# CLASS #17: CHALLENGES TO POSITIVISM/BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 CLASS #17: CHALLENGES TO POSITIVISM/BEHAVIORAL APPROACH I. Challenges to Confirmation A. The Inductivist Turkey B. Discovery vs. Justification 1. Discovery 2. Justification C. Hume's Problem 1. Inductive Justification of Induction: The principle of induction worked successfully on occasion 1 The principle of induction worked successfully on occasion 2 Therefore, the principle of induction will always work 2. The Question let the course of things be regular we act as if it will continue regularly in the future In vain do we pretend to learn of the future from the past while this happens sometimes, sometimes it does not what makes you think that this principle will not fail? experience while as a practical matter that may be ok how do we justify such inferences philosophically D. Logical Problem 1. Background We believe that we have knowledge of facts extending beyond those we directly perceive What is knowledge? -founded on evidence -rational justification Does any method yield knowledge? 2. Central Questions Questions: How do we acquire knowledge of the unobserved? What is the logical relationship between evidence and conclusion in a logically correct inference? 3. Logic of Falsification if the theory is true, the evidence supports the theory the evidence does not support the theory therefore, the theory is false 4. Logic of Justification if the theory is true, the evidence supports the theory the evidence supports the theory therefore, the theory is true

2 5. Two Examples Some red balls from this urn have been observed All observed red balls from this urn are licorice flavored Any two balls in this urn that have the same color also have same flavor Therefore, all red balls in this urn are licorice flavored Some red balls from this urn have been observed All observed red balls from this urn are licorice flavored Therefore, all red balls in this urn are licorice flavored E. Problem of Induction 1. Philosophical Problem given that all of the observed red balls have been licorice flavored, do the observed red balls constitute evidence for the conclusion that all of the unobserved balls are also red? 2. Reasoning concerning relations of ideas demonstrative non-ampliative 3. Reasoning concerning matters of fact and existence non-demonstrative ampliative 4. We cannot justify inferences about fact and existence if they could be justified demonstratively, they would not be ampliative they cannot be justified non-demonstratively 5. Hume's Paradox We have many beliefs about the unobserved, and in some instances we place a great confidence in them. Nevertheless they are without rational justification! We know we have knowledge of the unobserved but cannot justify it. 6. Science makes a knowledge claim it cannot justify the primary reason for doing science is that it generates valid knowledge if the claim is not legitimate, why do science? Is science basically a matter of faith? -is it on a par with other faiths? if not, why not?

3 II. CHALLENGES TO FALSIFICATION A hypothesis is falsifiable if there is a logically possible observation statement or set of such statements that are inconsistent with it Falsifiable hypothesis makes a claim about the world The more falsifiable a theory, the more content it has What happens if there is a clash between theory and observation? Is the theory false? Is the observation statement false? Observation statement could be mistaken (e.g., Copernicus and the tower theory) III. CHALLENGES TO D-N EXPLANATION Is a deductive relationship sufficient for explanation? Two alternative views 1. Identifying causes 2. Answering certain kinds of questions Adequate Explanations i. List of Causal Factors ii. Appropriateness Pragmatic Factors (Taking Context Into Account) 1. Explanatory adequacy is based on what works best 2. Explanatory adequacy is field/discipline specific 2. Explanatory adequacy changes over time 3. It may not be necessary to formulate general laws 4. Explanatory adequacy depends on what is best for the field/discipline at that particular time. IV. Challenge to Analytic-Synthetic Distinction Analytic statements are statements that are true in virtue of the meanings of the words contained in them do not depend upon evidence Synthetic Statements make substantive empirical claims for which evidence is appropriate Distinction is important to Logical Positivism can use logic with the analytic statements without having to resort to empirical evidence Quine concludes: we must give up the idea that we can use experience either to confirm or to falsify particular scientific hypotheses When evidence contradicts science, we modify the science We can protect some hypotheses by modifying others (e.g., only humans use language) Quine-Duhem thesis evidence does not itself determine our evaluation of hypotheses Implications for operationalizations--not specifications of meaning They are subject to revision

