24.01 Classics of Western Philosophy

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "24.01 Classics of Western Philosophy"

Transcription

1 1 Plan: Kant Lecture #2: How are pure mathematics and pure natural science possible? 1. Review: Problem of Metaphysics 2. Kantian Commitments 3. Pure Mathematics 4. Transcendental Idealism 5. Pure Natural Science 2 Review/Set Up: On Tuesday Prof. Hagen introduced Kant s project of addressing the problem of metaphysics. Metaphysics is all messed up: Does not possess universal validity ( universal and lasting recognition ). This is not meant only as an external approval of the public but as an internal consensus of the scientific community. Does not show results and progress ( moving around the same spot without gaining a single step ). In terms of advancement Metaphysics is still where it was in the days of Aristotle. Does not have criteria to distinguish sound knowledge from mere ignorance. This is the most severe defect. It accounts for the fact that in Metaphysics everyone can pass judgments with authority, which means that there is no real expertise in matters of metaphysical knowledge. Kant addresses this problem in the Prolegomena by demonstrating how metaphysical judgments are possible. This at least gets us that metaphysics is possible! Metaphysical judgments are synthetic a priori, substantive yet necessary. Prolegomena becomes: how are synthetic a priori judgments possible? So the question of the He uses the legit and well-established sciences of pure mathematics and pure natural science to help with the case of metaphysics. Both of these sciences involve synthetic a priori judgments, so if we can explain how those are possible we will have a model for how to deal with metaphysical judgments as well. The goal for today is to investigate how Kant explains these other legit sciences. 3 Kantian Commitments. As Prof. Hagen said, reading Kant involves learning a new language and to make sense of his philosophy we need to understand and adopt some important distinctions. We are already familiar with analytic/synthetic and a priori/a posteriori. The most important distinction that will be playing a role in our discussion today is between intuitions and concepts: 1 of 6

2 Kant believes that all of our knowledge, those objective cognitions, is comprised of two distinct representations: intuitions and concepts. Quoting from the CPR: An intuition refer directly to the object and is singular; a concept refers to the object indirectly, by means of a characteristic that may be common to several things. (A320/B376-7) Intuitions are singular, immediate representations. Concepts are general, mediate representations. So THAT vs. chair Note that we need concepts to turn our representations into communicable judgments. To say That chair is green. we need the concepts chair and green. Further, Kant says that these two kinds of representations are governed by particular mental faculties. The faculty of sensibility governs our intuitions and the faculty of understanding governs our concepts. Exactly what I mean by governs here will come out more as we talk about how pure mathematics is possible. Which we now turn to. 4 How is pure mathematics possible? Before going into the details of how pure mathematical judgments are possible, it s important to note that the general question of the Prolegomena was really shaped by his conception of mathematics and its achievements as well-grounded science. Really, his thoughts on mathematics are a crucial and central component of his critical philosophical system. And as crazy as they may seem, these thoughts continue to inform important questions in the metaphysics and epistemology of mathematics to this day! Now, onto the question: how are pure mathematical judgments possible? Using the distinctions we just discussed, Kant claims that mathematical judgmentsare synthetic, a priori and are always intuitive, and are thus always represented through the mental faculty of sensibility. How are intuitive synthetic a priori judgments possible? It s easy to see why Kant thinks that pure mathematics should be considered a priori; they are necessary and so cannot be derived from experience. Why, though, does he think that these judgments are synthetic? He claims that mathematical judgments synthesize a subject and predicate concept rather than merely explicate or analyze a subject concept into its constituent logical parts. Let s walk through an example of how Kant sees this working: = 12 He first claims (negatively) that no matter how long he analyzes the concept of a possible sum of 5 and 7 that he will never find 12 in it. Remember the containment metaphor of analytic/synthetic judgments. Then he argues (positively) that one might go beyond the concepts of five and seven, seeking assistance in the intuition that corresponds to one of the two, one s five fingers, say... and one after another add the units of five given in the intuition to the concept of seven... and thus see the number 12 arise (B15). Thus, he takes it to follow that the necessary truth of an arithmetic proposition cannot be established by any method of logical or conceptual analysis, but can be established by intuitive synthesis. He also demonstrates this with a geometrical example in the text. 2 of 6

