3 Church and State While Roman rule and the traditions of Rome died in the west, they were preserved in the Byzantine Empire and in its capital, Constantinople. While the popes in Rome were independent of secular power, the Byzantine emperor appointed the patriarch of Constantinople and intervened in doctrinal disputes. Religious differences and doctrinal disputes permeated the Byzantine Empire; nonetheless, polytheism was quickly eliminated.
4 While the unity of political and religious power prevented the Byzantine Empire from breaking up, the Byzantines did face serious foreign threats. The Goths and Huns on the northern frontier were not difficult to deal with, but on the east the Sassanids harassed the Byzantine Empire for almost three hundred years.
5 Sassanid Empire
6 Following the Sasanids, the Muslim Arabs took the wealthy provinces of Syria, Egypt, and Tunisia from the Byzantine Empire and converted their people to Islam. These losses permanently reduced the power of the Byzantine Empire.
7 On the religious and political fronts, the Byzantine Empire experienced declining relations with the popes and princes of Western Europe and the formal schism between the Latin and Orthodox Churches in 1054.
8 Society and Urban Life The Byzantine Empire experienced a decline of urbanism similar to that seen in the west, but not as severe. One result was the loss of the middle class One result was the loss of the middle class so that Byzantine society was characterized by a tremendous gap between the wealth of the aristocrats and the poverty of the peasants.
9 In the Byzantine period the family became more rigid; women were confined to their houses and wore veils if they went out. However, Byzantine women ruled However, Byzantine women ruled alongside their husbands between 1028 and 1056, and women did not take refuge in nunneries.
10 The Byzantine emperors intervened in the economy by setting prices, controlling provision of grain to the capital, and monopolizing trade on certain goods. As a result, Constantinople was well supplied, but the cities and rural areas of the rest of the empire lagged behind in terms of wealth and technology.
11 Gradually, Western Europeans began to view the Byzantine Empire as a crumbling power. For their part, Byzantines thought that For their part, Byzantines thought that westerners were uncouth barbarians.
12 Cultural Achievements Legal scholars put together a collection of Roman laws and edicts under the title Body of Civil Law or what is called the Justinian Code This compilation became the basis of Western European civil law.
13 Byzantine architects developed the technique of making domed buildings. The Italian Renaissance architects adopted the dome in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
14 In the ninth century the Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius preached to the Slavs of Moravia and taught their followers to write in the Cyrillic script.
15 Early Medieval Europe, From Roman Empire to From Roman Empire to Germanic Kingdoms
16 Time of Insecurity Roman Empire breaks down Western Europe continued to suffer invasions Muslim Arabs and Berbers took the Iberian Peninsula and pushed into France
17 Carolingians Family of Rulers In the eighth century the Carolingians united various Frankish kingdoms into a larger empire At its height, under Charlemagne, the empire included Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy The empire was subdivided by Charlemagne's grandsons and never united again.
19 Vikings Vikings attacked England, France, and Spain in the late eighth and ninth centuries Vikings also settled Iceland and Vikings also settled Iceland and Normandy, from which the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066
20 Viking Invasions
21 A Self-Sufficient Economy The fall of the Roman Empire was accompanied by an economic transformation that included deurbanization and a decline in trade Roman Governors throughout Europe were replaced by Germanic territorial Lords Without the domination of Rome and its Great Tradition, regional elites became more self-sufficient and local small traditions flourished.
22 Medieval Diet The medieval diet in the north was based on beer, lard or butter, and bread In the south, the staples were wheat, wine, and olive oil.
23 Medieval Manor Self-sufficient farming estates called manors were the primary centers of agricultural production Manors grew from the need for selfsufficiency and self-defense The lord of a manor had almost unlimited power over his agricultural workers the serfs The conditions of agricultural workers varied, as the tradition of a free peasantry survived in some areas
24 Medieval Manor
25 Early Medieval Society in the West During the early medieval period a class of nobles emerged and developed into mounted knights Landholding and military service became almost inseparable The complex network of relationships between landholding and the obligation to provide military service to a lord is often referred to as feudalism.
