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1 The Making of Western Jewry,

2 Also by Lionel Kochan ACTON ON HISTORY BEYOND THE GRAVEN IMAGE THE JEW AND HIS HISTORY THE JEWISH RENAISSANCE AND SOME OF ITS DISCONTENTS JEWS, IDOLS AND MESSIAHS THE JEWS IN SOVIET RUSSIA SINCE 1917 (editor) THE MAKING OF MODERN RUSSIA POGROM, NOVEMBER 10, 1938 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION

3 The Making of Western Jewry, Lionel Kochan

4 Lionel Kochan 2004 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The author has asserted his right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act First published in 2004 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y Companies and representatives throughout the world PALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the global academic imprint of the Palgrave Macmillan division of St. Martin s Press, LLC and of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. Macmillan is a registered trademark in the United States, United Kingdom and other countries. Palgrave is a registered trademark in the European Union and other countries. ISBN DOI / This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kochan, Lionel. The Making of Western Jewry, / by Lionel Kochan p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index. 1. Jews Europe, Western History 17th century. 2. Jews Europe, Western History 18th century. I. Title DS135.E82K dc ISBN (ebook)

5 To my dear wife, as ever, for ever

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7 Contents Glossary Abbreviations ix x Introduction 1 1 Central Europe in Peace and War, A Little Jerusalem and A Great Jerusalem 28 3 On French Soil 44 4 Resettlement in London 73 5 At Peace in the Post-War World 87 6 Prague and Bohemia: From Recovery to Reduction Early Decades in Brandenburg-Prussia: The Last Resettlement Amsterdam: From Turmoil to Decline From London to the Provinces Expulsion from Prague (1745 8) The Old and the New Kehillah Jerusalem in Berlin On the Eve, in France The Rabbi and the Emperor: Ezekiel Landau and Joseph II Revolution and War, Beyond the Rhine and Over the Alps Another Rabbi, Another Emperor: David Sinzheim and Napoleon From Paris to Vienna 289 vii

8 viii Contents 19 Epilogue: Notes 309 Bibliography 355 Index 379

9 Glossary Bet(h) Din (pl. Batei Din) Bet(h) Hamidrash Cedaka Halakhah (adj: Halakhic) Haskalah Havdalah heder herem herem ha-yishuv Hevra(h) Kadischa Judengasse Klaus maskil (pl. maskilim) Midrash Mishnah mohel Oral Law schulklopper Shulhan Arukh takkanah (pl. takkanot) court of law house of study charity box or funds in Sephardi congregations From Heb. halakh ( go, walk ), used of legal portions of Talmud and later rabbinic literature Hebrew term for the Jewish enlightenment movement of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries ceremony to mark end of the Sabbath day and beginning of working week colloquial term for Jewish elementary school sentence of expulsion from a community for longer or shorter periods and of varying degrees of severity prohibition against admittance of non-members to a community literally holy society ; term used to designate burial society which often had wider welfare activities street of the Jews private house of study adherent of the Haskalah (q.v.) elaborations of new meanings to scripture, often of legendary or ethical character codification of Halakhah (q.v.) dating from the early third century circumciser authoritative interpretation of the Written Law (Pentateuch) and regarded as given to Moses at Sinai communal official deputed to summon worshippers to prayer sixteenth-century authoritative code of Jewish law communal regulation or statute ix

10 Abbreviations Biblical Gen. Ex. Deut. Ps. Jer. Genesis Exodus Deuteronomy Psalms Jeremiah Other AHRF Annales Historique de la Révolution Française AJSR American Jewish Studies Review AZJ Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums b. ben (Hebrew for son [of]) Ber. Berakhot (Talmudic tractate) BLBI Bulletin of the Leo Baeck Institute Git. Gittin (Talmudic tractate) HJ Historia Judaica HUCA Hebrew Union College Annual HZ Historische Zeitschrift JGGJCR Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für die Geschichte der Juden in der Çeskoslowakischen Republik JJLG Jahrbuch der Jüdisch-Litterarischen Gesellschaft JJS Journal of Jewish Studies JPSA Jewish Publication Society of America JQR Jewish Quarterly Review JSS Jewish Social Studies Ket. Ketubot (Talmudic tractate) LBYB Yearbook of the Leo Baeck Institute MGWJ Monatsschrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums Ned. Nedarim (Talmudic tractate) PAAJR Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research PWCJS Proceedings of the World Congress of Jewish Studies R. Rabbi REJ Revue des Etudes Juives San. Sanhedrin (Talmudic tractate) SR Studia Rosenthaliana TB Talmud Babli (T)JHSE (Transactions of the) Jewish Historical Society of England VSW Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte ZGJD Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland x

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