2 3 candidates for the English throne Edward the Confessor dies in January 1066 Earl Harold Godwinson Harold Hardrada of Norway Duke William of Normandy
3 Why did William of Normandy invade? At the beginning of 1066, the King of Anglo-Saxon England, Edward the Confessor, was old and sick. He had no children or brothers and sisters the question was: who would succeed him? On his deathbed, he named Harold Godwinson, the Earl of Wessex, as his successor - according to Harold. He was not a blood relative but he was the commander of the King s army and the other Saxon nobles approved Edward s decision. Harold was crowned on January 7, However, Harold was not the only one who thought he should be the next king of England.
4 William, Duke of Normandy, claimed that Edward had promised him the throne in Then, in 1064, Harold had been shipwrecked off the Normandy coast. (William gave him shelter) William said that Harold had promised to help him become the next king of England.
5 Harald Hardrada, the King of Norway, wanted the throne because, before Edward, Norway and Denmark had provided the Viking kings of England between 1016 and Therefore, the next king should also be a Viking Harald Hadrada. He was supported by Tostig, Harold Godwinson s brother. (He had quarrelled with Harold and now wanted revenge.)
6 HARDRADA INVADES Harold kept an army on the south coast waiting for William s invasion during the summer of An unfavourable wind meant that William could not launch his invasion fleet and on September 8 th, Harold sent his army home. On September 18 th, he received news that Hadrada had landed in the Humber Estuary with 300 ships. Harold marched north to confront him with his elite troops, the housecarls. Others joined on the way.
8 THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS On September 29 th, just four days after Harold s victory at Stamford Bridge, near York, William landed his army near Hastings. The vast fleet of 700 ships carried 7000 infantry and cavalry. Harold marched quickly south with his force of 7000 of which only 2000 were the highly-trained housecarls.
9 Why did William win? The Normans had knights on horseback while the Saxons did not. Harold s men were very tired. Harold was killed, demoralising the Saxons. The Normans had archers, the Saxons did not. Some of Harold s best troops had been killed at Stamford Bridge. Hardrada invaded England shortly before William.
10 ( ) Reign of William I the Conqueror Soldiers rewarded: The Normans received from William lands and titles in return for their service in the invasion. All land was the king s: William claimed ultimate possession of virtually all the land in England and asserted the right to dispose of it as he saw fit. Land confiscation: William confiscated the lands of all English lords who had fought and died with Harold and redistributed most of them to his Norman supporters. These initial confiscations led to revolts, which resulted in more confiscations, in a cycle that continued virtually unbroken for five years after the Battle of Hastings.
11 Fort and castle building: To put down and prevent further rebellions, the Normans constructed a variety of forts, castles. Heir designation: If an English landholder died, the King could designate the heir, and often chose a successor from Normandy. Inheritance control: William and his barons also exercised tighter control over inheritance of property by widows and daughters, often forcing marriages to Normans. No English in upper society: The Normans displaced the native aristocracy and took control of the upper ranks of society. By 1086, French names predominated even at the lower levels of the aristocracy.
13 THE DOMESDAY BOOK In 1085, William sent his clerks to all manors in order to make a record of all property in the kingdom. This record is known as the Domesday Book and is actually the first statistical survey for tax purposes.
14 THE DOMESDAY BOOK The Domesady Book lists all the manors and their value.
15 Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farm land. MANOR
16 ADMINISTRATION William governed England directly through his sheriffs and indirectly through the feudal contract with his vassals. The basic unit of administration was the Saxon shire, which the Normans called county.
17 KINGS OF HOUSE OF NORMAN, ANJOU, PLANTAGENET Henry II Witnessed a long period of peace Steady increase in trade and in population. Reformed the courts and law. Introduced the jury system made the law common Weakened the power of the lords and knights Cancelled the feudal services of forty days Asked the lords to pay a special tax. Hired professional soldiers. Robert William I William II Stephen Henry Matilda Henry II Richard I King John Henry III Edward I Edward II
18 WILLIAM S SUCCESORS When William died in 1087 while at war. He gave England to his second son, William II Rufus, and Normandy to his eldest son, Robert (c ). Henry, his third son, in due time got both England in 1100, when William II died in a hunting accident in the New Forest, and Normandy in 1106 by conquest.