26 The Feudal System
28 Land for military service The need for military security led to new military technology including the stirrup, bigger horses, and the armor and weapons of the knight This equipment was expensive, and knights therefore needed land in order to support themselves Kings and nobles granted land (a fief) to a man in return for a promise to supply military service (or knighthood)
29 By the tenth century, these fiefs had become hereditary
30 King s dependence on vassals Kings were weak because they depended on their vassals Vassals may have land from another lord and also be loyal to another lord The upper vassals would control most of the king s realm The upper vassals would grant substantial parts of their land to the lower vassals
31 Noble Woman They were pawns in marriage politics Noblewomen became enmeshed in this tangle of obligations as heiresses and as candidates for marriage. A man who married the widow or daughter of a lord with no sons could gain control of that lord s property. Marriage alliances affected entire kingdoms. Noble daughters and sons had little say in marriage matters issues of land, power, and military service took precedence. Noblemen guarded the women in their families as closely as their other valuables.
32 Women could own land. A noblewoman sometimes administered her husband s estates when he was away at war Non-noble women usually worked alongside their men Performing agricultural tasks such as raking and stacking hay, shearing sheep, and picking vegetables.
33 Politics and the Church The Popes in the Catholic church combining political power and religious power They would form alliances with kings. The Popes would choose one person as the Holy Roman Emperor (Charlemagne) in 962 The Holy Roman Empire was in fact no more than a loose coalition of German princes.
34 Western Europe was heir to three legal traditions: Germanic feudal law, Canon (church law), Roman law. The presence of conflicting legal theories The presence of conflicting legal theories and legal jurisdictions was a significant characteristic of Western Europe.
35 Kievan Russia, The Rise of the Kievan State Russia includes territory from the Black and Caspian Seas in the south to the Baltic and White Seas in the north In its early history, Russia was inhabited by a number of peoples of different language and ethnic groups whose territory shifted from century to century What emerged was a general pattern of Slavs in the east, Finns in the north, and Turkic tribes in the south
36 Forest dwellers, steppe nomads, and farmers in the various ecological zones traded with each other Long-distance caravan trade linked Russia to the Silk Road Varangians (relatives of Vikings) were active traders on the rivers Khazar Turks built a trading kingdom at the mouth of the Volga.
37 The Rus were societies of western Slav farmers ruled by Varangian nobles Their most important cities were Kiev and Novgorod, both centers of trade.
38 Vladimir I In 980 Vladimir I became Grand Prince of Kiev He chose Orthodox Christianity as the religion of his state and imitated the culture of the Byzantine Empire He built churches Adopting the Cyrillic alphabet Oriented his trade toward the Byzantines Internal political struggles and conflict with external foes led to a decline of Kievan Russia after 1100
39 Western Europe Revives, The Role of Technology Western Europe s population and agricultural production increased in the period from This fed a resurgence of trade and enabled kings to strengthen their control Historians attribute the revival to new technologies and to the appearance of self-governing cities
40 Historians agree that technology played a significant role in European population growth from Among the technological innovations Among the technological innovations associated with this population growth are the heavy moldboard plow, the horse collar, and the breast-strap harness.