3 The key, then, is that the synthesis doesn t happen via concepts but, rather via our intuitions. This is what distinguishes mathematical judgments from philosophical ones: they are always intuitive. But then we run into another difficult question: how are a priori intuitions possible? Recall that intuitions are singular, immediate perceptions; it seems like these things could only be given to us by experience. If pure mathematical judgments are possible, Kant needs to explain this. His answer is that we can intuit via the pure forms of sensibility: He addresses this in 9: Therefore in one way only can my intuition anticipate the actuality of the object, and be a cognition a priori, viz., if my intuition contains nothing but the form of sensibility, which in me as subject precedes all the actual impressions through which I am affected. (282) And also in 10: Accordingly, it is only the form of sensuous intuition by which we can intuit things a priori, but by which we can know objects only as they appear to us (to our senses), not as they are in themselves; and this assumption is absolutely necessary if synthetic propositions a priori be granted as possible or if, in case they actually occur, their possibility is to be determined beforehand. (283) When discussing the different mental faculties above I said that the faculty of sensibility governs our intuitions and now we can make more sense of what this means. This faculty imposes itself onto all of our representations of the world via these pure forms of sensibility. It turns out that the pure forms of sensibility are those of space and time. All of our intuitions are formed by space and time; they underlie all of our intuition of the world. Thus, importantly, space and time are not properties of things in themselves. Filter analogy: we can think of things in themselves out there, doing their thing. Because we are the kind of beings that we are (we have certain mental faculties, one of which is the sensibly) when we observe the world all of our representations of the world are put through a filter of space and time. Phenomena/Noumena: We can only have knowledge of phenomena, the objects of our experience. We can never have knowledge of things in themselves, the noumena, because things must filter through our mental faculties in order for us to know anything about them. Interesting to think way back to when we read Plato s Phadeo and his thoughts on the Forms vs. particulars. QUESTION: Does someone remember what Plato thought about the forms and particulars as objects of knowledge? QUESTION: How does this differ with Kant s view? We ve made it all the way to way Kant s Copernican Revolution. This is one of the main takeaways from Kant s philosophical system: Thus far it has been assumed that all our cognition must conform to objects. On that presupposition, however, all our attempts to establish something about them a priori, by means of concepts through which our cognition would be expanded, have come to nothing. Let us, therefore, try to find out whether we shall not make better progress in the problems of metaphysics if we assume that objects must conform to our cognition. (CPR, Bxvi) Given that doing metaphysics from one position has left us with an unsatisfactory pseudo-science, Kant suggests we change our position and go from there. Of course this isn t an argument for taking this view but rather a suggestion for making more progress. 3 of 6

4 Okay, so we just walked through a lot of complicated stuff. Let s think now about how this helps us address the question of how pure mathematics are possible. The takeaway is that we can have intuitions a priori via the pure forms of sensibility. They don t require any experiential input, we can see them in our minds eye, in a sense. And they are necessary because they hold in this purest sense. Thus, Kant concludes in 11: The problem of the present section is therefore solved. Pure mathematics, as synthetic cognition a priori, is possible only by referring to no other objects than those of the senses. At the basis of their empirical intuition lies a pure intuition (of space and time) which is a priori. I will leave more detailed discussions of how Kant explains geometry and arithmetic via pure sensibility for discussion in recitation. 5 Transcendental Idealism. Okay, we have just explained how pure mathematics is possible. The next question is how pure natural science is possible. But before we solve that problem I want to discuss Kant s philosophy of Transcendental Idealism, which is the view we just discussed regarding the phenomena/noumena distinction. This is Kant s big thing, his Copernican Revolution. In the First Part of the Transcendental Question, in the Remarks, he address some potential problems for the view and I think it is helpful if we consider them briefly. The first potential problem is that since mathematics is now only true of the phenomenal realm how can we think of mathematical judgments as objective? Kant says why doesn t it follow that the propositions of geometry are not determinations of a mere creation of our poetic imagination, which could therefore not be referred with assurance to actual objects? (287) How does Kant get out of this potential problem? Mathematical truths are then objectively true because they hold for all phenomena, and we can only know about phenomena:... they are necessarily valid of space, and consequently of all that may be found in space, because space is nothing but the form of all external appearances, and it is this form alone in which objects of the sense can be given to us. (287) The second potential problem is that Kant s theory could be taken as idealism. First, what s idealism? Let s think back to Descartes dualist metaphysics. He thought that at the fundamental metaphysical level there are two kinds of things: mind and body. Then we looked at Cavendish s physicalism; she argues that there is only ONE kind of fundamental metaphysical stuff: body. Idealism is sort of the opposite of physicalism; it is the view that there is only ONE kind of fundamental metaphysical stuff, mind. We haven t looked at any idealist views in this course, but a very famous one is given by Berkeley. We can see why one might think Kant s view is idealistic: the only things we can know about are those that exist via our mental faculties. Why does Kant claim that his view is not idealism? 4 of 6