4 Modifications of scientific claims must be treated as pragmatic (i.e., based upon what works V. THEORY DEPENDENCE OF OBSERVATION Even though we cannot see whatever we like, observation is theory-dependent Observation statements are formulate in a public language involving at least one theory Observations will be as precise as the theory they use To establish the truth of an observation statement, one appeals to theory Has implications for the sequencing in the scientific method Through empirical experience, science has an objective way to evaluate its claims Quine said that it was impossible to differentiate between The empirical claims of a science The meanings of the terms used to present these claims Science is a network that can be adjusted at various points but no point in privileged There has been a concerted attack on the objectivity of observation Hanson maintains that what we perceive is influenced by what we know, believe, or are familiar with. We see what our knowledge and training equip us to see For Hanson, part of learning a science is learning to see the world in a particular way Observation does not offer a neutral basis for evaluating theoretical frameworks but is influenced by the theoretical framework in use Example Tycho Brahe sees the sun rising, while Copernicus sees the earth turning toward the sun Bechtel notes: Those who hold that all perception is theory-laden are not discounting that the stimuli from the external world play a critical role in determining what we see. These stimuli are factors constraining perception and mark a critical difference between imagination and perception. Theory-ladenness does not entail that we can see what ever we want to see Given the way we have been trained to see, what we see is determined by what there is to be seen. VI. CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH We cannot see whatever we like there is a real world out there. How do we reconcile the seeming contradictions between realism and relativism?

5 A. What is it? A statement is true if it corresponds to the facts True theories give a correct description of some aspect of the real world B Problems The facts to which a theory refers can only be talked about using concepts drawn from the theory The facts are not accessible to us, nor can they be talked about, independently of our theories. Truth is what it is C. What happens when clash between theory and observation?

### The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism

The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism Issues: I. Problem of Induction II. Popper s rejection of induction III. Salmon s critique of deductivism 2 I. The problem of induction 1. Inductive vs.

### Realism and the success of science argument. Leplin:

Realism and the success of science argument Leplin: 1) Realism is the default position. 2) The arguments for anti-realism are indecisive. In particular, antirealism offers no serious rival to realism in

### FINAL EXAM REVIEW SHEET. objectivity intersubjectivity ways the peer review system is supposed to improve objectivity

Philosophy of Science Professor Stemwedel Spring 2014 Important concepts and terminology metaphysics epistemology descriptive vs. normative norms of science Strong Program sociology of science naturalism

### Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument

1. The Scope of Skepticism Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument The scope of skeptical challenges can vary in a number

### Rethinking Knowledge: The Heuristic View

http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319532363 Carlo Cellucci Rethinking Knowledge: The Heuristic View 1 Preface From its very beginning, philosophy has been viewed as aimed at knowledge and methods to

### Direct Realism and the Brain-in-a-Vat Argument by Michael Huemer (2000)

Direct Realism and the Brain-in-a-Vat Argument by Michael Huemer (2000) One of the advantages traditionally claimed for direct realist theories of perception over indirect realist theories is that the

### Overview. Is there a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine. Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant)

Overview Is there a priori knowledge? Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant) No: all a priori knowledge analytic (Ayer) No A Priori

### Courses providing assessment data PHL 202. Semester/Year

1 Department/Program 2012-2016 Assessment Plan Department: Philosophy Directions: For each department/program student learning outcome, the department will provide an assessment plan, giving detailed information

### Phil 1103 Review. Also: Scientific realism vs. anti-realism Can philosophers criticise science?

Phil 1103 Review Also: Scientific realism vs. anti-realism Can philosophers criticise science? 1. Copernican Revolution Students should be familiar with the basic historical facts of the Copernican revolution.

### Christ-Centered Critical Thinking. Lesson 6: Evaluating Thinking

Christ-Centered Critical Thinking Lesson 6: Evaluating Thinking 1 In this lesson we will learn: To evaluate our thinking and the thinking of others using the Intellectual Standards Two approaches to evaluating

### Philosophy of Science. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Philosophy of Science Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

### Are Scientific Theories True?

Are Scientific Theories True? Dr. Michela Massimi In this session we will explore a central and ongoing debate in contemporary philosophy of science: whether or not scientific theories are true. Or better,

### Class 6 - Scientific Method

2 3 Philosophy 2 3 : Intuitions and Philosophy Fall 2011 Hamilton College Russell Marcus I. Holism, Reflective Equilibrium, and Science Class 6 - Scientific Method Our course is centrally concerned with

### Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics. * Dr. Sunil S. Shete. * Associate Professor

Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics * Dr. Sunil S. Shete * Associate Professor Keywords: Philosophy of science, research methods, Logic, Business research Abstract This paper review Popper s epistemology

### A Note on Straight-Thinking

A Note on Straight-Thinking A supplementary note for the 2nd Annual JTS/CGST Public Ethics Lecture March 5, 2002(b), adj. 2009:03:05 G.E.M. of TKI Arguments & Appeals In arguments, people try to persuade

### PHILOSOPHIES OF SCIENTIFIC TESTING

PHILOSOPHIES OF SCIENTIFIC TESTING By John Bloore Internet Encyclopdia of Philosophy, written by John Wttersten, http://www.iep.utm.edu/cr-ratio/#h7 Carl Gustav Hempel (1905 1997) Known for Deductive-Nomological

### Of Skepticism with Regard to the Senses. David Hume

Of Skepticism with Regard to the Senses David Hume General Points about Hume's Project The rationalist method used by Descartes cannot provide justification for any substantial, interesting claims about

### The Problem of the External World

The Problem of the External World External World Skepticism Consider this painting by Rene Magritte: Is there a tree outside? External World Skepticism Many people have thought that humans are like this

### Richard L. W. Clarke, Notes REASONING

1 REASONING Reasoning is, broadly speaking, the cognitive process of establishing reasons to justify beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. It also refers, more specifically, to the act or process

### HPS 1653 / PHIL 1610 Revision Guide (all topics)

HPS 1653 / PHIL 1610 Revision Guide (all topics) General Questions What is the distinction between a descriptive and a normative project in the philosophy of science? What are the virtues of this or that

### Analyticity, Reductionism, and Semantic Holism. The verification theory is an empirical theory of meaning which asserts that the meaning of a

24.251: Philosophy of Language Paper 1: W.V.O. Quine, Two Dogmas of Empiricism 14 October 2011 Analyticity, Reductionism, and Semantic Holism The verification theory is an empirical theory of meaning which

### There are two common forms of deductively valid conditional argument: modus ponens and modus tollens.

INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL THINKING Lecture 6: Two types of argument and their role in science: Deduction and induction 1. Deductive arguments Arguments that claim to provide logically conclusive grounds

### Gary Ebbs, Carnap, Quine, and Putnam on Methods of Inquiry, Cambridge. University Press, 2017, 278pp., \$99.99 (hbk), ISBN

[Final manuscript. Published in Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews] Gary Ebbs, Carnap, Quine, and Putnam on Methods of Inquiry, Cambridge University Press, 2017, 278pp., \$99.99 (hbk), ISBN 9781107178151

### The Problem of Normativity

The Problem of Normativity facts moral judgments Enlightenment Legacy Two thoughts emerge from the Enlightenment in the17th and 18th centuries that shape the ideas of the Twentieth Century I. Normativity

### World without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Natural- ism , by Michael C. Rea.

Book reviews World without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism, by Michael C. Rea. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004, viii + 245 pp., \$24.95. This is a splendid book. Its ideas are bold and

### Philosophy Epistemology. Topic 3 - Skepticism

Michael Huemer on Skepticism Philosophy 3340 - Epistemology Topic 3 - Skepticism Chapter II. The Lure of Radical Skepticism 1. Mike Huemer defines radical skepticism as follows: Philosophical skeptics

### Lecture 8 Keynes s Response to the Contradictions

Lecture 8 Keynes s Response to the Contradictions Patrick Maher Scientific Thought II Spring 2010 Introduction The Principle of Indifference is usually understood as saying: If there is no known reason

### Lecture 1 The Concept of Inductive Probability

Lecture 1 The Concept of Inductive Probability Patrick Maher Philosophy 517 Spring 2007 Two concepts of probability Example 1 You know that a coin is either two-headed or two-tailed but you have no information

### Constructing the World

Constructing the World Lecture 1: A Scrutable World David Chalmers Plan *1. Laplace s demon 2. Primitive concepts and the Aufbau 3. Problems for the Aufbau 4. The scrutability base 5. Applications Laplace

### Van Fraassen: Arguments concerning scientific realism

Van Fraassen: Arguments concerning scientific realism 1. Scientific realism and constructive empiricism a) Minimal scientific realism 1) The aim of scientific theories is to provide literally true stories

### Department of Philosophy

The University of Alabama at Birmingham 1 Department of Philosophy Chair: Dr. Gregory Pence The Department of Philosophy offers the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in philosophy, as well as a minor

### The problems of induction in scientific inquiry: Challenges and solutions. Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction Defining induction...