41 Cities and the Rebirth of Trade Independent, self-governing cities emerged first in Italy and Flanders They relied on manufacturing and trade for their income, and they had legal independence so that their laws could favor manufacturing and trade. In Italy, Venice emerged as a dominant sea power, trading in Muslim ports for spices and other goods
42 In Flanders, cities like Ghent imported wool from England and wove it into cloth for export The recovery of trade was accompanied by an increase in the use of high-value gold and silver coins, which had been rarely used in early medieval Europe During the mid-twelfth century Europeans began minting first silver and then gold coins
43 The Crusades, The Crusades were a series of Christian military campaigns against Muslims in the eastern Mediterranean between 1100 and 1200 Factors causing the Crusades included religious zeal, knights willingness to engage in church-sanctioned warfare, a desire for land on the part of younger sons of the European nobility, and an interest in trade
44 The tradition of pilgrimages, Muslim control of Christian religious sites, and the Byzantine Empire s requests for help against the Muslims combined to make the Holy Land the focus of the Crusades In 1095 Pope Urban II initiated the First Crusade when he called upon the Europeans to stop fighting each other and fight the Muslims instead
45 The Impact of the Crusades The Crusades had a limited impact on the Muslim world More significant was that the Crusaders ended Europe s intellectual isolation when Arabic and Greek manuscripts gave Europeans their first access to the work of the ancient Greek philosophers The Crusades had a significant impact on the lifestyle of European elites
I. The Byzantine Empire, 600-1200 A. An Empire Beleaguered 1. Following the Sasanids, the Muslim Arabs took the wealthy provinces of Syria, Egypt, and Tunisia from the Byzantine Empire and converted their
Ch. 10: Christian Europe Emerges, 300-1200 I. Early Medieval Europe, 300-1000 a. From Roman Empire to Germanic Kingdoms i. 5 th cen., Roman Empire broke down. Europe fragmented. Various Germanic tribes
Medieval Europe & the Western Church AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) The order of the old Roman Empire in the west had fallen to Germanic barbarians (things in the east continued on through
Byzantine Empire & Kievan Russia AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) While the remnants of the Roman Empire in the West were experiencing the Dark Ages the Byzantine Empire (really the old Roman
Bell Activity page 105 Think about the difference between renting and owning property. Do renters have as much control over property as owners? Why might some people want to buy a home rather than rent
The Worlds of European Christendom Chapter 9 After the Roman Empire By the 4 th Century the Roman Empire gets divided Christian Europe is two parts: 1. Eastern half = The Byzantine Empire 2. Western half
The Early Middle Ages The Rise of Christianity Charlemagne Feudalism The Vikings Section Focus After Rome fell the world entered into chaos. Time of warfare, violence, and religion. Time period known as
Timeline I. Medieval Europe A. After the Roman Empire collapsed, western Europe was ruled by Germanic tribes. B. By the 4 th century, the Catholic Church became more powerful. The church was (is) organized
Middle Ages = European history between the fall of the Roman Empire (476) and the Modern Era (1450) Also called the Medieval Period ( Medium is Latin for Middle; aevum is Latin for age) Early Middle Ages
Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium 1 The Early Byzantine Empire n Capital: Byzantium n On the Bosporus n Commercial, strategic value of location n Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople),
Chapter 9 The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the rise of Eastern Europe The 2 nd Rome Map of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Justinian Building and Defending the Empire Justinian- Ruled the Byzantine
Lesson 3 The Growth of European Kingdoms ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How can changes to political systems impact economic activities? How is society influenced by changes in political and economic systems? Reading
Revival & Crusades AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) From the fall of the Roman Empire 476 C.E. to around 1000 C.E. Europe was in the Dark Ages or Medieval Times. Between 1000 1200 a revival
Chapter 11 The Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity in the West, 31 B.C.E. 800 C.E. p142 Roman Decline Rome s power to rule began to decline after Marcus Aurelius (161-180 CE) Germanic tribes invaded