19 HENRY I Henry I had no male heir at his death, and his daughter Matilda and her cousin Stephen waged a devastating civil war for the succession in England Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England.
20 The Civil war When Henry I died, there were two contenders to the throne: Henry s daughter Matilda and Henry s nephew Stephen. The civil war ( ).
21 HENRY II Although Stephen became king, he was forced to recognise Matilda s son Henry as his heir. During the reign of Henry II ( ) the Anglo-Norman state reached its zenith.
22 HENRY II Henry ruled a vast feudal empire in England, France and Ireland. He sent a Welsh Norman, Richard de Clare, nicknamed Strongbow to subdue Ireland. In France he had more land than the French king whose vassal he was. Henry introduced several administrative reforms in England.
23 COMMON LAW He is regarded as the founder of English Common Law. Henry wanted to restore control over the church.
24 THOMAS BECKET He appointed his chancellor Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, hoping that he would help him control the church. However, Becket disappointed the king because he supported Pope Gregory VII s idea of church supremacy over lay institutions.
25 BECKET S DEATH On 29 December 1170, four of the King s knights murdered the Archbishop in front of the altar of the Canterbury Catghedral.
26 The Burial of Thomas Becket Overnight Thomas Becket became a martyr who symbolised resistance to the oppressive authority of the State.
27 PILGRIMAGES Becket s tomb became the object of pilgrimages. Geoffrey Chaucer immortalised these pilgrimages in his greatest work, The Canterbury Tales
28 Foundation of Oxford University (1167) - by scholars from Sorbonne Foundation of Cambridge University 1209
29 Henry II s successor was Richard ( ), nicknamed the Lionheart, who spent most of his time out of England on cusades. only 6 months of his reign in England. Robin Hood of Sherwood Forest and his Merry Men - paradox of Richard RICHARD I
30 RICHARD I
31 JOHN LACKLAND ( ) After Richard s death the English throne was taken by his brother John, who was one of the most unpopular kings of England weak, cruel and cowardly, already in power during Richard's absence.
32 KING JOHN King John, nicknamed the Lackland, lost most of his French possessions. He quarrelled with the barons, who forced him to sign the Great Charter (Magna Carta) in In Magna Carta, King John promised to limit the power of the King, and give all free men the right to a fair and legal trial.
33 The events leading up to Magna Carta In 1209, John had been excommunicated in a dispute over the appointment of the Archbishop of Canterbury. He had used this as an excuse to confiscate church property and sell it back to his bishops at a profit. This gave the discontented barony their opportunity. They chose as their leader the East Anglian baron, Robert FitzWalter, who styled himself 'Marshal of the Host of God and the Holy Church'.
34 MAGNA CARTA After an opening chapter guaranteeing the rights of the Church, the next 15 chapters were provisions designed to curb the king's exploitation of loopholes in feudal custom A further ten chapters dealt with finances, and another important block confirmed people's rights under the Common Law. It is these latter that have been seen as crucial, as they subjected the king to the law of the land for the first time in Britain's history, and this clause is the only one that remains on the statute books today.
35 Magna Carta lasted less than three months. By November 1215, John had the rebels' backs to the wall. The rebels, for their part, had offered the crown of England to Prince Louis of France, and he hurried reinforcements into London. At this point, the fate of Britain hung in the balance. If John failed, the kingdom of England would have fallen into French hands. And he failed. But
36 John died during the night of 18 October His death pulled the rug out from under the feet of Prince Louis. With John out of the way, the regency council, led by William Marshal, declared John's son as king Henry III and reissued Magna Carta, removing a major part of the rebels' platform. All those barons who had been prepared to oppose John now flocked to his son's standard, and the conflict shifted from a civil war over baronial rights to a war of resistance against foreign invasion.
