2 Take 1 You're hungry, you've got no money, and there you are wandering around Bob's Hyper-Mega Giganto Food Store-o-Mart! You spot your favourite chocolate bar. Coast is clear; no one is watching you. Should you steal it? Your tummy growls. But it's wrong to steal, isn't it? But why is that? What to do, what to do... What is the issue? What do you do and why?
3 Take 2 Your favourite band, The Greasy Weasels, have a new song and you just need to have it for your cell-phone! You get on the internet to acquire it. But should you pay for the download? After all, you can get it for free, and the Greasy ones are not going to miss the small amount you would pay. And why shouldn't you everyone else does! To download or not to download... What is the issue? What do you do and why?
4 Take 3 It's really early on Saturday morning. Your mom knocks on your bedroom door and asks you where you were last night. Truth, well, best not get into that here. Truth will get you into hot water with your mom, and that always sucks. If you make up a convincing story and apologize a ton, perhaps she won't ground you for weeks. On the other hand, lying is not right and perhaps you should just fess up and tell the ugly truth and get your just desserts. Truth or fiction... What is the issue? What do you do and why?
5 What is Ethics? foundation of all rules for we should act - may include formalized rules (laws) - may include informal rules (should you lie?) - many professions have a code of ethics - Hippocratic Oath - Ontario College of Teacher Ethical Standards
6 What is Ethics? What exactly is the conscience? Is it a collection of moral habits taught by parents? Or learned from friends? Is it something people are born with? Some people use the law as their guide..is this an appropriate guide? Can the law be wrong?
7 What is ethics? It s against the law to walk around with an ice cream cone in your back pocket when you re in Alabama.
8 What is ethics? It s against the law to tickle a woman under her chin with a feather duster in Maine. You can t carry a violin in a paper bag while in public in Utah.
9 What is ethics? It s unlawful to sell hollow logs in Tennessee. Serving wine in teacups while in Kansas is highly illegal
10 What is ethics? In Wisconsin, it s against the law to serve apple pie without cheese. While you re in Oregon, you can t test your physical endurance or exercise while driving
11 What is Ethics? Ethics comes from the Greek word Ethos, which means character Ethicists investigate character traits that are good and admirable, as well as traits that can be bad and reprehensible.
12 What is Ethics? Ethics is the study of how one should act. It is not the study of how people actually do act, for many people do not act ethically. Ethics looks at what you should do and, more philosophically, why you should do it. Ethics is about obligations: it is the study of "should-ing".
13 Morality Ethics Ethics vs. Morality Mortality = thou shall, thou shalt not - Ten Commandments Thou shalt not kill Ethics is the philosophy behind morality - What is the basis for the 10 Commandments? - WHY is it wrong to kill
14 Nature and Aims of Ethics The study of ethics is often referred to as Moral Philosophy However, some philosophers argue each is distinct and refers to different areas of behaviour In this view, morals should refer to the study of what is proper, appropriate behaviour
15 Nature and Aims of Ethics The study of ethics can be divided into three main categories: 1. Normative theories 2. Meta-ethics 3. Applied Ethics
16 Nature and Aims of Ethics 1. Normative Ethics Examines specific 'shalls' and 'shall nots' based on broad meta-ethical principles, such as "God is the ultimate moral authority". Based on this foundation, a series of norms, or appropriate behaviours, develops.
17 Nature and Aims of Ethics 1. Normative Ethics Theories that describe ethical attitudes are called descriptive theories. Descriptive Theories deal with the factual study of the ethical standards or principals of a group. Ex. It is a proven fact that most students have knowingly plagiarized at least once in their high school careers
18 Nature and Aims of Ethics 1. Normative Ethics Ex. It is a proven fact that most students have knowingly plagiarized at least once in their high school careers This would be a descriptive claim about what is the case. Normative would look at how students should not plagiarize (looks at how students ought to act)
19 Nature and Aims of Ethics 1. Normative Ethics Normative Theories can be divided into three main categories: 1. Theories of Action- focus on how people should act and why they should act this way 2. Theories of Character- What makes a good person (character traits that are good and bad) 3. Theories of Value- questions about what people value (assessments of worth- justice, injustice)
20 Nature and Aims of Ethics 2. Meta-ethics "meta" means above or beyond. the study of where ethical principles come from Questions like: Is God the ultimate source of moral guidance? Do ethical facts exist or are they just opinions? Are ethical rules subjective or objective? Are ethics universal?