Bentley Chapter 16 Study Guide: The Two Worlds of Christendom The Quest for Political Order (p. 328-329) 1. How did the east and west differ after the fall of the Roman Empire? The Early Byzantine Empire:
Unit 3 pt. 3 The Worlds of Christendom:the Byzantine Empire Write down what is in red 1 Copyright 2013 by Bedford/St. Martin s The Early Byzantine Empire Capital: Byzantium On the Bosporus In both Europe
Due Date: Chapter 9 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One Transforming the Roman World (pages 285-290) I. THE NEW GERMANIC KINGDOMS Name: 1. What did the Germanic Ostrogoths and Visigoths retain from the
Chapter Review Chapter Summary Section 1: The Early Middle Ages The Roman empire was replaced by smaller Germanic kingdoms. When Charlemagne aided Pope Leo III in 799, he was crowned Emperor of the Romans
Medieval Matters: The Middle Age 400-1500 The Roman Empire Falls (376) and Western World Ignites DYK - Son of a Gun - Comes from the Medieval Knights view that firearms were evil Byzantine Empire Eastern
Chapter 13 Reading Guide: European Middle Ages 500-1200 Name Hour Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (P. 353) 1. What were the Middle Ages? Invasions of Western Europe 2. Germanic invaders
Name Study Guide: The Middle Ages ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: The European Middle Ages occur chronologically between the Roman Empire and the modern age that we live in. The Middle Ages are divided into three
Who are the Vikings? Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia Who are the Slavs? VIKINGS NOTES ON RUSSIA SLAVS Kiev BYZANTINE EMPIRE Who are the Byzantines? THE SLAVS Who are the Slavs?
Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 8, Section Chapter 8 The Rise of Europe (500 1300) Copyright 2003 by Pearson
CHAPTER NINE Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe World Civilizations, The Global Experience AP* Edition, 5th Edition Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert *AP and Advanced Placement are
The Byzantine Empire -The rise of the Byzantine Empire is connected to the fall of the Roman Empire -therefore, we need to review the events that led to the fall of the Roman Empire -Review: -in AD 284,
Chapter 7: Early Middle Ages (751-1100) 1. INTRODUCTION The Merovingians were replaced in 751 by the Carolingians,, from the kingdom of Austrasia. Their most famous king was Charles the Great (Charlemagne))
Name Due Date: Chapter 10 Reading Guide A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe The postclassical period in Western Europe, known as the Middle Ages, stretches between the fall of the Roman Empire
Name: Date: Period: UNIT SUMMARY Chapter 9 Reading Guide Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe, p.204-218 In addition to the great civilizations of Asia and North Africa forming
Module 4: The Early Middle Ages Lesson 1: The Byzantine Empire Characteristics Lasted from 330 to 1453; 1400 years Considered themselves ( ), not Byzantines Very impressive militarily, political flexibility,
EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES 476 AD 1500 AD The slaw decline of the Roman Empire marked the beginning of a new era in European history. This period is called the Middle Ages. It lasted from around 500 to 1500.
Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe Section 1: The Early Middle Age I. Geography of Western Europe A. Location 1. Second smallest land area of the seven continent 2. Lies on the western end of Eurasia (Portugal
Set up a new TOC for the 2 nd 6 weeks Our new unit: The Post-Classical Era (approximately) 500-1500 Areas of Focus: Medieval Europe, the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic Empire, Tang & Song China Vocab Quiz:
The Rise of Europe Chapter 7 The Early Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. The Dark Ages Waves of Invaders Trade slowed Towns emptied Lack of education Political division The Rise of the Germanic Kingdoms The Goths,
Chapter 13 Reading Guide: European Middle Ages 500-1200 Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (P. 353) 1. What were the Middle Ages? Name: Hour Invasions of Western Europe 2. Germanic invaders
Byzantines, Turks, and Russians Interact 500-1500 Byzantium Germanic tribes had driven the Romans east. In 330 CE, the Roman emperor had begun to favor Christianity and established a city called Constantinople,
Chapter 13 Notes Western Europe in the Middle Ages Middle Ages 500-1500 The Middle Ages are also called the Medieval Period. The foundations of early medieval society were: Classical heritage of Rome Christian