5 I say that things as objects of our senses existing outside us are given, but we know nothing of what they may be in themselves, knowing only their appearances, i.e., the representations which they cause in us by affecting our senses... The existence of the thing that appears is thereby not destroyed, as in genuine idealism, but it is only shown that we cannot possibly know it by the senses as it is in itself. (289) 6 How is pure natural science possible? Okay, let s recap where we are and what we ve worked through. Kant wants to show how metaphysical synthetic a priori judgments are possible. To do this he first shows how mathematical judgments, which are synthetic a priori are possible. To provide this explanation Kant has to introduce his hefty view of Transcendental Idealism which states that we can only know about the phenomenal world. This solves the problem for pure mathematics because it gives us a way to intuit things a priori. Now we move to pure natural science. Given that we can never know about things in themselves, how are universal scientific laws possible? How can we say that there are objective laws like substance is permanent and every event is determined by a cause? We want to remember that Kant is assuming that everything is all well and good with pure natural science; we are just asking how these judgments are possible. The first important step is to acknowledge that nature consists of all and only objects of experience, not things in themselves. Thus, pure natural science can only give us universal laws for the phenomenal realm. The second step involves bringing in the other mental faculty that I discussed at the beginning of class: the understanding, which governs our conceptual representations. Just as there are pure forms of sensibility with govern all intuitions, there are pure concepts of the understanding which govern all concepts. He makes another important distinction between two kinds of empirical judgments: judgments of experience and judgments of perception: Judgments of experience always require, besides the representation of the sensuous intuition, special concepts originally generated in the understanding, which make the judgment of experience objectively valid. (298) Judgments of perception require no such concept. All judgments start off as judgments of perception and then, after we give them a new reference (outside of just ourselves), they become judgments of experience, which signify necessary universality validity. Just as all representations get filtered through our faculty of sensibility, in order to become a judgment of experience our intuitions must be filtered through our faculty of understanding: Middle of first paragraph of 20: Quite another judgment therefore is required before perception can become experience. The given intuition must be subsumed under a concept which determines the form or judging in general with regard to the intuition, connects the empirical consciousness of the intuition in conscious in general, and thereby procures universal validity for empirical judgments. A concept of this nature is a pure a priori concept of the understanding, which does nothing but determine for an intuition the general way in which it can be used for judging. (300) These pure concepts of the understanding underlie all of our judgments of experience, just as the pure intuitions of sensibility underlie all of our intuitions. 5 of 6

6 How does this help us with pure natural science? Because all objects of knowledge must be filtered through these pure concepts of the understanding they necessarily hold for all of those objects of experience and, thus, we can consider them to be universal natural laws. One thing to think about in recitation tomorrow is how Kant uses the pure concepts of the understanding to address Hume s challenge that we discussed last week. 7 Conclusions. Let s think back to our discussion of rationalism and empiricism before we leave today. The rationalists claim that some of our knowledge, the first principles as Descartes calls it, are internal to us, we know them innately. The empiricists claim that all of our knowledge comes to us through experience. Kant is often touted as bringing together rationalism and empiricism, in showing how all of our knowledge requires both innate elements and our experience. Think about why he is thought to have solved this problem? Perhaps we can all discuss this in recitation tomorrow... Next week we will find out how metaphysics is possible! Please read through selections for Tuesday s lecture. 6 of 6

FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS

FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS Autumn 2012, University of Oslo Thursdays, 14 16, Georg Morgenstiernes hus 219, Blindern Toni Kannisto t.t.kannisto@ifikk.uio.no SHORT PLAN 1 23/8:

More information

Kant s Transcendental Idealism

Kant s Transcendental Idealism Kant s Transcendental Idealism Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant Copernicus Kant s Copernican Revolution Rationalists: universality and necessity require synthetic a priori knowledge knowledge of the

More information

Important dates. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since David Hume ( )

Important dates. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since David Hume ( ) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600 Dr. Peter Assmann Spring 2018 Important dates Feb 14 Term paper draft due Upload paper to E-Learning https://elearning.utdallas.edu

More information

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Owen Griffiths oeg21@cam.ac.uk St John s College, Cambridge 20/10/15 Immanuel Kant Born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Enrolled at the University of Königsberg in 1740 and

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014 Class #26 Kant s Copernican Revolution The Synthetic A Priori Forms of Intuition Marcus, Modern Philosophy,

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 20 Lecture - 20 Critical Philosophy: Kant s objectives

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 21 Lecture - 21 Kant Forms of sensibility Categories

More information

Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge

Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge Statements involving necessity or strict universality could never be known on the basis of sense experience, and are thus known (if known at all) a priori.

More information

The CopernicanRevolution

The CopernicanRevolution Immanuel Kant: The Copernican Revolution The CopernicanRevolution Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The Critique of Pure Reason (1781) is Kant s best known work. In this monumental work, he begins a Copernican-like

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T AGENDA 1. Review of Epistemology 2. Kant Kant s Compromise Kant s Copernican Revolution 3. The Nature of Truth REVIEW: THREE

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T AGENDA 1. Review of Epistemology 2. Kant Kant s Compromise Kant s Copernican Revolution 3. The Nature of Truth KNOWLEDGE:

More information

The Copernican Shift and Theory of Knowledge in Immanuel Kant and Edmund Husserl.

