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2 Ace the Bold Face Sample Copy Not for Sale GMAT and GMAC are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council which neither sponsors nor endorses this product

3 3 Copyright, Legal Notice and Disclaimer: All contents copyright by Aristotle Prep. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the prior written permission of Aristotle Prep Any trademarks, service marks, product names, or named features are assumed to be the property of their respective owners and are used only for reference. There is no implied endorsement if we use one of these terms. Although the authors and publisher have made every reasonable attempt to achieve complete accuracy of the content in this Guide, they assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. You should use this information at your own risk. Aristotle Prep Ace the Bold Face 10-digit International Standard Book Number: digit International Standard Book Number: Publisher: Aristotle Prep Copyright 2013 Aristotle Prep

4 Contents Introduction Bold Face Questions Answers & Explanations 32

5 5 Introduction Bold Face Question is one question type in which, even those students who are good at Critical Reasoning, tend to face difficulty. The problem is compounded by the fact that the OG contains only a few of these questions and there is no other dedicated resource for these questions that students can practice from. To solve this problem, we have launched this exclusive set of 50 Bold Face questions that will provide you sufficient practice of all the different argument types and the confusing terminologies used in these questions. In order to make the questions in this book a close representation of those on the actual GMAT, we have tried to word the options in the same manner as you would see on any official question. Also, to avoid unnecessary clutter, we have skipped the question stem from the questions in. Each question simply requires you to identify the role being played by the two bold parts in the argument as a whole. Since bold faced questions and their options tend to be extremely dense and difficult to understand, we recommend that you practice no more than 5-7 of these questions at a stretch and then spend some time analysing the questions. Even if you get the answer correct, it would be a good idea to go through the remaining choices to understand why they were wrong. The beauty of this book is that, by the time you complete all 50 questions, you will actually start to see how the question maker tries to trap you by using confusing language and other common misdirection traps. Please note that this book is just intended to be a practice resource for Bold Face questions; to learn how to approach these questions and for other Critical Reasoning strategies please refer to our bestselling GMAT book the Critical Reasoning Grail. We hope that you will find this book useful in your quest to achieve a high GMAT score. Please send us your thoughts on this book at Good luck!

6 1. Studies of the relationship between public opinion and political action on a wide range of subjects show nothing unique or very interesting about the state of public opinion on climate change. Significant policy action has occurred on other issues with less public support on many occasions. However, instead of motivating further support for action, efforts to intensify public opinion through apocalyptic visions or appeals to authority, have instead led to a loss of trust in campaigning scientists and a deep politicization of the climate issue. (A) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion; the second is that conclusion. (B) The first provides the findings of a study; the second provides data that raises doubts on these findings. (C) The first is the primary conclusion of the argument; the second provides evidence to question this conclusion. (D) The first provides the findings of a study; the second provides further elaboration of these findings. (E) The first is a claim used to justify a conclusion; the second is a counter-claim that questions that conclusion. 2. Despite what most people believe, heart attacks rarely happen out of the blue. In fact, your body may be trying to warn you of an impending heart attack for days, weeks, perhaps even a month or two before it occurs. Unfortunately, by the time you actually recognize you re suffering a heart attack, it could be too late to prevent death or debilitating heart damage. Thus it makes sense to be aware of the key signs that tell you that you may suffer from a heart attack in the next few days. (A) The first provides a generally accepted statement of truth; the second is a conclusion arrived at from this statement of truth. (B) The first is a claim put forward by the argument; the second explains why the knowledge of this claim will not benefit you. (C) The first elaborates on the contradiction to a generally accepted belief; the second is the primary conclusion of the argument, arrived at from this contradiction. (D) The first provides a contradiction that the author uses to arrive at a conclusion; the second is that conclusion. (E) The first provides evidence that has been used to support a position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second states that position.

7 7 3. While reporting a conflict between two political parties, a reporter must not allow his personal biases to unfairly present one of the parties in a negative light. After all, a good reporter must always be impartial and objective. This, however, does not mean that the reporter needs to hide the injustices perpetrated by either party in the name of appearing fair to that party because such a style of reporting will convey to the public that both the parties are equally just or unjust, whereas in real life that seldom tends to be the case. (A) The first describes an action that the argument is in favour of; the second argues against arriving at a particular conclusion from that action. (B) The first describes evidence that has been used to support a conclusion; the second provides justification for such a support. (C) The first describes an action that the argument is in favour of; the second states why such an action will fail to achieve its intended objective. (D) The first is a claim, the validity of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim. (E) The first describes an action that the argument supports; the second states an implication of that action. 4. People who drink coffee regularly say that they are addicted to caffeine because they feel that they can t live without it. Addiction is defined as a state in which a person strongly depends on a drug with severe withdrawal symptoms. He should have an urge to consume it more and more and is tolerant to a particular dose. Based on this definition, caffeine consumption does not qualify as an addiction. Researches too have shown that caffeine does not cause any kind of addiction. Alcohol or other drug addiction can have severe social and physical consequences but this is not the case with caffeine which further strengthens the belief that it is not addictive or does not cause addiction. (A) The first provides the definition of a term that has been used to arrive at a conclusion; the second provides further support for that conclusion. (B) The first provides the definition of a term; the second provides further support for that definition. (C) The first provides a definition that constitutes the main premise of the argument; the second is the conclusion of the argument as a whole. (D) The first and second are contradictory claims, both of which together provide support for the primary conclusion of the argument. (E) The first provides evidence in support of the conclusion of the argument; the second provides further justification for this evidence.

