Religion and International Relations

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1 Religion and International Relations

2 Also by K. R. Dark THE NEW WORLD AND THE NEW WORLD ORDER (with A. L. Harris) THE WAVES OF TIME: Long-Term Change and International Relations NEW STUDIES IN POST-COLD WAR SECURITY (editor)

3 Religion and International Relations Edited by K. R. Dark Lecturer in International Relations University of Reading

4 * Selection, editorial matter, Introduction, Chapter 3 and Chapter 8 K. R. Dark 2000 Chapters 1, 2, 4-7 and 9 Macmillan Press Ltd 2000 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Totten ham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act Published by PALGRAVE Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y Companies and representatives throughout the world PALGRAVE is the new global academic imprint of St. Martin's Press LLC Scholarly and Reference Division and Palgrave Publishers Ltd (formerly Macmillan Press Ltd). ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / In North America ISBN This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Transferred to digital printing 2005

5 Contents List of Contributors Introduction K. R. Dark 1 Religion and International Conflict Scott Thomas vi vii 1 2 Theological Reflections on Religious Resurgence and International Stability: a Look at Protestant Evangelicalism 24 Harriet A. Harris 3 Large-Scale Religious Change and World Politics 50 K. R. Dark 4 The Churches and the Conflict in Former Yugoslavia 83 Peter Palmer 5 Islamic Militancies and Disunity in the Middle East 100 Christopher M. Wyatt 6 Islam, Human Rights and Religious Intolerance: The Case of the Baha'is of Iran 113 Nazi/a Ghanea 7 Hindu Nationalism and the International Relations of India C. Ram-Prasad The Political Consequences of Large-Scale Religious Change in China and the Asia-Pacific Region K. R. Dark 9 The Church of England in International Affairs: 1979 to mid-1997 Roger Williamson Bibliography Index v

6 List of Contributors (All contributions were written in a personal capacity and correspondence relating to chapters should be addressed to the specific author, not the editor.) K. R. Dark, Lecturer in International Relations, University of Reading Nazila Ghanea, Postgraduate student, Department of International Relations, Keele University Harriet A. Harris, Lecturer in Theology, University of Exeter Peter Palmer, Brasenose College, Oxford C. Ram-Prasad, Visiting Fellow, Clare Hall, Cambridge Scott Thomas, School of Social Sciences, University of Bath Roger Williamson, Policy and Campaigns Director of Christian Aid Christopher M. Wyatt, Research Fellow, University of Reading vi

7 Introduction K. R. Dark This book aims to explore some of the implications of religious beliefs and religious change for world politics. Recently, much attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping the actions of actors in world politics. 1 This has drawn attention to the ways in which cultural factors can affect actors' perceptions and decisions, and to the extent to which these factors shape their activities. 2 Such studies have relied on the understanding that cognitive factors, whether consciously expressed or not, play a formative role in human decision-making.3 They have seen human behaviour as inextricably situated within cultural matrices, which stand in a reflexive relationship with that behaviour. Consequently, the roles of beliefs and values have become widely accepted as an intrinsic aspect of the field of study of International Relations. 4 In this context, therefore, it is entirely understandable that religion (whether as part of an inclusive concept of culture or separately) has also been the subject of renewed attention in International Relations.5 If beliefs and values, in general, play a major part in shaping the actions of actors in world politics, then it is only logical to ask what part is played by religious beliefs and values. Religious beliefs and values are usually among those most deeply held, and most formative, in the actions of individuals. Thus, they might be expected to act in this way in both states and non-state organizations in world politics, given that these are necessarily comprised of groups of people. Religious organizations can also act directly as non-state actors in world politics, and can indirectly affect the policies and behaviour of other actors. So, religious beliefs, values and organizations are of general interest to the analyst of world politics. Unsurprisingly, therefore, this book is by no means the first to examine the role of religion in world politics. The study of this subject by other scholars has already paid attention both to religious beliefs themselves, and religious organizations, and highlighted the analysis of transnational religious organizations as actors in world politics.6 So, the studies presented here attempt to build on important work already undertaken within the mainstream of the discipline. However, most studies of this topic have focused on a narrow range of issues. By far the majority have highlighted the political role of Islamic organizations or the destructive aspects of religious intolerance vii