The Copernican Shift and Theory of Knowledge in Immanuel Kant and Edmund Husserl. The Copernican Shift and Theory of Knowledge in Immanuel Kant and Edmund Husserl. Matthew O Neill. BA in Politics & International Studies and Philosophy, Murdoch University, 2012. This thesis is presented

More information

Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 7c The World

Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 7c The World Think by Simon Blackburn Chapter 7c The World Idealism Despite the power of Berkeley s critique, his resulting metaphysical view is highly problematic. Essentially, Berkeley concludes that there is no

More information

From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction

From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction Let me see if I can say a few things to re-cap our first discussion of the Transcendental Logic, and help you get a foothold for what follows. Kant

More information

CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI

CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI Introduction One could easily find out two most influential epistemological doctrines, namely, rationalism and empiricism that have inadequate solutions

More information

Copyright 2000 Vk-Cic Vahe Karamian

Copyright 2000 Vk-Cic Vahe Karamian Kant In France and England, the Enlightenment theories were blueprints for reforms and revolutions political and economic changes came together with philosophical theory. In Germany, the Enlightenment

More information

Thursday, November 30, 17. Hegel s Idealism

Thursday, November 30, 17. Hegel s Idealism Hegel s Idealism G. W. F. Hegel Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was perhaps the last great philosophical system builder. His distinctively dynamic form of idealism set the stage for other

More information

Tuesday, November 11, Hegel s Idealism

Tuesday, November 11, Hegel s Idealism Hegel s Idealism G. W. F. Hegel Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was perhaps the last great philosophical system builder. His distinctively dynamic form of idealism set the stage for other

More information

Kant & Transcendental Idealism

Kant & Transcendental Idealism Kant & Transcendental Idealism HZT4U1 - Mr. Wittmann - Unit 3 - Lecture 4 Empiricists and rationalists alike are dupes of the same illusion. Both take partial notions for real parts. -Henri Bergson Enlightenment

More information

1/9. The First Analogy

1/9. The First Analogy 1/9 The First Analogy So far we have looked at the mathematical principles but now we are going to turn to the dynamical principles, of which there are two sorts, the Analogies of Experience and the Postulates

More information

Kant s Copernican Revolution

Kant s Copernican Revolution Kant s Copernican Revolution While the thoughts are still fresh in my mind, let me try to pick up from where we left off in class today, and say a little bit more about Kant s claim that reason has insight

More information

Immanuel Kant, Analytic and Synthetic. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Preface and Preamble

Immanuel Kant, Analytic and Synthetic. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Preface and Preamble + Immanuel Kant, Analytic and Synthetic Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Preface and Preamble + Innate vs. a priori n Philosophers today usually distinguish psychological from epistemological questions.

More information

The British Empiricism

The British Empiricism The British Empiricism Locke, Berkeley and Hume copyleft: nicolazuin.2018 nowxhere.wordpress.com The terrible heritage of Descartes: Skepticism, Empiricism, Rationalism The problem originates from the

More information

Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason

Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason In a letter to Moses Mendelssohn, Kant says this about the Critique of Pure Reason:

More information

In The California Undergraduate Philosophy Review, vol. 1, pp Fresno, CA: California State University, Fresno.

In The California Undergraduate Philosophy Review, vol. 1, pp Fresno, CA: California State University, Fresno. A Distinction Without a Difference? The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction and Immanuel Kant s Critique of Metaphysics Brandon Clark Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo Abstract: In this paper I pose and answer the

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 22 Lecture - 22 Kant The idea of Reason Soul, God

More information

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks)

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) Chapter 1 CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY (4 marks allotted) MCQ 1X2 = 2 SAQ -- 1X2 = 2 (a) Nature of Philosophy: The word Philosophy is originated from two Greek words Philos

More information

1/12. The A Paralogisms

1/12. The A Paralogisms 1/12 The A Paralogisms The character of the Paralogisms is described early in the chapter. Kant describes them as being syllogisms which contain no empirical premises and states that in them we conclude

More information

Introduction to Philosophy PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2017

Introduction to Philosophy PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2017 Introduction to Philosophy PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2017 Beginnings of Philosophy: Overview of Course (1) The Origins of Philosophy and Relativism Knowledge Are you a self? Ethics: What is

More information

My purpose is to persuade all those who think metaphysics worth studying

My purpose is to persuade all those who think metaphysics worth studying PROLEGOMENA TO ANY FUTURE METAPHYSICS Immanuel Kant Abridged by H. Gene Blocker Library of Liberal Arts Archive My purpose is to persuade all those who think metaphysics worth studying that it is absolutely

More information

Kant s Critique of Pure Reason1 (Critique) was published in For. Learning to Count Again: On Arithmetical Knowledge in Kant s Prolegomena