8 5. Corporal punishment is a physical punishment in which pain is deliberately inflicted on a perpetrator of a wrong in order to exact retribution and to deter similar behaviour in future. An accepted form of discipline through the ages, it has been upheld by all the Abrahamic religions, and has been practiced in some form in almost every human civilization. In the latter half of the 20th century, however, a growing number of states have outlawed the use of corporal punishment, particularly in schools. Corporal punishment in schools is now illegal in all European countries, except for France and Czech Republic and also in 30 states in the United States. (A) The first describes the historical attitude towards a practice; the second describes the current attitude towards this practice. (B) The first describes the historical attitude towards a practice; the second provides evidence highlighting the current attitude towards this practice. (C) The first provides the definition of a term; the second provides evidence undermining the implications of this definition. (D) The first describes the historical attitude towards a practice; the second is a prediction that the historical attitude does not apply any more. (E) The first is a consideration used to justify a particular practice; the second provides evidence to question such a justification.

9 9 Answers and Explanations 1. Studies of the relationship between public opinion and political action on a wide range of subjects show nothing unique or very interesting about the state of public opinion on climate change. Significant policy action has occurred on other issues with less public support on many occasions. However, instead of motivating further support for action, efforts to intensify public opinion through apocalyptic visions or appeals to authority, have instead led to a loss of trust in campaigning scientists and a deep politicization of the climate issue. (A) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion; the second is that conclusion. (B) The first provides the findings of a study; the second provides data that raises doubts on these findings. (C) The first is the primary conclusion of the argument; the second provides evidence to question this conclusion. (D) The first provides the findings of a study; the second provides further elaboration of these findings. (E) The first is a claim used to justify a conclusion; the second is a counter-claim that questions that conclusion. OA D Argument Summary According to studies, while there is generally a positive correlation between public opinion and political action, in case of the topic of climate change such a correlation does not hold; in fact it gets reversed at times. Prediction for the two bold parts The first provides the findings of a study and the second provides more details on these findings. A If anything, the first is the conclusion and the second provides further support for it by providing more details. B While the first part is correct, the second does not raise doubts on the first. C While the first may be considered the conclusion, the second does not by any means question it. D This perfectly matches our prediction above and should be the correct answer. E There is no such conclusion in the entire stimulus that is supported by the first bold part and questioned by the second.

10 2. Despite what most people believe, heart attacks rarely happen out of the blue. In fact, your body may be trying to warn you of an impending heart attack for days, weeks, perhaps even a month or two before it occurs. Unfortunately, by the time you actually recognize you re suffering a heart attack, it could be too late to prevent death or debilitating heart damage. Thus it makes sense to be aware of the key signs that that tell you that you may suffer from a heart attack in the next few days. (A) The first provides a generally accepted statement of truth; the second is a conclusion arrived at from this statement of truth. (B) The first is a claim put forward by the argument; the second explains why the knowledge of this claim will not benefit you. (C) The first elaborates on the contradiction to a generally accepted belief; the second is the primary conclusion of the argument, arrived at from this contradiction. (D) The first provides a contradiction that the author uses to arrive at a conclusion; the second is that conclusion. (E) The first provides evidence that has been used to support a position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second states that position. OA C Argument Summary Heart attacks don t take place out of the blue; rather, your body tries to warn you of an impending heart attack and thus, it pays to be aware of these warning signs. Prediction for the two bold parts The first elaborates on the opening statement of the argument. The second is the main conclusion of the argument. The second, in a way, follows from the first. A There is nothing to suggest that the first is a generally accepted statement. In fact it is the opposite because the author clearly states that most people believe otherwise. B In fact the second explains why such knowledge will benefit you. C The opening sentence provides a contradiction by stating that the belief of most people regarding one aspect of heart attacks is incorrect. The second sentence i.e. the first bold sentence actually provides more support for this. The second bold sentence is but obviously the primary conclusion of the argument. Thus C is the best answer. D As discussed above, the first bold sentence does not provide the contradiction; it merely builds upon it. The contradiction is in the first sentence of the argument, which is not in bold. E The argument never opposes this position; rather it supports it.