21 Nature and Aims of Ethics 2. Meta-ethics A theory of Meta-ethics allows for the development of a normative ethical system Ethical Universalists- argue that there is one universal moral code, but the code should admit of exceptions depending on circumstances Ethical Relativists: would argue that there is no universal moral code but that what is good is relative to the individual, time, place, and particular circumstances
22 Nature and Aims of Ethics 3. Applied Ethics examines specific moral issues and dilemmas Is unauthorised computer file-sharing unethical? Do we have moral obligations to the environment? This is "ethics in the real world", dealing with particular social and political issues.
23 Nature and Aims of Ethics 3. Applied Ethics Applying Theories of action, character and value to ethical dilemmas about anything When we take an ethical theory and apply it to such real life scenarios as the environment, politics, animal rights we are applying ethical theories to practical situations
24 Examples Following this will be a series of ethical dilemmas, examples of applied ethics. For each, identify what the normative ethical issue is. The first couple will be done together as a group, the last individually.
25 The Concentration Camp You are an inmate in a concentration camp. A sadistic guard is about to hang your son who tried to escape and wants you to pull the chair from underneath him. He says that if you don t he will not only kill your son but some other innocent inmate as well. You don t have any doubt that he means what he says. What should you do?
26 Found Money You are living with your family in a scarce, poverty-stricken country. Where you live, there is no food bank, and you and your family are starving to death. One day, you are out trying to find some sort of food to nourish your family, when something miraculous (or problematic) occurs. You find a huge sack full of money that has fallen off the back of a truck. You realize this would be a fortune to your family, but there is one obvious catch. This money has to belong to someone else, and to take it and use it for your family would be stealing. You could explain your situation to the rightful owner of the money, but how can you know he ll be a generous person? Would you: a. Return the money to its rightful owner or b. Take the money and use it to help your family.
27 Sleepover One month ago, your 14-year-old daughter had a sleepover with her best female friend, which went very well and both girls had a good time. However, now, she is telling you that she is inviting her male friend over to do the same thing. Neither you, nor her, have ever viewed him as a boyfriend or an intimate partner of any kind, just a friend who happens to be male. He has agreed to come and stay with your daughter overnight, but you are worried that the event could escalate into teen sexuality and consider forbidding him to stay overnight, or telling your daughter not to invite him. Yet, you don t want to be unfair to your daughter or her friend. She insists to you that he is just a casual friend and no sexual activity will occur. What would you do?
28 Infidelity You are an emergency worker that has just been called to the scene of an accident. When you arrive you see that the car belongs to your wife. Fearing the worst you rush over, only to see she is trapped in her car with another man. He is obviously her lover, with whom she s been having an affair. You reel back in shock, devastated by what you have just found out. As you step back, the wreck in front of you comes into focus. You see your wife is seriously hurt and she needs attention straight away. Even if she gets immediate attention there s a very high chance she ll die. You look at the seat next to her and see her lover. He s bleeding heavily from a wound to the neck and you need to stop the flow of blood immediately. If you attend to your wife, her lover will bleed to death, and you may not be able to save her anyway. If you work on the lover, you can save his life, but your wife will definitely die. Who should you choose to work on?
29 Tortured Child Imagine that a powerful alien were to visit earth, with the ability to eradicate war, famine and suffering. The alien says that he will do this, and turn the world into a utopia where humans will be happy and peaceful forever more, but only if a price is paid. He demands a small child be given to him so that he can perform hideous scientific experiments on it, causing the child unimaginable pain. Should you hand over the child? What if the alien demands that you must inflict the torture on the child yourself?
30 Tortured Child Imagine that a powerful alien were to visit earth, with the ability to eradicate war, famine and suffering. The alien says that he will do this, and turn the world into a utopia where humans will be happy and peaceful forever more, but only if a price is paid. He demands a small child be given to him so that he can perform hideous scientific experiments on it, causing the child unimaginable pain. Should you hand over the child? What if the alien demands that you must inflict the torture on the child yourself?
31 Robin Hood You witness a man rob a bank, but instead of keeping the money for himself, he donates it to a local orphanage. You know this orphanage has been struggling for funding, and this money will allow the children to receive proper food, clothing and medical care. If you report the crime, the money will be taken away from the orphanage and given back to the bank. What should you do?
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