The problems of induction in scientific inquiry: Challenges and solutions Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction... 2 2.0 Defining induction... 2 3.0 Induction versus deduction... 2 4.0 Hume's descriptive

### Vol. II, No. 5, Reason, Truth and History, 127. LARS BERGSTRÖM

Croatian Journal of Philosophy Vol. II, No. 5, 2002 L. Bergström, Putnam on the Fact-Value Dichotomy 1 Putnam on the Fact-Value Dichotomy LARS BERGSTRÖM Stockholm University In Reason, Truth and History

### UNITY OF KNOWLEDGE (IN TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABILITY) Vol. I - Philosophical Holism M.Esfeld

PHILOSOPHICAL HOLISM M. Esfeld Department of Philosophy, University of Konstanz, Germany Keywords: atomism, confirmation, holism, inferential role semantics, meaning, monism, ontological dependence, rule-following,

### Lecture 4: Transcendental idealism and transcendental arguments

Lecture 4: Transcendental idealism and transcendental arguments Stroud s worry: - Transcendental arguments can t establish a necessary link between thought or experience and how the world is without a

### Philosophy of Science PHIL 241, MW 12:00-1:15

Philosophy of Science PHIL 241, MW 12:00-1:15 Naomi Fisher nfisher@clarku.edu (508) 793-7648 Office: 35 Beck (Philosophy) House (on the third floor) Office hours: MR 10:00-11:00 and by appointment Course

### Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1A: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method

Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1A: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method Professor Tim Mazzarol UWA Business School MGMT6791 UWA Business School DBA Program tim.mazzarol@uwa.edu.au

### THE HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE METHOD OR THE INFERENCE TO THE BEST EXPLANATION: THE CASE OF THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION

THE HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE METHOD OR THE INFERENCE TO THE BEST EXPLANATION: THE CASE OF THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION JUAN ERNESTO CALDERON ABSTRACT. Critical rationalism sustains that the

### ON CAUSAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING OF BELIEF CHANGE

ON CAUSAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING OF BELIEF CHANGE A. V. RAVISHANKAR SARMA Our life in various phases can be construed as involving continuous belief revision activity with a bundle of accepted beliefs,

### Scientific Method and Research Ethics

Different ways of knowing the world? Scientific Method and Research Ethics Value of Science 1. Greg Bognar Stockholm University September 28, 2018 We know where we came from. We are the descendants of

### Philosophy Courses-1

Philosophy Courses-1 PHL 100/Introduction to Philosophy A course that examines the fundamentals of philosophical argument, analysis and reasoning, as applied to a series of issues in logic, epistemology,

### Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to The Theory of Knowledge, by Robert Audi. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Book Reviews Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to The Theory of Knowledge, by Robert Audi. New York: Routledge, 2011. BIBLID [0873-626X (2012) 33; pp. 540-545] Audi s (third) introduction to the

### YFIA205 Basics of Research Methodology in Social Sciences Lecture 1. Science, Knowledge and Theory. Jyväskylä 3.11.

YFIA205 Basics of Research Methodology in Social Sciences Lecture 1. Science, Knowledge and Theory Jyväskylä 3.11.2014 Petteri Niemi Philosophy of Science There is no such thing as philosophy-free science;

### Van Fraassen: Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism

Aaron Leung Philosophy 290-5 Week 11 Handout Van Fraassen: Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism 1. Scientific Realism and Constructive Empiricism What is scientific realism? According to van Fraassen,

### METHODENSTREIT WHY CARL MENGER WAS, AND IS, RIGHT

METHODENSTREIT WHY CARL MENGER WAS, AND IS, RIGHT BY THORSTEN POLLEIT* PRESENTED AT THE SPRING CONFERENCE RESEARCH ON MONEY IN THE ECONOMY (ROME) FRANKFURT, 20 MAY 2011 *FRANKFURT SCHOOL OF FINANCE & MANAGEMENT

### - We might, now, wonder whether the resulting concept of justification is sufficiently strong. According to BonJour, apparent rational insight is

