Irish Religious Conflict in Comparative Perspective

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1 Irish Religious Conflict in Comparative Perspective

2 Histories of the Sacred and the Secular General Editor: Professor David Nash (Oxford Brookes University, UK) Editorial Board: Professor Callum Brown (Dundee University, UK) Professor William Gibson (Oxford Brookes University, UK) Dr Carole Cusack (Sydney University, Australia) Professor Beverley Clack (Oxford Brookes University, UK), Dr Bert Gasenbeek (Humanist University, Utrecht, Netherlands) Professor Paul Harvey (University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, USA) This series reflects the awakened and expanding profile of the history of religion within the academy in recent years. It intends publishing exciting new and high quality work on the history of religion and belief since 1700 and will encourage the production of interdisciplinary proposals and the use of innovative methodologies. The series will also welcome book proposals on the history of Atheism, Secularism, Humanism and unbelief/secularity and to encourage research agendas in this area alongside those in religious belief. The series will be happy to reflect the work of new scholars entering the field as well as the work of established scholars. The series welcomes proposals covering subjects in Britain, Europe, the United States and Oceania. Titles include: Jonathan Gorry COLD WAR CHRISTIANS AND THE SPECTRE OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE, John Wolffe (editor) IRISH RELIGIOUS CONFLICT IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE Catholics, Protestants and Muslims Forthcoming titles: Jane Platt THE ANGLICAN PARISH MAGAZINE Zoe Knox JEHOVAH S WITNESSES AND THE SECULAR WORLD Also by John Wolffe PROTESTANT CATHOLIC CONFLICT FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: the Dynamics of Religious Difference (ed.) A SHORT HISTORY OF GLOBAL EVANGELICALISM (with Mark Hutchinson)

3 Irish Religious Conflict in Comparative Perspective Catholics, Protestants and Muslims Edited by John Wolffe The Open University, UK

4 Editorial matter, selection, introduction and conclusion John Wolffe 2014 Individual chapters Respective authors 2014 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, Saffron House, 6 10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act First published 2014 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Palgrave Macmillan in the UK is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number , of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS. Palgrave Macmillan in the US is a division of St Martin s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world. Palgrave and Macmillan are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries. ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.

5 Contents List of Figures and Tables Acknowledgements Notes on Contributors vii viii ix Introduction: Analysing Religious Conflict 1 John Wolffe Part I Ireland 1 A Solid and United Phalanx? Protestant Churches and the Ulster Covenant, Nicola Morris and David Tombs 2 Social Structure and Religious Division: Comparing the Form of Religious Distinction in the Two Irish States 42 Jennifer Todd 3 Can Churches Contribute to Post-Violence Reconciliation and Reconstruction? Insights and Applications from Northern Ireland 59 Gladys Ganiel 4 Alternative Ulster : Punk Rock as a Means of Overcoming the Religious Divide in Northern Ireland 76 Francis Stewart Part II European Comparisons 5 The Case against Northern Ireland Exceptionalism: the Academy, Religion and Politics 93 Brian M. Walker 6 Churches and Communal Violence in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: a Comparison of Ireland and Scotland 107 Stewart J. Brown v

6 vi Contents 7 Protestant Catholic Conflict and Nationalism in German and Irish Historical Narratives 129 Shane Nagle 8 Comparing Protestant Catholic Conflict in France and Ireland: the Significance of the Ethnic and Colonial Dimension 146 Joseph Ruane Part III Anti-Catholicism, Muslims and Islamophobia 9 The Multiculturalism Backlash and the Mainstreaming of Islamophobia Post-9/ Humayun Ansari 10 Muslims in Britain: Researching and Addressing Conflict in a Post-Secular City 191 Philip Lewis 11 Religion, De-traditionalization and Backlashes against Multiculturalism in Northern Europe: a Comparison of Dutch, Northern Irish and English Cases ( ) 206 David Herbert 12 New Variation, Old Theme: Parallels between Islamophobia and Anti-Catholicism in the United States 226 Katy Scrogin Conclusion: Overcoming Religious Conflict: History and Practice 242 John Wolffe Select Bibliography 261 Index 267

7 Figures and Tables Figures 2.1 Who volunteers religion and nationality in open-ended interviews? 45 Tables 2.1 The contrasting sociopolitical structure, North and South vii

8 Acknowledgements Like its companion volume, John Wolffe, ed., Protestant Catholic Conflict from the Reformation to the Twenty-First Century: the Dynamics of Religious Difference (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), this book has been made possible by my Ideas and Beliefs Fellowship, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the Economic and Social Research Council under the Research Councils UK Global Uncertainties programme. In particular the grant funded a conference at Stranmillis University College, Belfast in September 2012, at which earlier versions of all the chapters except the Conclusion were presented, and the contributors benefited much from the critical comments of other participants. I am enormously grateful to the funders, and especially to Chris Wyatt, Senior Research Impact Manager at the ESRC, who has taken a strong personal interest in the project and provided invaluable encouragement and support. The book also owes much to project partners at the Institute for Conflict Research in Belfast: Neil Jarman has been a constant source of wise advice; John Bell s research has done much to inform my own contributions to the book; and Maureen Graham provided organizational support for the conference. I am also most grateful for the administrative skills of colleagues at the Open University, especially Caitlin Adams, Tajinder Bhilku and Philomena Sutherland. Kate Clements has given essential assistance with the detailed editing of the text. John Wolffe The Open University, Milton Keynes, September 2013 viii