Kant s Critique of Pure Reason1 (Critique) was published in For. Learning to Count Again: On Arithmetical Knowledge in Kant s Prolegomena Aporia vol. 24 no. 1 2014 Learning to Count Again: On Arithmetical Knowledge in Kant s Prolegomena Charles Dalrymple - Fraser One might indeed think at first that the proposition 7+5 =12 is a merely analytic

More information

1/10. The Fourth Paralogism and the Refutation of Idealism

1/10. The Fourth Paralogism and the Refutation of Idealism 1/10 The Fourth Paralogism and the Refutation of Idealism The Fourth Paralogism is quite different from the three that preceded it because, although it is treated as a part of rational psychology, it main

More information

1/8. The Third Analogy

1/8. The Third Analogy 1/8 The Third Analogy Kant s Third Analogy can be seen as a response to the theories of causal interaction provided by Leibniz and Malebranche. In the first edition the principle is entitled a principle

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 - D A Y 2 ( T / T H ) : E P I S T E M O L O G Y E M P I R I C I S M, R A T I O N A L I S M, M I D T E R M D I S C U S S I O N REVIEW: EPISTEMOLOGY How do We

More information

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori phil 43904 Jeff Speaks December 4, 2007 1 The problem of a priori knowledge....................... 1 2 Necessity and the a priori............................ 2

More information

Kant and his Successors

Kant and his Successors Kant and his Successors G. J. Mattey Winter, 2011 / Philosophy 151 The Sorry State of Metaphysics Kant s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) was an attempt to put metaphysics on a scientific basis. Metaphysics

More information

Intro to Philosophy. Review for Exam 2

Intro to Philosophy. Review for Exam 2 Intro to Philosophy Review for Exam 2 Epistemology Theory of Knowledge What is knowledge? What is the structure of knowledge? What particular things can I know? What particular things do I know? Do I know

More information

Immanuel Kant. Retirado de: https://www.iep.utm.edu/kantview/ (25/01/2018)

Immanuel Kant. Retirado de: https://www.iep.utm.edu/kantview/ (25/01/2018) Retirado de: https://www.iep.utm.edu/kantview/ (25/01/2018) Immanuel Kant Towards the end of his most influential work, Critique of Pure Reason(1781/1787), Kant argues that all philosophy ultimately aims

More information

A. Aristotle D. Descartes B. Plato E. Hume

A. Aristotle D. Descartes B. Plato E. Hume A. Aristotle D. Kant B. Plato E. Mill C. Confucius 1....pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends. 2. Courage is not only the knowledge of the hopeful and the fearful, but

More information

The Boundaries of Hegel s Criticism of Kant s Concept of the Noumenal

The Boundaries of Hegel s Criticism of Kant s Concept of the Noumenal Arthur Kok, Tilburg The Boundaries of Hegel s Criticism of Kant s Concept of the Noumenal Kant conceives of experience as the synthesis of understanding and intuition. Hegel argues that because Kant is

More information

It doesn t take long in reading the Critique before we are faced with interpretive challenges. Consider the very first sentence in the A edition:

It doesn t take long in reading the Critique before we are faced with interpretive challenges. Consider the very first sentence in the A edition: The Preface(s) to the Critique of Pure Reason It doesn t take long in reading the Critique before we are faced with interpretive challenges. Consider the very first sentence in the A edition: Human reason

More information

1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought

1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought 1/7 The Postulates of Empirical Thought This week we are focusing on the final section of the Analytic of Principles in which Kant schematizes the last set of categories. This set of categories are what

More information

To appear in The Journal of Philosophy.

To appear in The Journal of Philosophy. To appear in The Journal of Philosophy. Lucy Allais: Manifest Reality: Kant s Idealism and his Realism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. xi + 329. 40.00 (hb). ISBN: 9780198747130. Kant s doctrine

More information

A HOLISTIC VIEW ON KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES

A HOLISTIC VIEW ON KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES A HOLISTIC VIEW ON KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES CHANHYU LEE Emory University It seems somewhat obscure that there is a concrete connection between epistemology and ethics; a study of knowledge and a study of moral

More information

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK?  Certainty does not exist in science. WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

More information

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT QUESTION BANK

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT QUESTION BANK UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION B.A PHILOSOPHY (2011 ADMISSION ONWARDS) VI SEMESTER CORE COURSE MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY QUESTION BANK Unit-1: Spirit of Modern Philosophy 1. Who among

More information

Introductory Kant Seminar Lecture

Introductory Kant Seminar Lecture Introductory Kant Seminar Lecture Intentionality It is not unusual to begin a discussion of Kant with a brief review of some history of philosophy. What is perhaps less usual is to start with a review

More information

Tuesday, September 2, Idealism

Tuesday, September 2, Idealism Idealism Enlightenment Puzzle How do these fit into a scientific picture of the world? Norms Necessity Universality Mind Idealism The dominant 19th-century response: often today called anti-realism Everything