8 viii Introduction or 'fundamentalism'. 7 Also much discussed have been the political role of the Roman Catholic Church - for example in South and Central America - and the question of whether religion played some part in the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe.8 The relatively narrow focus of existing studies has arguably led to a somewhat misleading impression of the role of religion in world politics. To look at the vast majority of such studies one would suppose that religion was a factor only outside North America, western Europe and, perhaps, the Asia-Pacific region. This would, of course, be consistent with the oft-stated view that these areas have been affected by dramatic secularization in the previous century, a suggestion which (as we shall see) may be far less solidly grounded than is often supposed.9 From such studies, one might also get the impression that religion only plays a role in world politics when religious intolerance prompts conflict or aggravates processes of state collapse. In particular, some recent studies might well lead one to counterpoise their imagined 'secular West' with an equally imaginary 'fundamentalist Islamic' bloc, threatening global war against it.10 There are, of course, exceptions to these generalizations. Some scholars have, for example, taken a more positive view of the role of religion or have warned against assuming that Islamic 'fundamentalism' represents a unified 'anti-western' threat. 11 However, surprisingly little work has attempted to look at the role of religion in world politics on a truly global scale, to examine these assumed categories, and to analyse religious communities who are neither Muslims nor outside the 'West'. Whole religious communities have been virtually ignored in discussions of international politics, at least on a global scale. These include most non-fundamentalist Protestants (for example the majority of Anglicans, Methodists and Lutherans) among the Christian Churches, and Hindus, Buddhists, and believers in traditional Chinese religions among non-christians. Atheism has also been almost completely ignored, although it has been the official policy of several large states - including the USSR and the People's Republic of China - to promote atheism at various points in twentieth-century history. The range of analytical issues relating to religion covered by scholars of world politics has also been very narrow. Although 'fundamentalism', conflict and nationalism have received extensive coverage and discussion, few other aspects of world religion have been discussed at all on a global scale. This book takes a broader view of religion as a factor in world politics. It places more importance on the role of religious values and

9 Introduction ix religious change than do most other recent studies. Its approach to the subject of religion and world politics is based on two simple premises. The first is that religious factors can affect human decision-making and actions. So, when individuals change their religious beliefs, this might be expected to have some effect on their decisions and actions. The second premise is that, as all states, nations and other organizations taking part in world politics are comprised of people, then those people's religious beliefs and affiliations may affect their decisions and actions. From this it also follows that religious change can, although need not always, both help shape (and bring about) change in the decisions and actions of actors in world politics. Neither of these premises would present any theoretical difficulties for most scholars in history, anthropology, archaeology, sociology, geography or any of the other academic disciplines concerned with human societies. So, it is very hard to see any compelling reason why they should present problems for analysts of world politics. Of course, the one possible source of disciplinary difficulty with such a view might be derived from the Realist theoretical heritage of International Relations. It might be claimed that the role of religion is difficult to accommodate within an entirely state-centric model of international politics. However, by no means all Realist theorists - in the past or present - share these potential reservations about using the analysis of religion and religious change in this way. Notably, some of those contemporary analysts most willing to see religion as a major factor in international politics have come from a Realist theoretical background.12 Thus, neither of these two simple premises need present theoretical difficulties for International Relations scholars, even if they adopt a Realist theoretical framework. If one accepts them, then the study of religion and religious change is obviously an area of central interest to the discipline. Thus, the contributions here both aim to add to existing debates and open new areas of study. Many new interpretations and many new data are presented, and the range of topics covered and originality of the studies presented will hopefully make this work of interest to all those analysing or studying world politics. It must be stressed at the outset that no unified view, interpretation or single theoretical basis has been employed by the authors whose work is included here. Nor should it be assumed that any of the contributors (including the editor) agree with the discussion, conclusions or beliefs of any contribution in this volume which does not specifically bear their name as author. As one would expect, when discussing

10 x Introduction a controversial subject, in some cases this would emphatically not be the case. Notes 1. For example: Katzenstein 1996a, 1996b; Johnston For example: Howard 1989; Little and Smith 1988; Ganslen As exemplified by: Vertzberger 1990; Cassels 1996; Carlton Lapid and Kratochwil Again, there is a much longer disciplinary tradition behind these recent theoretical developments, for example, see Kegley 1969; Kedourie 1979; Deutsch 1981; Mackinnon For examples, see Westerlund 1996; Juergensmeyer 1993; Mayer 1995; Huntington 1993a; Shupe and Hadden 1988; Swatos 1989; Mews In this book the terms 'world politics', 'international politics', and 'international relations' are employed synonymously to refer to global politics as a whole, without any additional implications or nuances of emphasis. The term 'International Relations' is used to indicate the study of world politics, again with no further implications. 6. For example: Haynes 1994; Ramet and Treadgold 1995; Moyser 1991; Rudolph and Piscatori 1997; Sahliyeh 1990; Mews 1989; Furlong and Curtis For example: Jurgensmeyer 1993; Mayer 1995; Huntington 1993a; Janke 1994; Maddy-Weitzman and Inbar Hanson 1987; Kent and Pollard 1994; Weigel 1993b; Bordeaux 1992; Goeke! 1990; Pungur Haynes 1998, especially ch For discussions, see for example: Jurgensmeyer 1993; Huntington 1993a; Fuller and Lesser 1995; Esposito For example: Halliday 1995, and Wyatt, this volume, Chapter For example: Huntington For older Realist perspectives: Kedourie 1979; Mackinnon 1980.

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