# INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC 1 Sets, Relations, and Arguments

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1 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC 1 Sets, Relations, and Arguments Volker Halbach Pure logic is the ruin of the spirit. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

2 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual

3 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual web page for the book: Exercises Booklet

4 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual web page for the book: Exercises Booklet More Exercises by Peter Fritz

5 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual web page for the book: Exercises Booklet More Exercises by Peter Fritz slides of the lectures

6 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual web page for the book: Exercises Booklet More Exercises by Peter Fritz slides of the lectures worked examples

7 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual web page for the book: Exercises Booklet More Exercises by Peter Fritz slides of the lectures worked examples past examination papers with solutions

8 The Logic Manual The Logic Manual web page for the book: Exercises Booklet More Exercises by Peter Fritz slides of the lectures worked examples past examination papers with solutions Mark Sainsbury: Logical Forms: An Introduction to Philosophical Logic, Blackwell, second edition, 2001

9 Why logic?

10 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument.

11 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument. Philosophy is all about arguments and reasoning.

12 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument. Philosophy is all about arguments and reasoning. Logic allows us to test validity rigorously.

13 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument. Philosophy is all about arguments and reasoning. Logic allows us to test validity rigorously. Modern philosophy assumes familiarity with logic.

14 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument. Philosophy is all about arguments and reasoning. Logic allows us to test validity rigorously. Modern philosophy assumes familiarity with logic. Used in linguistics, mathematics, computer science,...

15 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument. Philosophy is all about arguments and reasoning. Logic allows us to test validity rigorously. Modern philosophy assumes familiarity with logic. Used in linguistics, mathematics, computer science,... Helps us make fine-grained conceptual distinctions.

16 Why logic? Logic is the scientific study of valid argument. Philosophy is all about arguments and reasoning. Logic allows us to test validity rigorously. Modern philosophy assumes familiarity with logic. Used in linguistics, mathematics, computer science,... Helps us make fine-grained conceptual distinctions. Logic is compulsory.

17 Arguments 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Definition Sentences that are true or false are called declarative sentences. In what follows I will focus exclusively on declarative sentences.

18 Arguments 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Definition Sentences that are true or false are called declarative sentences. In what follows I will focus exclusively on declarative sentences. Definition An argument consists of a set of declarative sentences (the premisses) and a declarative sentence (the conclusion) somehow marked as the concluded sentence.

19 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming.

20 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming. I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me is a premiss.

21 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming. I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me is a premiss. I can see the computer in front of me is a premiss.

22 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming. I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me is a premiss. I can see the computer in front of me is a premiss. I m not dreaming is the conclusion, which is marked by therefore. 40

23 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Occasionally the conclusion precedes the premisses or is found between premisses. The conclusion needn t be marked as such by therefore or a similar phrase.

24 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Occasionally the conclusion precedes the premisses or is found between premisses. The conclusion needn t be marked as such by therefore or a similar phrase. Alternative ways to express the argument:

25 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Occasionally the conclusion precedes the premisses or is found between premisses. The conclusion needn t be marked as such by therefore or a similar phrase. Alternative ways to express the argument: Example I m not dreaming. For if I can see the computer in front of me I m not dreaming, and I can see the computer in front of me.

26 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Occasionally the conclusion precedes the premisses or is found between premisses. The conclusion needn t be marked as such by therefore or a similar phrase. Alternative ways to express the argument: Example I m not dreaming. For if I can see the computer in front of me I m not dreaming, and I can see the computer in front of me. Example I m not dreaming, if I can see the computer in front of me. Thus, I m not dreaming. This is because I can see the computer in front of me.

27 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction The point of good arguments is that the truth of the premisses guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Many arguments with this property exhibit certain patterns. Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming.

28 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction The point of good arguments is that the truth of the premisses guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Many arguments with this property exhibit certain patterns. Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming. Example Fiona can open the dvi-file if yap is installed. yap is installed. Therefore Fiona can open the dvi-file.

29 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction The point of good arguments is that the truth of the premisses guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Many arguments with this property exhibit certain patterns. Example I m not dreaming if I can see the computer in front of me. I can see the computer in front of me. Therefore I m not dreaming. Example Fiona can open the dvi-file if yap is installed. yap is installed. Therefore Fiona can open the dvi-file. general form of both arguments A if B. B. Therefore A. Logicians are interested in the patterns of good arguments that cannot take one from true premisses to a false conclusion.

30 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation An argument is logically (or formally) valid if and only if there is no interpretation under which the premisses are all true and the conclusion is false.