BonJour I PHIL410 BonJour s Moderate Rationalism - BonJour develops and defends a moderate form of Rationalism. - Rationalism, generally (as used here), is the view according to which the primary tool

### Philosophy Courses-1

Philosophy Courses-1 PHL 100/Introduction to Philosophy A course that examines the fundamentals of philosophical argument, analysis and reasoning, as applied to a series of issues in logic, epistemology,

### A Brief History of Thinking about Thinking Thomas Lombardo

A Brief History of Thinking about Thinking Thomas Lombardo "Education is nothing more nor less than learning to think." Peter Facione In this article I review the historical evolution of principles and

### Scientific Realism and Empiricism

Philosophy 164/264 December 3, 2001 1 Scientific Realism and Empiricism Administrative: All papers due December 18th (at the latest). I will be available all this week and all next week... Scientific Realism

### FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS

FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS Autumn 2012, University of Oslo Thursdays, 14 16, Georg Morgenstiernes hus 219, Blindern Toni Kannisto t.t.kannisto@ifikk.uio.no SHORT PLAN 1 23/8:

### Can Rationality Be Naturalistically Explained? Jeffrey Dunn. Abstract: Dan Chiappe and John Vervaeke (1997) conclude their article, Fodor,

Can Rationality Be Naturalistically Explained? Jeffrey Dunn Abstract: Dan Chiappe and John Vervaeke (1997) conclude their article, Fodor, Cherniak and the Naturalization of Rationality, with an argument

### 145 Philosophy of Science

Logical empiricism Christian Wüthrich http://philosophy.ucsd.edu/faculty/wuthrich/ 145 Philosophy of Science Vienna Circle (Ernst Mach Society) Hans Hahn, Otto Neurath, and Philipp Frank regularly meet

### Explanatory Indispensability and Deliberative Indispensability: Against Enoch s Analogy Alex Worsnip University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Explanatory Indispensability and Deliberative Indispensability: Against Enoch s Analogy Alex Worsnip University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Forthcoming in Thought please cite published version In

### Must we have self-evident knowledge if we know anything?

1 Must we have self-evident knowledge if we know anything? Introduction In this essay, I will describe Aristotle's account of scientific knowledge as given in Posterior Analytics, before discussing some

### Epistemic Utility and Theory-Choice in Science: Comments on Hempel

Wichita State University Libraries SOAR: Shocker Open Access Repository Robert Feleppa Philosophy Epistemic Utility and Theory-Choice in Science: Comments on Hempel Robert Feleppa Wichita State University,

### Naturalized Epistemology. 1. What is naturalized Epistemology? Quine PY4613

Naturalized Epistemology Quine PY4613 1. What is naturalized Epistemology? a. How is it motivated? b. What are its doctrines? c. Naturalized Epistemology in the context of Quine s philosophy 2. Naturalized

### To appear in The Journal of Philosophy.

To appear in The Journal of Philosophy. Lucy Allais: Manifest Reality: Kant s Idealism and his Realism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. xi + 329. 40.00 (hb). ISBN: 9780198747130. Kant s doctrine

### PHIL 480: Seminar in the History of Philosophy Building Moral Character: Neo-Confucianism and Moral Psychology

PHIL 480: Seminar in the History of Philosophy Building Moral Character: Neo-Confucianism and Moral Psychology Spring 2013 Professor JeeLoo Liu [Handout #12] Jonathan Haidt, The Emotional Dog and Its Rational

### Falsification or Confirmation: From Logic to Psychology

Falsification or Confirmation: From Logic to Psychology Roman Lukyanenko Information Systems Department Florida international University rlukyane@fiu.edu Abstract Corroboration or Confirmation is a prominent

### PHILOSOPHY EPISTEMOLOGY ESSAY TOPICS AND INSTRUCTIONS

PHILOSOPHY 5340 - EPISTEMOLOGY ESSAY TOPICS AND INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS 1. As is indicated in the syllabus, the required work for the course can take the form either of two shorter essay-writing exercises,

### Critical Thinking 5.7 Validity in inductive, conductive, and abductive arguments

5.7 Validity in inductive, conductive, and abductive arguments REMEMBER as explained in an earlier section formal language is used for expressing relations in abstract form, based on clear and unambiguous

