SOVIET RUSSIAN DIALECTICAL MA TERIALISM [DIAMAT]

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1 SOVIET RUSSIAN DIALECTICAL MA TERIALISM [DIAMAT]

2 J. M. BOCHENSKI SOVIET RUSSIAN DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM [DIAMAT] D. REIDEL PUBLISHING COMPANY DORDRECHT-HOLLAND

3 Der Sowjet-Russische Dialektische Materialismus (Diamat) First published by Francke Verlag, Bern - Switzerland Translatedfrom the German by Nicolas Sollohub and revised after the third German edition by Thomas J. Blakeley ISBN-13: : / e-isbn-13: All rights reserved. Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1 st edition 1963 No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, or any other means without permission from the publisher.

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface to the First and Second Edition Abbreviations Sources and Method I 3 5 HISTORICAL SECTION I. THE WESTERN ORIGINS 9 1. General View. 2. Historical and Ideological Background. 3. Hegel. 4. Scientific Materialism. 5. Comparison and Criticism of the Two Trends. 6. Feuerbach. 7. Marx. 8. Engels. 9. Observations on Marxism. References. II. THE RUSSIAN ORIGINS: LENIN Observations on 'Method. 2. Historical and Social Background. 3. The Russian 'Soul'. 4. The Intelligentsia. 5. Russian Revolutionary Doctrines. 6. Russian Marxism. 7. Lenin. His Life and His Achievements. 8. Lenin. His Character. A Sketch. 9. Lenin's Philosophy. References. III. THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY IN SOVIET RUSSIA 31 I. General Outline and Historical Background. 2. The First Stage. 3. Stalin. 4. The Three Trends in Philosophy. 5. The 1931 Condemnation. 6. The Second Period: The 1947 Condemnation. 8. The Third Period: Since Description of the Current Period. References. IV. EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SPIRIT 43 I. Importance of Philosophy for Communism. 2. The 'Classics'. 3. Control by the Party. 4. The Polemical and Aggressive Attitude. 5. Dogmatism. 6. The Philosophical Style. 7. Nationalism. 8. The 'Theological' Character. References. V

5 SOVIET RUSSIAN DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM SYSTEMATIC SECTION V. DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PHILOSOPHY 57 I. Conception of the World, Science and Philosophy; Meaning of the Word. 2. Classification of Dialectical Materialism according to Stalin. 3. Criticism of Stalin's Classification. 4. Content of this Philosophy; the Missing Disciplines. 5. The Situation of Formal Logic. 6. The Situation of Psychology. 7. The Situation of Aesthetics and of Ethics. References. VI. REALISM AND RATIONALISM 66 I. The Problem. 2. Definition of Matter. 3. Justification and Interpretation of Realism. 4. Microphysical Cognition According to Markov. 5. Perceptibility of the World. 6. The Ideological Foundations of the Doctrines. References. VII. MATERIALISM 74 I. Multiple Meaning of the Word. 2. Metaphysical Theses. 3. Ontological Theses. 4. Properties of Matter. 5. Psychological Theses. 6. Lenin and Scientific Materialism. 7. Justification of Materialism: its Position in the Communist Conception of the World. References. VIII. THE DIALECTIC 82 I. Meaning of the Word. Classification. 2. The General Interconnection between Phenomena. 3. Necessity, Chance and Freedom. 4. The Doctrine of Evolution. 5. The Nature of Becoming: I] Categorial Pluralism. 6. The Nature of Becoming: 2] The Dialectical 'Leap'. 7. The 'Conflict' of Opposites. 8. Summary: Lenin's Sixteen Points. 9. The Foundations of Dialectic. References. IX. METHODOLOGY: APPLICATIONS 94 I. Subjective Dialectic. 2. Theory and Practice. 3. Application to Science. References. VI

6 T ABLE OF CONTENTS X. HISTORICAL MATERIALISM 98 I. The Foundations. 2. Sketch of the Theory. 3. The Importance of Ideas; Pragmatism. 4. The Partisan Character of Philosophy. 5. The Partisan Character of Morality, Art and Religion. References. XI. THE VALUE OF DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM AS A THEORY 106 I. Positive Elements. 2. Dialectical Materialism and Common Sense. 3. Technical Level of the Philosophers. 4. Dialectical Materialism as a Science. 5. The Fundamental Views. 6. Resort to the Sociological Point of View and its Limitations. 7. Summary of the Results. XII. CONCLUDING REMARKS 117 I. The Success of Dialectical Materialism. 2. Dialectical Materialism and Christianity. 3. Dialectical Materialism and the Philosophers. Appendix I 123 I. Samples of Recantations 2. Description of Some Philosophers 3. The Principle of Contradiction and Logistics Appendix II 129 I. Supplements 2. The Organization and Spirit of Contemporary Soviet Philosophy 3. Dialectical Materialism according to the 'Osnovy' (1958) Readings 168 Bibliography 169 Subject-Index 178 Name-Index 182 VII

7 Ignorance is not an argument People belonging to no party are hopeless bunglers in philosophy just as much as they are bunglers in politics LENIN

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