11 11 3. While reporting a conflict between two political parties, a reporter must not allow his personal biases to unfairly present one of the parties in a negative light. After all, a good reporter must always be impartial and objective. This, however, does not mean that the reporter needs to hide the injustices perpetrated by either party in the name of appearing fair to that party because such a style of reporting will convey to the public that both the parties are equally just or unjust, whereas in real life that seldom tends to be the case. (A) The first describes an action that the argument is in favour of; the second argues against arriving at a particular conclusion from that action. (B) The first describes evidence that has been used to support a conclusion; the second provides justification for such a support. (C) The first describes an action that the argument is in favour of; the second states why such an action will fail to achieve its intended objective. (D) The first is a claim, the validity of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim. (E) The first describes an action that the argument supports; the second states an implication of that action. OA A Argument Summary The argument states that a reporter must be fair while reporting a conflict between two parties. However this does not mean that the reporter makes both the parties look equally good or bad by hiding their negative features. Prediction for the two bold parts The first describes an act that a reporter must not indulge in. The second states a conclusion that the argument asserts should not be arrived at using the first bold sentence. A The correct answer. The second basically states that, from the first bold sentence, reporters should not arrive at the conclusion that they are expected hide or gloss over the injustices committed by either party to the conflict. B The second does not provide justification for the conclusion; in fact if anything the second is the primary conclusion of the argument. C The second never states why such an action will fail. D The validity of the first bold sentence is never at issue in the argument. E The second is not an implication of the first; rather the second urges reporters to not arrive at a particular implication from the first.

12 4. People who drink coffee regularly say that they are addicted to caffeine because they feel that they can t live without it. Addiction is defined as a state in which a person strongly depends on a drug with severe withdrawal symptoms. He should have an urge to consume it more and more and is tolerant to a particular dose. Based on this definition, caffeine consumption does not qualify as an addiction. Researches too have shown that caffeine does not cause any kind of addiction. Alcohol or other drug addiction can have severe social and physical consequences but this is not the case with caffeine which further strengthens the belief that it is not addictive or does not cause addiction. (A) The first provides the definition of a term that has been used to arrive at a conclusion; the second provides further support for that conclusion. (B) The first provides the definition of a term; the second provides further support for that definition. (C) The first provides a definition that constitutes the main premise of the argument; the second is the conclusion of the argument as a whole. (D) The first and second are contradictory claims, both of which together provide support for the primary conclusion of the argument. (E) The first provides evidence in support of the conclusion of the argument; the second provides further justification for this evidence. OA A Argument Summary Coffee drinkers are incorrect in their belief that they are addicted to caffeine because coffee consumption does not satisfy many of the criteria that constitute an addiction. Prediction for the two bold parts The first defines the term addiction. The second provides one reason why caffeine should not be considered addictive A The first clearly defines Addiction, a fact that the author uses to conclude that caffeine is not addictive. The second provides further evidence to support that caffeine is not addictive. Thus A is the best answer. B The second does not provide any support for the definition; it provides support for the conclusion of the argument. C The second is not the conclusion of the argument. D While it is true that the first and second both support the argument s primary conclusion, these are not contradictory claims. E The second provides further justification for the conclusion of the argument and not for the evidence in the first bold part.

13 13 5. Corporal punishment is a physical punishment in which pain is deliberately inflicted on a perpetrator of a wrong in order to exact retribution and to deter similar behaviour in future. An accepted form of discipline through the ages, it has been upheld by all the Abrahamic religions, and has been practiced in some form in almost every human civilization. In the latter half of the 20th century, however, a growing number of states have outlawed the use of corporal punishment, particularly in schools. Corporal punishment in schools is now illegal in all European countries, except for France and Czech Republic and also in 30 states in the United States. (A) The first describes the historical attitude towards a practice; the second describes the current attitude towards this practice. (B) The first describes the historical attitude towards a practice; the second provides evidence highlighting the current attitude towards this practice. (C) The first provides the definition of a term; the second provides evidence undermining the implications of this definition. (D) The first describes the historical attitude towards a practice; the second is a prediction that the historical attitude does not apply any more. (E) The first is a consideration used to justify a particular practice; the second provides evidence to question such a justification. OA B Argument Summary The argument provides a history of corporal punishment and states that it has now been banned in several countries of the world. Prediction for the two bold parts The first provides a background of Corporal punishment. The second provides the current state of the same. Basically the argument contrasts the popularity of Corporal Punishment in the past with its growing unpopularity in recent times. A While the first bold statement does provide the historical attitude towards corporal punishment, the second does not provide the current attitude. The current attitude is, in fact, highlighted in the previous sentence that is not in bold - in the latter half of the 20th century... particularly in schools. B The second does provide evidence highlighting the current attitude in the non-bold part, making this the correct answer. C The first does not provide the definition (which is in the non-bold part), nor does the second undermine any implications of this definition. D The second is not a prediction; it is more of an observation. E The argument never justifies or criticizes corporal punishment anywhere.

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