### 5: Preliminaries to the Argument

5: Preliminaries to the Argument In this chapter, we set forth the logical structure of the argument we will use in chapter six in our attempt to show that Nfc is self-refuting. Thus, our main topics in

### I. Scientific Realism: Introduction

I. Scientific Realism: Introduction 1. Two kinds of realism a) Theory realism: scientific theories provide (or aim to provide) true descriptions (and explanations). b) Entity realism: entities postulated

### What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece

What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece Outline of this Talk 1. What is the nature of logic? Some history

### Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 3 Issue 11 ǁ November. 2014 ǁ PP.38-42 Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

### PHIL 155: The Scientific Method, Part 1: Naïve Inductivism. January 14, 2013

PHIL 155: The Scientific Method, Part 1: Naïve Inductivism January 14, 2013 Outline 1 Science in Action: An Example 2 Naïve Inductivism 3 Hempel s Model of Scientific Investigation Semmelweis Investigations

### Key definitions Action Ad hominem argument Analytic A priori Axiom Bayes s theorem

Key definitions Action Relates to the doings of purposive agents. A key preoccupation of philosophy of social science is the explanation of human action either through antecedent causes or reasons. Accounts

### An Introduction to. Formal Logic. Second edition. Peter Smith, February 27, 2019

An Introduction to Formal Logic Second edition Peter Smith February 27, 2019 Peter Smith 2018. Not for re-posting or re-circulation. Comments and corrections please to ps218 at cam dot ac dot uk 1 What

### Hume. Hume the Empiricist. Judgments about the World. Impressions as Content of the Mind. The Problem of Induction & Knowledge of the External World

Hume Hume the Empiricist The Problem of Induction & Knowledge of the External World As an empiricist, Hume thinks that all knowledge of the world comes from sense experience If all we can know comes from

### We aim to cover in some detail a number of issues currently debated in the philosophy of natural and social science.

UNIVERSITY of BERGEN DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY FIL 219 / 319 Fall 2017 PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE VITENSKAPSFILOSOFI Lectures (in English) Time Place Website Email Office Course description Prof. Sorin Bangu,

### Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Logic, Truth & Epistemology Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

### WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

### Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori phil 43904 Jeff Speaks December 4, 2007 1 The problem of a priori knowledge....................... 1 2 Necessity and the a priori............................ 2

### The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology

Oxford Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 21 items for: booktitle : handbook phimet The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology Paul K. Moser (ed.) Item type: book DOI: 10.1093/0195130057.001.0001 This

### In Defense of Radical Empiricism. Joseph Benjamin Riegel. Chapel Hill 2006

In Defense of Radical Empiricism Joseph Benjamin Riegel A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

### Should We Assess the Basic Premises of an Argument for Truth or Acceptability?

University of Windsor Scholarship at UWindsor OSSA Conference Archive OSSA 2 May 15th, 9:00 AM - May 17th, 5:00 PM Should We Assess the Basic Premises of an Argument for Truth or Acceptability? Derek Allen

### It is not at all wise to draw a watertight

The Causal Relation : Its Acceptance and Denial JOY BHATTACHARYYA It is not at all wise to draw a watertight distinction between Eastern and Western philosophies. The causal relation is a serious problem

### Consciousness might be defined as the perceiver of mental phenomena. We might say that there are no differences between one perceiver and another, as

2. DO THE VALUES THAT ARE CALLED HUMAN RIGHTS HAVE INDEPENDENT AND UNIVERSAL VALIDITY, OR ARE THEY HISTORICALLY AND CULTURALLY RELATIVE HUMAN INVENTIONS? Human rights significantly influence the fundamental

### From the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

From the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Epistemology Peter D. Klein Philosophical Concept Epistemology is one of the core areas of philosophy. It is concerned with the nature, sources and limits

### Psillos s Defense of Scientific Realism

Luke Rinne 4/27/04 Psillos and Laudan Psillos s Defense of Scientific Realism In this paper, Psillos defends the IBE based no miracle argument (NMA) for scientific realism against two main objections,

### Understanding Truth Scott Soames Précis Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Volume LXV, No. 2, 2002

1 Symposium on Understanding Truth By Scott Soames Précis Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Volume LXV, No. 2, 2002 2 Precis of Understanding Truth Scott Soames Understanding Truth aims to illuminate