31 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation An argument is logically (or formally) valid if and only if there is no interpretation under which the premisses are all true and the conclusion is false. Example Zeno is a tortoise. All tortoises are toothless. Therefore Zeno is toothless.

32 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation An argument is logically (or formally) valid if and only if there is no interpretation under which the premisses are all true and the conclusion is false. Example Zeno is a tortoise. All tortoises are toothless. Therefore Zeno is toothless. Example Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Therefore Socrates is mortal.

33 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Features of logically valid arguments: The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses independently what the subject-specific expressions mean. Whatever tortoises are, whoever Zeno is, whatever exists: if the premisses of the argument are true the conclusion will be true.

34 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Features of logically valid arguments: The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses independently what the subject-specific expressions mean. Whatever tortoises are, whoever Zeno is, whatever exists: if the premisses of the argument are true the conclusion will be true. The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses purely in virtue of the form of the argument and independently of any subject-specific assumptions.

35 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Features of logically valid arguments: The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses independently what the subject-specific expressions mean. Whatever tortoises are, whoever Zeno is, whatever exists: if the premisses of the argument are true the conclusion will be true. The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses purely in virtue of the form of the argument and independently of any subject-specific assumptions. It s not possible that the premisses of a logically valid argument are true and its conclusion is false.

36 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Features of logically valid arguments: The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses independently what the subject-specific expressions mean. Whatever tortoises are, whoever Zeno is, whatever exists: if the premisses of the argument are true the conclusion will be true. The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses purely in virtue of the form of the argument and independently of any subject-specific assumptions. It s not possible that the premisses of a logically valid argument are true and its conclusion is false. In a logically valid argument the conclusion can be false (in that case at least one of its premisses is false).

37 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Features of logically valid arguments: The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses independently what the subject-specific expressions mean. Whatever tortoises are, whoever Zeno is, whatever exists: if the premisses of the argument are true the conclusion will be true. The truth of the conclusion follows from the truth of the premisses purely in virtue of the form of the argument and independently of any subject-specific assumptions. It s not possible that the premisses of a logically valid argument are true and its conclusion is false. In a logically valid argument the conclusion can be false (in that case at least one of its premisses is false). Validity does not depend on the meanings of subject-specific expressions.

38 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction The following argument isn t logically valid: Example Every eu citizen can enter the us without a visa. Max is a citizen of Sweden. Therefore Max can enter the us without a visa.

39 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction The following argument isn t logically valid: Example Every eu citizen can enter the us without a visa. Max is a citizen of Sweden. Therefore Max can enter the us without a visa. However, one can transform it into a logically valid argument by adding a premiss: 30 Example Every eu citizen can enter the us without a visa. Max is a citizen of Sweden. Every citizen of Sweden is a eu citizen. Therefore Max can enter the us without a visa.

40 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation (consistency) A set of sentences is consistent if and only if there is a least one interpretation under which all sentences of the set are true.

41 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation (consistency) A set of sentences is consistent if and only if there is a least one interpretation under which all sentences of the set are true. Characterisation (logical truth) A sentence is logically true if and only if it is true under any interpretation. All metaphysicians are metaphysicians.

42 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation (contradiction) A sentence is a contradiction if and only if it is false under any interpretation. Some metaphysicians who are also ethicists aren t metaphysicians.

43 1.5 Arguments, Validity, and Contradiction Characterisation (contradiction) A sentence is a contradiction if and only if it is false under any interpretation. Some metaphysicians who are also ethicists aren t metaphysicians. I ll make these notions precise for the formal languages or propositional and predicate logic.

44 Sets 1.1 Sets The following is not really logic in the strict sense but we ll need it later and it is useful in other areas as well.

45 Sets 1.1 Sets The following is not really logic in the strict sense but we ll need it later and it is useful in other areas as well. Characterisation A set is a collection of objects.

46 Sets 1.1 Sets The following is not really logic in the strict sense but we ll need it later and it is useful in other areas as well. Characterisation A set is a collection of objects. The objects in the set are the elements of the set.

47 Sets 1.1 Sets The following is not really logic in the strict sense but we ll need it later and it is useful in other areas as well. Characterisation A set is a collection of objects. The objects in the set are the elements of the set. There is a set that has exactly all books as elements.

48 Sets 1.1 Sets The following is not really logic in the strict sense but we ll need it later and it is useful in other areas as well. Characterisation A set is a collection of objects. The objects in the set are the elements of the set. There is a set that has exactly all books as elements. There is a set that has Volker Halbach as its only element. 25

49 1.1 Sets Sets are identical if and only if they have the same elements. Example The set of all animals with kidneys and the set of all animals with a heart are identical, because exactly those animals that have kidneys also have a heart and vice versa.