Middle Ages WHAT WERE THE CULTURAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL STRUCTURES OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE? Invasions of Western Europe Germanic invasions overran the western half of the Roman Empire As a result
Chapter 6: Rome and the Barbarians Social Order As Roman state spread throughout Italian Peninsula and into Western Europe what is a citizen? Patron/client relationship Protection/dependence social glue
Section Quiz 9-1 DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in with an item in. 1. lived in convents 2. fine paid by a wrongdoer 3. religious pratice of monks 4. bishop of Rome 5. Charles the Great A. wergild
Chapter 17: THE FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIAN SOCIETY IN WESTERN EUROPE While other parts of the world were experiencing unprecedented prosperity during the postclassical era, Europe's economy underwent a sharp
LG 1: Explain how Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy were unifying social and political forces in Western Europe and Byzantine Europe and identify the impact of ideas contained in Justinian s Code
Objectives Understand how geography influenced the rise of Russia. Describe the growth of Kiev. Explain how Mongol rule affected Russia. Describe how Moscow took the lead in Russia and how its rulers developed
WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. by a) explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the
Middle Ages World History Era of relative peace and stability Population growth Cultural developments in education and art Kings, nobles, and the Church shared power Developed tax systems and government
The Byzantine Empire By History.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 11.27.17 Word Count 1,009 Level 1060L Emperor Justinian and members of his court. Image from the public domain The origins of the Byzantine
SSWH 7 Analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. SSWH 7 A Explain the manorial system and feudal relationships, include: the status of peasants and feudal
A crown from the Holy Roman Empire. Feudalism and the manor system created divisions among people. Shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. Priests and other religious officials
Chapter 10: Medieval Kingdoms in Europe, 800 1300 Lesson 3: The Growth of European Kingdoms World History Bell Ringer #45 1-12-18 1. How did craft guilds improve economic conditions in cities? A. Encouraged
Medieval Europe 500-1350 Dark Ages 500 800 High Middle Ages 800 1350 The German Kingdoms Romans loyal to Rome vs. Germans loyal to local war chiefs Romans speak Latin Germans speak German. German law based
The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe Chapter 8 Section 2 Decline & Fall of Rome The Romans are no longer a world superpower so what the heck happened? 1. Military Problems 2. Economic Problems 3. Political
World History Mid-term Exam Review Social Studies Team Scholars that study and write about the historical past are Objects made by humans such as clothing, coins, artwork, and tombstones are called The
World Civilizations The Global Experience AP Seventh Edition Chapter 10 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Figure 10.1 This 15th-century miniature shows Russia s King Vladimir
BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. Also
The Rise of the Franks through Charlemagne (c.500-840) Much of Europe's destiny would be tied in with a new Germanic power, the Franks. This tribe had played a minor role in the breakup of the Roman Empire.
The European Middle Ages What happened to the Roman Empire? By the end of the 5 th century, Germanic invaders had destroyed the Roman Empire This led to Disruption of trade Downfall of cities Population
Name CHAPTER 13 Section 1 (pages 353 357) Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms BEFORE YOU READ In the last section, you read about Southeast Asian kingdoms and Korean dynasties. In this section, you will
Chapter 14 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe OUTLINE I. Introduction Two civilizations survived in postclassical Europe: the Byzantine Empire and its culturally related cultures
European Middle Ages, 500-1200 Charlemagne unites the Germanic kingdoms, the feudal system emerges, and the Church strongly influences the lives of people in Europe. European Middle Ages, 500-1200 SECTION
Medieval Europe 800 Years Without the Light of Knowledge Dark Ages - the Age of Feudalism Medieval Europe began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. With the destruction of Roman civilization,
Chapter 10 Learning Guide The Worlds of European Christendom Main Idea 1 When Rome split into 2 halves, the eastern half of the empire flourished and became wealthier, more urbanized, and had access to