9 Contributors Humayun Ansari is Professor of the History of Islam and Cultural Diversity at Royal Holloway, University of London. His publications include: The Infidel Within: History of the Muslims in Britain 1800 to the Present (2004) and From the Far Right to the Mainstream: Islamophobia in Party Politics and the Media (2012). He was awarded an OBE in 2002 for his services to higher education and race relations in the community. Stewart J. Brown is Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Edinburgh. His books include Piety and Power in Ireland, : Essays in Honour of Emmet Larkin (2000, edited with D. W. Miller), The National Churches of England, Ireland and Scotland, (2001), and Providence and Empire: Religion, Politics and Society in the United Kingdom, (2008). He is currently working on a book on church state relations in Britain and Ireland, 1846 to Gladys Ganiel is Assistant Professor in Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation at Trinity College Dublin at Belfast (the Irish School of Ecumenics). She is co-author, with Gerardo Marti, of The Deconstructed Church: Understanding Emerging Christianity (forthcoming 2014), with Claire Mitchell, of Evangelical Journeys (2011) and author of Evangelicalism and Conflict in Northern Ireland (2008). Her research interests include religion in conflict, the emerging church, Northern Ireland, South Africa and Zimbabwe. David Herbert is Professor of Religion and Society at the University of Agder, Norway. He is author of Religion and Civil Society: Rethinking Public Religion in the Contemporary World (2003), Islam in the West: the Politics of Co-existence (2007) and Creating Community Cohesion: Religion and Social Integration Crises in North Western Europe, (2013). Philip Lewis lectures in the Peace Studies Department at Bradford University on Islam in the West and Religions, Conflict and Peacemaking. He is one of a number of specialists who advise the Anglican Church on Islam and Christian Muslim relations. He has written extensively on the ix

10 x Notes on Contributors crisis in religious formation in Islamic seminaries in Britain. His most recent book is Young, British and Muslim (2007). Nicola Morris lectures in modern Irish history at the University of Chester. She researches the interaction of religion and politics in Ireland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Her particular interest is the reaction of the Methodist Church in Ireland to the Home Rule crises of 1886, 1893 and and how it sought to resolve the tension between morality and politics in troubled times. Shane Nagle is a PhD student studying history at Royal Holloway, University of London. His thesis is titled Historical Narratives and Nationalisms in Europe: Germany and Ireland Compared, which aims to examine comparatively the operations of national(ist) history writing and its relation to nationalism in both countries between the mid-nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century. Joseph Ruane was Professor of Sociology at University College Cork and is currently Visiting Professor in Sociology at University College Dublin. He is the author (with Jennifer Todd) of The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland (1996), and of numerous other publications on religion, ethnicity and nationalism in Ireland and elsewhere. His current research compares religious conflict in France, the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Katy Scrogin received her PhD in Religion from Claremont Graduate University, USA. With particular interests in political philosophy and media studies, she is a translator and independent scholar, and is the senior producer of the radio show Things Not Seen: Conversations about Culture and Faith. Francis Stewart received her doctorate from the University of Stirling in November 2011, where she focused on examining straight-edge punk as a surrogate for religion. She currently works at Stirling in the Department of Religion. Her research interests focus on social deviance and cohesion as a means of understanding and challenging the connections between religion and violence. She has published articles on punk and religious authenticity, punk and social change and punk through the framework of implicit religion.

11 Notes on Contributors xi Jennifer Todd is Professor in the School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, and Director of the Institute for British Irish Studies there. She has researched and published extensively (individually and jointly) on the Northern Ireland conflict, ethnicity and ethnic conflict, identity and identity change. Her recent work has been published in Theory and Society, Archives Européennes de Sociologie, Political Studies and West European Politics. David Tombs works in Belfast as Assistant Professor of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation for the Irish School of Ecumenics, Trinity College Dublin. His primary interest is the interface of religion, violence and conflict transformation. His publications include Latin American Liberation Theology (2002) and an edited collection with Joseph Liechty on Explorations in Reconciliation: New Directions for Theology (2006). He is currently writing a book on crucifixion as an instrument of torture and sexualized violence. Brian M. Walker is Emeritus Professor in the Centre for Irish Politics at Queen s University Belfast. He has published extensively on nineteenthand twentieth-century Irish history, including most recently A Political History of the Two Irelands: From Partition to Peace (2012). He is joint co-general editor of the Oxford History of the Irish Book (2006 ). John Wolffe is Professor of Religious History at the Open University and successively an Ideas and Beliefs Fellow and a Leadership Fellow on the Religious Councils UK Global Uncertainties Research programme. He is President of the Ecclesiastical History Society His recent publications include (with Mark Hutchinson) A Short History of Global Evangelicalism (2012).

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