37 MAGNA CARTA Magna Carta influenced many common law and other documents, such as the United States Constitution, and is considered one of the most important legal documents in the history of democracy. This was the first successful step in English history towards limiting the power of the King.
38 HENRY III Although Henry was charitable and cultured, he lacked the ability to rule effectively. He concluded an agreement with Pope Innocent IV ( ), offering to finance papal wars in Sicily if the Pope would grant his infant son, Edmund, the Sicilian crown. Four years later Pope Alexander IV (pope ) threatened to excommunicate Henry for failing to meet this financial obligation. Henry appealed to the barons for funds, but they agreed to cooperate only if he would accept far-reaching reforms.
39 Henry III During the reign of King Henry III, in 1258, the nobles under the leadership of Simon de Monfort, earl of Leicester ( ), elected a council called parliament (from French parler to discuss). In 1258 Henry III forced by the barons the king grants The Provisions of Oxford
40 THE PROVISIONS OF OXFORD The provisions forced King Henry III of England: to accept a new form of government in which power was placed in the hands of a council of twentyfour members, twelve selected by the crown, twelve by the barons. The selected men were to supervise ministerial appointments, local administration and the custody of royal castles. Parliament, meanwhile, which was to meet three times a year, would monitor the performance of this council.
41 MONTFORT vs HENRY III Montfort was actually a Frenchman married to the king s sister Eleanor and godfather to the king s eldest son, Edward. After capturing the king and his heir, Prince Edward, at the battle of Lewes in 1264, Montfort established a much tighter and more baronial government for England Edward escaped from captivity, defeated and killed Montfort Henry faded into the background, and Edward was the effective ruler of the country for the rest of Henry s reign until he succeeded to the throne at Henry s death in 1272.
42 EDWARD I ( ) Edward was the first king of England since the conquest with an English name (after Edward the Confessor) Edward I restored royal control and made several reforms: He limited the barons' right to hold their own courts of law; gave English common law and most important, used and developed Parliament, which was essentially the king's feudal council with a new name and an enlarged membership
43 PARLIAMENT The Model Parliament of 1295, following Montfort's pattern of 1265, consisted of great barons, bishops, abbots, and representatives of counties and towns. In 1297, to get money for his wars, Edward accepted the Confirmation of Charters, agreeing that taxes must be agreed by the Parliament. In the following century, Parliament divided into two houses, Lords and Commons, and made good claim to control taxation and to participate in the making of statutes.
44 PARLIAMENT dealt with judiciary, legislation, taxation possibility of impeachment for state dignitaries monarchy and parliament are in equal position Composition: 97 bishops, abbots 65 earls and barons 39 judges reps of lower clergy - summoned reps of counties, cities and boroughs - summoned
45 EDWARD S WELSH CAMPAIGN Edward conquered northwest Wales (1284), ending the rule of its native princes. He built stone castles, adopted the Welsh longbow as an English weapon, and named his oldest son the Prince of Wales (1301).
46 EDWARD S SCOTTISH CAMPAIGN He intervened in Scottish affairs, even claiming the Scottish throne. Having fought the Scots often but with little effect, Edward died in 1307 without having subdued the northern kingdom. 1290s - dynastic problems in Scotland - Scottish noblemen (BALLIOL and BRUCE) invite Edward I to settle matters in Scotland John Balliol elected by Edward I as king of Scotland (Scotland treated as a vassal state) John Balliol deposed but Scots are defeated in the Battle of Dunbar (1296).
47 the resistance of William Wallace Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297) - victorious; Wallace marches southward Battle of Falkirk (1298) - defeat of Wallace 1305 Braveheart is captured and executed in Edinburgh. the birth of Scottish nationalism Robert the Bruce becomes the king of Scotland, causing another campaign of Edward I Edward I dies during the Scottish campaign at Carlisle
48 EDWARD II ( ) His son, Edward II, gave up the campaign. official recognition of Scotland as an independent nation by the English and the papacy Edward II was a weak king, partly influenced by favourites Although he freed himself of baronial rule in 1322, he was forced to abdicate in European famine from 1315
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