CHAPTER 8 Medieval Europe Clovis, King of the Franks, converted to Christianity near the end of the fifth century. He converted because his wife kept begging him to do so, and because he wanted the help
BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. Also
People use the phrase Middle Ages to describe Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 A.D and about the year 1500 A.D. Many scholars call the era the medieval period instead! Middle Ages, they say, incorrectly
State Formation in Western Europe (Chapters 17 and 20) The Middle Ages Clarification Western Europe (500-1500 CE) = The Middle Ages) 500-1000 CE = the Medieval Period; The Dark Ages Much of Roman Civilization
Middle Ages: Feudalism - Study Guide - -Franks and Charlemagne - 1. List all names for the Middle Ages. 2. What did Charles The Hammer Martel do? 3. Explain Charlemagne s accomplishments. 4. Explain the
Chapter 10 Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations Section 1 The Byzantine Empire Capital of Byzantine Empire Constantinople Protected by Greek Fire Constantinople Controlled by: Roman Empire Christians Byzantines
Slide 1 The Barbarian Invasions: The Migration Period in Europe, 300-700 C.E. Student Handouts, Inc. www.studenthandouts.com Slide 2 End of the Roman Empire 476 C.E. Traditional date for the end of the
October 6, 2006 Ms. Renella Chapter 9 The Roman empire has been divided since 200s. The western half declined, the eastern half rose in importance. The Byzantine empire remained a political and cultural
UNIT 3: EMPIRES OF FAITH Medieval Europe Notes I. Post-Roman Western Europe A. people began moving into Roman territory in the third century AD. a. By 500 AD the Western Roman Empire had fallen. b. Germans
A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by: www.cainaweb.org Early Church Growth & Threats Patristic Period & Great Councils Rise of Christendom High Medieval Church Renaissance to Reformation
Lesson 1: The Early Middle Ages Topic 7: Medieval Christian Europe OBJECTIVES Summarize ways in which the Byzantine empire flourished after the decline of Rome Explain the impact of the fall of Rome on
The Formation of Western Europe, 800 500 The Formation of Western Europe, 800 500 Europeans embark on the Crusades, develop new commercial and political systems, and suffer through bubonic plague and the
Unit 9: Early Middle Ages Standard(s) of Learning: WHI.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of Western Europe during the Middle Ages from about 500 to 1000 AD in terms of its impact on Western Civilization
UNIT 3: MIDDLE AGES STUDY GUIDE I can explain how feudalism worked and why it emerged in the Middle Ages DIRECTIONS: Use the word bank below to fill in the Pyramid Pope/church, Kings, Nobles, Merchants/craftsmen,
AP European History Summer Assignment Due: First day of class To complete this assignment you will need your textbook, The Western Heritage, which can be picked up from the school library on the following
People use the phrase Middle Ages to describe Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 CE and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Many scholars call the era the medieval period instead;
The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins 1. What happened to Rome in 410 AD? 2. Why would this sack of Rome be physiologically crushing to the Romans? 3. Who is Alaric? 4. What are Alaric and his Visigoths
Kievan Russ and The Huns Clementine & Michelle Essential Question: How did the Huns impact Europe? How did the Huns affect the Roman Empire and the Dark ages? Why did the decline of Constantinople present
Chapter 14: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Chapter 15: A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe Chapter 16: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion Read Chapters 14-16 from
The Middle Ages The Basics When? What? (fall of Roman Empire) - Between 400-600, small kingdoms replaced provinces - Germans? How did that happen? Impact of Germanic Invasions Concept of Government Changes
Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism 1. After the fall of Rome, the migrations of Germanic peoples created several Germanic kingdoms in Europe. 2. The Franks had the strongest of these kingdoms, and
Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact, 500-1500 Byzantine, Russian, and Turkish cultures develop, while Christian and Islamic societies fight over religious issues and territory. Byzantines, Russians,
Early Russia Kiev to Moscow Kievan Rus Settlement Kievan Rus Kiev developed along the Dnieper River, important trade route connecting Baltic Sea and Black Sea. Influenced by both Vikings and Byzantines