More information

Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge

Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge in class. Let my try one more time to make clear the ideas we discussed today Ideas and Impressions First off, Hume, like Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley, believes

More information

TWO CONCEPTIONS OF THE SYNTHETIC A PRIORI. Marian David Notre Dame University

TWO CONCEPTIONS OF THE SYNTHETIC A PRIORI. Marian David Notre Dame University TWO CONCEPTIONS OF THE SYNTHETIC A PRIORI Marian David Notre Dame University Roderick Chisholm appears to agree with Kant on the question of the existence of synthetic a priori knowledge. But Chisholm

More information

Metaphysics & Consciousness. A talk by Larry Muhlstein

Metaphysics & Consciousness. A talk by Larry Muhlstein Metaphysics & Consciousness A talk by Larry Muhlstein A brief note on philosophy It is about thinking So think about what I am saying and ask me questions And go home and think some more For self improvement

More information

CONTENTS III SYNTHETIC A PRIORI JUDGEMENTS. PREFACE CHAPTER INTRODUCTldN

CONTENTS III SYNTHETIC A PRIORI JUDGEMENTS. PREFACE CHAPTER INTRODUCTldN PREFACE I INTRODUCTldN CONTENTS IS I. Kant and his critics 37 z. The patchwork theory 38 3. Extreme and moderate views 40 4. Consequences of the patchwork theory 4Z S. Kant's own view of the Kritik 43

More information

Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Logic, Truth & Epistemology Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

More information

Lecture 4: Transcendental idealism and transcendental arguments

Lecture 4: Transcendental idealism and transcendental arguments Lecture 4: Transcendental idealism and transcendental arguments Stroud s worry: - Transcendental arguments can t establish a necessary link between thought or experience and how the world is without a

More information

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS John Watling Kant was an idealist. His idealism was in some ways, it is true, less extreme than that of Berkeley. He distinguished his own by calling

More information

Kant s Transcendental Exposition of Space and Time in the Transcendental Aesthetic : A Critique

Kant s Transcendental Exposition of Space and Time in the Transcendental Aesthetic : A Critique 34 An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 10(1), Serial No.40, January, 2016: 34-45 ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070--0083 (Online) Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v10i1.4 Kant

More information

Intro. The need for a philosophical vocabulary

Intro. The need for a philosophical vocabulary Critical Realism & Philosophy Webinar Ruth Groff August 5, 2015 Intro. The need for a philosophical vocabulary You don t have to become a philosopher, but just as philosophers should know their way around

More information

Class #9: Kant Our in class discussion of these notes will be lamentably abbreviated, focused on the first three sections.

Class #9: Kant Our in class discussion of these notes will be lamentably abbreviated, focused on the first three sections. Philosophy 405: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics Fall 2014 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #9: Kant Our in class discussion of these notes will be lamentably abbreviated, focused on the first three

More information

PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH

PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH PCES 3.42 Even before Newton published his revolutionary work, philosophers had already been trying to come to grips with the questions

More information

THE STUDY OF UNKNOWN AND UNKNOWABILITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY

THE STUDY OF UNKNOWN AND UNKNOWABILITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY THE STUDY OF UNKNOWN AND UNKNOWABILITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY Subhankari Pati Research Scholar Pondicherry University, Pondicherry The present aim of this paper is to highlights the shortcomings in Kant

More information

1/8. Introduction to Kant: The Project of Critique

1/8. Introduction to Kant: The Project of Critique 1/8 Introduction to Kant: The Project of Critique This course is focused on the interpretation of one book: The Critique of Pure Reason and we will, during the course, read the majority of the key sections

More information

Critical Discussion of A. W. Moore s Critique of Kant

Critical Discussion of A. W. Moore s Critique of Kant Is Kant s Metaphysics Profoundly Unsatisfactory? Critical Discussion of A. W. Moore s Critique of Kant SORIN BAIASU Keele University Email: s.baiasu@keele.ac.uk Abstract: In his recent book, The Evolution

More information

Kantian Realism. Jake Quilty-Dunn. Kantian Realism 75

Kantian Realism. Jake Quilty-Dunn. Kantian Realism 75 Kantian Realism Kantian Realism 75 ant's claims that the objects of perception are appearances, "mere representations," and that we can never K perceive things in themselves, seem to mark him as some sort

More information

Critique of Pure Reason up to the end of the Analytic

Critique of Pure Reason up to the end of the Analytic Critique of Pure Reason up to the end of the Analytic Immanuel Kant 1781 Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets] enclose editorial explanations. Small dots enclose material that

More information

Kant s theory of concept formation and the role of mind

Kant s theory of concept formation and the role of mind 1 Kant s theory of concept formation and the role of mind Francis Israel Minimah 1 Department of Philosophy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria f_minimah@yahoo.com The emphasis of the rationalists on

