resistance & Revolution Lesson Plan: Day 5 Iran: Resistance & Revolution Objective: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to Summarize the basic events of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 Outline the major causes of the

More information

Israeli air strikes against Syria biggest since 1982

Israeli air strikes against Syria biggest since 1982 Israeli air strikes against Syria biggest since 1982 Syrian civil war What happened? Israel says it has inflicted huge damage on Syrian air defences after one of its fighter jets was brought down during

More information

Overview. On December 11, 2018, the IDF exposed a third tunnel crossing the Israeli-Lebanese

Overview. On December 11, 2018, the IDF exposed a third tunnel crossing the Israeli-Lebanese December 11, 2018 Operation Northern Shield on the Israel-Lebanon Border for the Destruction of Hezbollah Tunnels Penetrating into Israel (The situation on the ground, December 11, 2018) Overview On December

More information

CRS Report for Congress

CRS Report for Congress Order Code RS22323 Updated September 29, 2006 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Summary Iran s Influence in Iraq Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Foreign Affairs,

More information

The Bahrain Situation

The Bahrain Situation (Doha Institute) Assessment Report Assessment Report Doha, March - 2011 Assessment Report Copyrights reserved for Arab Center for Research & Policy Studies 2011 Against the backdrop of worsening social

More information

His Master's Angry Voice

His Master's Angry Voice His Master's Angry Voice CON COUGHLIN February 2009 Shortly after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected Iran's fifth post-revolutionary president in July 2005, he convened a cabinet meeting for an urgent discussion

More information

the Middle East (18 December 2013, no ).

the Middle East (18 December 2013, no ). Letter of 24 February 2014 from the Minister of Security and Justice, Ivo Opstelten, to the House of Representatives of the States General on the policy implications of the 35th edition of the Terrorist

More information

War in Afghanistan War in Iraq Arab Spring War in Syria North Korea 1950-

War in Afghanistan War in Iraq Arab Spring War in Syria North Korea 1950- War in Afghanistan 2001-2014 War in Iraq 2003-2010 Arab Spring 2010-2011 War in Syria 2011- North Korea 1950- Began as a result of 9/11 attacks September 11, 2001 Four hijacked planes in the U.S. Two crashed

More information

HISTORY 3453 Islam and Nationalism

HISTORY 3453 Islam and Nationalism HISTORY 3453 Islam and Nationalism James Whidden BAC 404 585-1814 jamie.whidden@acadiau.ca Office Hours: Mon-Fri: 10:00-12:00 Course Objectives: The Arab Spring has transformed domestic politics in the

More information

Iran s Losses In the 35 th Province (Syria), Part 1

Iran s Losses In the 35 th Province (Syria), Part 1 Iran s Losses In the 35 th Province (Syria), Part 1 Syria is [Iran s] 35th province and a strategic province for us. If the enemy attacks us and wants to take either Syria or Khuzestan, the priority for

More information

Syria s historic decision to establish diplomatic relations with Lebanon and an analysis of its implications

Syria s historic decision to establish diplomatic relations with Lebanon and an analysis of its implications Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC) November 5, 2008 Syria s historic decision to establish diplomatic relations with Lebanon

More information

LASALLE COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL

LASALLE COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL LASALLE COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL FRESHMAN SUMMER READING 2012 SOCIAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT BOOK: Children of Jihad by Jared Cohen ISBN: 13: 978-1592403998 During your reading you will be responsible for the following.

More information

2010 Annual Summary Data and Trends in Terrorism Annual Summary. Data and Trends in Terrorism

2010 Annual Summary Data and Trends in Terrorism Annual Summary. Data and Trends in Terrorism 2010 Annual Summary Data and Trends in Terrorism -2- Prominent trends in 2010 2010 has displayed a drop in the scope of terrorism, much like in previous years. 2010 concludes with 798 terror attacks as

More information