PLATO AND THE DIVIDED SELF

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1 PLATO AND THE DIVIDED SELF Plato s account of the tripartite soul is a memorable feature of dialogues like the Republic, Phaedrus, andtimaeus:it is one of his most famous and influential yet least understood theories. It presents human nature as both essentially multiple and diverse, and yet somehow also one, divided into a fully human rational part, a lion-like spirited part and an appetitive part likened to a many-headed beast. How these parts interact, how exactly each shapes our agency and how they are affected by phenomena like erôs and education is complicated and controversial. The essays in this book investigate how the theory evolves over the whole of Plato s work, including the Republic, Phaedrus, andtimaeus, and how it was developed further by important Platonists such as Galen, Plutarch, and Plotinus. They will be of interest to a wide audience in philosophy and classics. rachel barney holds the Canada Research Chair in Classical Philosophy at the University of Toronto. She is the author of Names and Nature in Plato s Cratylus (2001). tad brennan is Professor of Philosophy and Classics at Cornell University s Sage School of Philosophy. His books include Ethics and Epistemology in Sextus Empiricus (1999), The Stoic Life (2005) and Simplicius on Epictetus, Volumes 1 and 2 (2002), translated with Charles Brittain. charles brittain is Professor of Classics and Philosophy at Cornell University. His books include Philo of Larissa: The Last of the Academic Sceptics (2001) and Cicero: On Academic Scepticism (2006).

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3 PLATO AND THE DIVIDED SELF RACHEL BARNEY University of Toronto TAD BRENNAN Cornell University CHARLES BRITTAIN Cornell University

4 cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, SãoPaulo,Delhi,Tokyo,MexicoCity Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York Information on this title: / C Cambridge University Press 2012 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2012 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Plato and the divided self / [edited by] Rachel Barney, Tad Brennan, Charles Brittain. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (hardback) 1. Plato. 2. Soul. I. Barney, Rachel, 1966 II. Brennan, Tad, 1962 III. Brittain, Charles. B398.S7P dc ISBN Hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

5 CONTENTS List of contributors Acknowledgements page vii xi Introduction 1 rachel barney, tad brennan, charles brittain part i Transitions to tripartition 7 1 From the Phaedo to the Republic: Plato stripartite soul and the possibility of non-philosophical virtue 9 iakovos vasiliou 2 Enkrateia and the partition of the soul in the Gorgias 33 louis-andré dorion 3 The unity of the soul in Plato s Republic 53 eric brown part ii Moral psychology in the Republic 75 4 Speaking with the same voice as reason: Personification in Plato s psychology 77 rachana kamtekar 5 The nature of the spirited part of the soul and its object 102 tad brennan 6 Curbing one s appetites in Plato s Republic 128 james wilberding 7 How to see an unencrusted soul 150 raphael woolf v

6 vi contents 8 Psychic contingency in the Republic 174 jennifer whiting part iii After the Republic Erôs before and after tripartition 211 frisbee sheffield 10 The cognition of appetite in Plato s Timaeus 238 hendrik lorenz 11 Pictures and passions in the Timaeus and Philebus 259 jessica moss 12 Soul and state in Plato s Laws 281 luc brisson part iv Parts of the soul in the Platonic tradition Plutarch on the division of the soul 311 jan opsomer 14 Galen and the tripartite soul 331 mark schiefsky 15 Plotinus and Plato on soul and action 350 eyólfur kjalar emilsson Bibliography 368 Index locorum 383 General index 393

7 CONTRIBUTORS rachel barney holds the Canada Research Chair in Classical Philosophy at the University of Toronto. She is the author of Names and Nature in Plato s Cratylus (2001). tad brennan is Professor of Philosophy and Classics at Cornell University s Sage School of Philosophy. He is the author of The Stoic Life (2005), and Ethics and Epistemology in Sextus Empiricus (1999), and collaborated with Charles Brittain on a two-volume translation of Simplicius Commentary on Epictetus Encheiridion (2002). luc brisson is Director of Research at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS, Paris), and his publications include Plato the Myth Maker (1999). charles brittain is Professor of Classics and Philosophy at Cornell University. His books include Philo of Larissa: the Last of the Academic Sceptics (2001) and Cicero: On Academic Scepticism (2006). eric brown is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, and has authored articles on a range of topics in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. louis-andré dorion is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Montreal. He is the author of numerous books including Socrate (2004) and of several translations of Plato, Aristotle, and Xenophon into French. eyólfur kjalar emilsson is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oslo. He is the author of Plotinus on Sense Perception (1988) and Plotinus on Intellect (1997). vii

8 viii list of contributors rachana kamtekar is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona, and author of a number of papers on Plato and ancient moral psychology. hendrik lorenz is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, and author of The Brute Within: Appetitive Desire in Plato and Aristotle (2006). jessica moss is a tutorial fellow and lecturer in philosophy at Balliol College, Oxford. She has written various papers on moral psychology in Plato and Aristotle. jan opsomer is Professor of Ancient Philosophy at the University of Leuven, Belgium. He is the author of In Search of the Truth: Academic Tendencies in Middle Platonism (1998); he has also translated (together with Carlos Steel) Proclus: On the Existence of Evils (2002). mark schiefsky is Professor of the Classics at Harvard University. His publications include a commentary on the Hippocratic treatise On Ancient Medicine (2005). frisbee sheffield is Director of Studies in Philosophy at Christ s College, Cambridge. She is the author of Plato s Symposium: The Ethics of Desire (2006) and the co-editor of a collection of articles, Plato s Symposium: New Issues in Interpretation and Reception (2006), and the recent edition of Plato: Symposium for Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy (2008). iakovos vasiliou is Professor of Philosophy at The Graduate Center and Brooklyn College, City University of New York. He is the author of Aiming at Virtue in Plato (2008). jennifer whiting is Chancellor Jackman Professor of Philosophy at the University of Toronto. She is the editor (with Stephen Engstrom) of Aristotle, Kant and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty (1998). james wilberding is Professor of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy at the Ruhr Universität in Bochum, Germany. His publications include

9 list of contributors ix Plotinus Cosmology (2006), and two volumes in the Ancient Commentators on Aristotle series. raphael woolf is Reader in Philosophy at King s College London. He translated Cicero s De Finibus (2001) for the series Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy.

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11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are indebted to a number of people and institutions for their help with this volume. They include Hilary Gaskin, Anna Lowe, and the others at Cambridge University Press; Sarah McCallum at the University of Toronto and Dianne Ferriss at Cornell University for copy-editing labours; Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy for permission to reprint the abridged version of Rachana Kamtekar s chapter (first published in OSAP 31 (2006): ); T.P.S. Angier for the translation of Louis-André Dorion s chapter and Michael Chase for the translation of Luc Brisson s. The Department of Classics and the Society for Humanities provided institutional support at Cornell, as did the Departments of Philosophy and Classics, the Collaborative Programme in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy (AMP), and the Canada Research Chair cluster in Ancient Philosophy at Toronto. Above all, we would like to thank our authors for their patience and support during the prolonged gestation of this project. This volume is dedicated to the memory of Michael Frede, David J. Furley, and Ian Mueller, whose work, example, and teaching have had an enormous influence on our practice of ancient philosophy. xi

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