More information

- We might, now, wonder whether the resulting concept of justification is sufficiently strong. According to BonJour, apparent rational insight is

- We might, now, wonder whether the resulting concept of justification is sufficiently strong. According to BonJour, apparent rational insight is BonJour I PHIL410 BonJour s Moderate Rationalism - BonJour develops and defends a moderate form of Rationalism. - Rationalism, generally (as used here), is the view according to which the primary tool

More information

ABSTRACT of the Habilitation Thesis

ABSTRACT of the Habilitation Thesis ABSTRACT of the Habilitation Thesis The focus on the problem of knowledge was in the very core of my researches even before my Ph.D thesis, therefore the investigation of Kant s philosophy in the process

More information

Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori

Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori Lingnan University Digital Commons @ Lingnan University Theses & Dissertations Department of Philosophy 2014 Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori Hiu Man CHAN Follow this and additional

More information

This is a repository copy of Making Modal Distinctions: Kant on the possible, the actual, and the intuitive intellect..

This is a repository copy of Making Modal Distinctions: Kant on the possible, the actual, and the intuitive intellect.. This is a repository copy of Making Modal Distinctions: Kant on the possible, the actual, and the intuitive intellect.. White Rose Research Online URL for this paper: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/81838/

More information

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire.

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire. KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism

More information

Saving the Substratum: Interpreting Kant s First Analogy

Saving the Substratum: Interpreting Kant s First Analogy Res Cogitans Volume 5 Issue 1 Article 20 6-4-2014 Saving the Substratum: Interpreting Kant s First Analogy Kevin Harriman Lewis & Clark College Follow this and additional works at: http://commons.pacificu.edu/rescogitans

More information

Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 3 Issue 11 ǁ November. 2014 ǁ PP.38-42 Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

More information

7/31/2017. Kant and Our Ineradicable Desire to be God

7/31/2017. Kant and Our Ineradicable Desire to be God Radical Evil Kant and Our Ineradicable Desire to be God 1 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Kant indeed marks the end of the Enlightenment: he brought its most fundamental assumptions concerning the powers of

More information

1/8. The Schematism. schema of empirical concepts, the schema of sensible concepts and the

1/8. The Schematism. schema of empirical concepts, the schema of sensible concepts and the 1/8 The Schematism I am going to distinguish between three types of schematism: the schema of empirical concepts, the schema of sensible concepts and the schema of pure concepts. Kant opens the discussion

More information

PHILOSOPHY IAS MAINS: QUESTIONS TREND ANALYSIS

PHILOSOPHY IAS MAINS: QUESTIONS TREND ANALYSIS VISION IAS www.visionias.wordpress.com www.visionias.cfsites.org www.visioniasonline.com Under the Guidance of Ajay Kumar Singh ( B.Tech. IIT Roorkee, Director & Founder : Vision IAS ) PHILOSOPHY IAS MAINS:

More information

I. Introduction. Critique of Pure Reason is an imposing book. Given the magnitude of the work, it is easy

I. Introduction. Critique of Pure Reason is an imposing book. Given the magnitude of the work, it is easy Certainty, Objectivity, and the Secure Path of a Science Carl M. Johnson Kant Seminar Dec. 12, 2006 Contents: I. Introduction 1 II. The secure path 2 III. A priori and a posteriori 4 IV. Synthetic and

More information

PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0

PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 1 2 3 4 5 PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 Hume and Kant! Remember Hume s question:! Are we rationally justified in inferring causes from experimental observations?! Kant s answer: we can give a transcendental

More information

1/6. The Second Analogy (2)

1/6. The Second Analogy (2) 1/6 The Second Analogy (2) Last time we looked at some of Kant s discussion of the Second Analogy, including the argument that is discussed most often as Kant s response to Hume s sceptical doubts concerning

More information

Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays

Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays Bernays Project: Text No. 26 Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays (Bemerkungen zur Philosophie der Mathematik) Translation by: Dirk Schlimm Comments: With corrections by Charles

More information

Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10]

Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10] Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10] W. V. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism Professor JeeLoo Liu Main Theses 1. Anti-analytic/synthetic divide: The belief in the divide between analytic and synthetic

More information

Today we turn to the work of one of the most important, and also most difficult, philosophers: Immanuel Kant.