### Précis of Empiricism and Experience. Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh

Précis of Empiricism and Experience Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh My principal aim in the book is to understand the logical relationship of experience to knowledge. Say that I look out of my window

### HUME, CAUSATION AND TWO ARGUMENTS CONCERNING GOD

HUME, CAUSATION AND TWO ARGUMENTS CONCERNING GOD JASON MEGILL Carroll College Abstract. In Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume (1779/1993) appeals to his account of causation (among other things)

### What is a counterexample?

Lorentz Center 4 March 2013 What is a counterexample? Jan-Willem Romeijn, University of Groningen Joint work with Eric Pacuit, University of Maryland Paul Pedersen, Max Plank Institute Berlin Co-authors

### Philosophy of Science

Chapter 2 25 Philosophy of Science All men by nature desire knowledge. Aristotle Man, being the servant and interpreter of Nature, can do and understand so much and so much only as he has observed in fact

### Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 21 Lecture - 21 Kant Forms of sensibility Categories

### Jeu-Jenq Yuann Professor of Philosophy Department of Philosophy, National Taiwan University,

The Negative Role of Empirical Stimulus in Theory Change: W. V. Quine and P. Feyerabend Jeu-Jenq Yuann Professor of Philosophy Department of Philosophy, National Taiwan University, 1 To all Participants

### Revista Economică 66:3 (2014) THE USE OF INDUCTIVE, DEDUCTIVE OR ABDUCTIVE RESONING IN ECONOMICS

THE USE OF INDUCTIVE, DEDUCTIVE OR ABDUCTIVE RESONING IN ECONOMICS MOROŞAN Adrian 1 Lucian Blaga University, Sibiu, Romania Abstract Although we think that, regardless of the type of reasoning used in

### Philosophy. Aim of the subject

Philosophy FIO Philosophy Philosophy is a humanistic subject with ramifications in all areas of human knowledge and activity, since it covers fundamental issues concerning the nature of reality, the possibility

### SCIENTIFIC REALISM AND EPISTEMOLOGY

SCIENTIFIC REALISM AND EPISTEMOLOGY 1 Introduction Here are some theses frequently endorsed by scientific realists: R1 The theories of mature sciences are very frequently highly successful (where the success

### On The Logical Status of Dialectic (*) -Historical Development of the Argument in Japan- Shigeo Nagai Naoki Takato

On The Logical Status of Dialectic (*) -Historical Development of the Argument in Japan- Shigeo Nagai Naoki Takato 1 The term "logic" seems to be used in two different ways. One is in its narrow sense;

### Scientific Progress, Verisimilitude, and Evidence

L&PS Logic and Philosophy of Science Vol. IX, No. 1, 2011, pp. 561-567 Scientific Progress, Verisimilitude, and Evidence Luca Tambolo Department of Philosophy, University of Trieste e-mail: l_tambolo@hotmail.com

### Skepticism is True. Abraham Meidan

Skepticism is True Abraham Meidan Skepticism is True Copyright 2004 Abraham Meidan All rights reserved. Universal Publishers Boca Raton, Florida USA 2004 ISBN: 1-58112-504-6 www.universal-publishers.com

### MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A

I Holistic Pragmatism and the Philosophy of Culture MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A philosophical discussion of the main elements of civilization or culture such as science, law, religion, politics,

### The linguistic-cultural nature of scientific truth 1

The linguistic-cultural nature of scientific truth 1 Damián Islas Mondragón Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango México Abstract While we typically think of culture as defined by geography or ethnicity

### UC Berkeley UC Berkeley Previously Published Works

UC Berkeley UC Berkeley Previously Published Works Title Disaggregating Structures as an Agenda for Critical Realism: A Reply to McAnulla Permalink https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4k27s891 Journal British

### Epistemology Naturalized

Epistemology Naturalized Christian Wüthrich http://philosophy.ucsd.edu/faculty/wuthrich/ 15 Introduction to Philosophy: Theory of Knowledge Spring 2010 The Big Picture Thesis (Naturalism) Naturalism maintains

### Review of Nathan M. Nobis s Truth in Ethics and Epistemology

Review of Nathan M. Nobis s Truth in Ethics and Epistemology by James W. Gray November 19, 2010 (This is available on my website Ethical Realism.) Abstract Moral realism is the view that moral facts exist