Today we turn to the work of one of the most important, and also most difficult, philosophers: Immanuel Kant. Kant s antinomies Today we turn to the work of one of the most important, and also most difficult, philosophers: Immanuel Kant. Kant was born in 1724 in Prussia, and his philosophical work has exerted

More information

Chapter 18 David Hume: Theory of Knowledge

Chapter 18 David Hume: Theory of Knowledge Key Words Chapter 18 David Hume: Theory of Knowledge Empiricism, skepticism, personal identity, necessary connection, causal connection, induction, impressions, ideas. DAVID HUME (1711-76) is one of the

More information

Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason

Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason Sebastian Gardner LONDON AND NEW YORK Preface Contents 1 The problem of metaphysics 1 2 The possibility of objects 18 3 How are synthetic

More information

Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy

Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy HOME Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy Back to Home Page: http://www.frasouzu.com/ for more essays from a complementary perspective THE IDEA OF

More information

PHIL History of Modern Philosophy Spring 2016

PHIL History of Modern Philosophy Spring 2016 PHIL 004-001 History of Modern Philosophy Spring 2016 Course Description This course is an introduction to a few central themes in philosophy in the 17th and 18th centuries, and to some of the crucial

More information

MORAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE NATURAL ORDER

MORAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE NATURAL ORDER MORAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE NATURAL ORDER by Katy Allen A thesis submitted to the Department of Philosophy In conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Queen s University Kingston,

More information

CONSTRUCTING NUMBERS THROUGH MOMENTS IN TIME: KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS

CONSTRUCTING NUMBERS THROUGH MOMENTS IN TIME: KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS CONSTRUCTING NUMBERS THROUGH MOMENTS IN TIME: KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS A Thesis by PAUL ANTHONY WILSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment

More information

DAVIDSON AND CONCEPTUAL SCHEMES PAUL BROADBENT. A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY

DAVIDSON AND CONCEPTUAL SCHEMES PAUL BROADBENT. A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY DAVIDSON AND CONCEPTUAL SCHEMES by PAUL BROADBENT A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY Department of Philosophy College of Arts and Law The University

More information

The Construction of Empirical Concepts and the Establishment of the Real Possibility of Empirical Lawlikeness in Kant's Philosophy of Science

The Construction of Empirical Concepts and the Establishment of the Real Possibility of Empirical Lawlikeness in Kant's Philosophy of Science The Construction of Empirical Concepts and the Establishment of the Real Possibility of Empirical Lawlikeness in Kant's Philosophy of Science 1987 Jennifer McRobert Table of Contents Abstract 3 Introduction

More information

Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics 1. By Tom Cumming

Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics 1. By Tom Cumming Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics 1 By Tom Cumming Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics represents Martin Heidegger's first attempt at an interpretation of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (1781). This

More information

! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! Key figure: René Descartes.

! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! Key figure: René Descartes. ! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! What is the relation between that knowledge and that given in the sciences?! Key figure: René

More information

Kant's philosophy of the self.

Kant's philosophy of the self. University of Massachusetts Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014 Dissertations and Theses 1987 Kant's philosophy of the self. Michio Fushihara University of Massachusetts

More information

1/9. The Second Analogy (1)

1/9. The Second Analogy (1) 1/9 The Second Analogy (1) This week we are turning to one of the most famous, if also longest, arguments in the Critique. This argument is both sufficiently and the interpretation of it sufficiently disputed

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC AND LANGUAGE OVERVIEW FREGE JONNY MCINTOSH 1. FREGE'S CONCEPTION OF LOGIC

PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC AND LANGUAGE OVERVIEW FREGE JONNY MCINTOSH 1. FREGE'S CONCEPTION OF LOGIC PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC AND LANGUAGE JONNY MCINTOSH 1. FREGE'S CONCEPTION OF LOGIC OVERVIEW These lectures cover material for paper 108, Philosophy of Logic and Language. They will focus on issues in philosophy

More information

THE FREEDOM OF THE WILL By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781)

THE FREEDOM OF THE WILL By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) THE FREEDOM OF THE WILL By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) From: A447/B475 A451/B479 Freedom independence of the laws of nature is certainly a deliverance from restraint, but it is also

More information

CHRISTIANITY AND THE NATURE OF SCIENCE J.P. MORELAND

CHRISTIANITY AND THE NATURE OF SCIENCE J.P. MORELAND CHRISTIANITY AND THE NATURE OF SCIENCE J.P. MORELAND I. Five Alleged Problems with Theology and Science A. Allegedly, science shows there is no need to postulate a god. 1. Ancients used to think that you

More information

A (Very) Brief Introduction to Epistemology Lecture 2. Palash Sarkar

A (Very) Brief Introduction to Epistemology Lecture 2. Palash Sarkar A (Very) Brief Introduction to Epistemology Lecture 2 Palash Sarkar Applied Statistics Unit Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata India palash@isical.ac.in Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Epistemology 1 /

More information

KNOWLEDGE OF SELF AND THE WORLD

KNOWLEDGE OF SELF AND THE WORLD Journal of the Evangelical Philosophical Society, Vol. 10, 1987 KNOWLEDGE OF SELF AND THE WORLD STEPHEN M. CLINTON Introduction Don Hagner (1981) writes, "And if the evangelical does not reach out and

More information

KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS

KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS By Dr. Marsigit, M.A. Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Email: marsigitina@yahoo.com, Web: http://powermathematics.blogspot.com HomePhone: 62 274 886 381;

More information