50 The claim a is an element of S can be written as a S. One also says S contains a or a is in S. 1.1 Sets

51 1.1 Sets The claim a is an element of S can be written as a S. One also says S contains a or a is in S. There is exactly one set with no elements. The symbol for this set is.

52 1.1 Sets The claim a is an element of S can be written as a S. One also says S contains a or a is in S. There is exactly one set with no elements. The symbol for this set is. The set {Oxford,, Volker Halbach} has as its elements exactly three things: Oxford, the empty set, and me.

53 1.1 Sets The claim a is an element of S can be written as a S. One also says S contains a or a is in S. There is exactly one set with no elements. The symbol for this set is. The set {Oxford,, Volker Halbach} has as its elements exactly three things: Oxford, the empty set, and me. Here is another way to denote sets: { d d is an animal with a heart } is the set of all animals with a heart. It has as its elements exactly all animals with a heart.

54 1.1 Sets Example {Oxford,, Volker Halbach} = {Volker Halbach, Oxford, }

55 1.1 Sets Example {Oxford,, Volker Halbach} = {Volker Halbach, Oxford, } Example {the capital of England, Munich} = {London, Munich, the capital of England}

56 1.1 Sets Example {Oxford,, Volker Halbach} = {Volker Halbach, Oxford, } Example {the capital of England, Munich} = {London, Munich, the capital of England} Example Mars {d d is a planet }

57 1.1 Sets Example {Oxford,, Volker Halbach} = {Volker Halbach, Oxford, } Example {the capital of England, Munich} = {London, Munich, the capital of England} Example Mars {d d is a planet } Example { } 15

58 Relations 1.2 Binary relations The set {London, Munich} is the same set as {Munich, London}.

59 Relations 1.2 Binary relations The set {London, Munich} is the same set as {Munich, London}. The ordered pair London, Munich is different from the ordered pair Munich, London.

60 Relations 1.2 Binary relations The set {London, Munich} is the same set as {Munich, London}. The ordered pair London, Munich is different from the ordered pair Munich, London. Ordered pairs are identical if and only if the agree in their first and second components, or more formally: d, e = f, g iff (d = f and e = g) The abbreviation iff stands for if and only if.

61 Relations 1.2 Binary relations The set {London, Munich} is the same set as {Munich, London}. The ordered pair London, Munich is different from the ordered pair Munich, London. Ordered pairs are identical if and only if the agree in their first and second components, or more formally: d, e = f, g iff (d = f and e = g) The abbreviation iff stands for if and only if. There are also triples (3-tuples) like London, Munich, Rome, quadruples, 5-tuples, 6-tuples etc.

62 Definition A set is a binary relation if and only if it contains only ordered pairs. 1.2 Binary relations

63 1.2 Binary relations Definition A set is a binary relation if and only if it contains only ordered pairs. The empty set doesn t contain anything that s not an ordered pair; therefore it s a relation.

64 1.2 Binary relations Definition A set is a binary relation if and only if it contains only ordered pairs. The empty set doesn t contain anything that s not an ordered pair; therefore it s a relation. Example The relation of being a bigger city than is the set { London, Munich, London, Birmingham, Paris, Milan...}.

65 1.2 Binary relations The following set is a binary relation: { France, Italy, Italy, Austria, France, France, Italy, Italy, Austria, Austria }

66 1.2 Binary relations The following set is a binary relation: { France, Italy, Italy, Austria, France, France, Italy, Italy, Austria, Austria } Some relations can be visualised by diagrams. Every pair corresponds to an arrow: France Italy Austria

67 I ll mention only some properties of relations. 1.2 Binary relations

68 1.2 Binary relations I ll mention only some properties of relations. Definition A binary relation R is symmetric iff for all d, e: if d, e R then e, d R.

69 1.2 Binary relations I ll mention only some properties of relations. Definition A binary relation R is symmetric iff for all d, e: if d, e R then e, d R. The relation with the following diagram isn t symmetric: France Austria Italy The pair Austria, Italy is in the relation, but the pair Italy, Austria isn t.

70 1.2 Binary relations The relation with the following diagram is symmetric. France Austria Italy

71 1.2 Binary relations Definition A binary relation is transitive iff for all d, e, f : if d, e R and e, f R, then also d, f R In the diagram of a transitive relation there is for any two-arrow way from an point to a point a direct arrow.

72 1.2 Binary relations Definition A binary relation is transitive iff for all d, e, f : if d, e R and e, f R, then also d, f R In the diagram of a transitive relation there is for any two-arrow way from an point to a point a direct arrow. This is the diagram of a relation that s not transitive: France Austria Italy This is the diagram of a relation that is transitive: France Austria Italy

73 1.2 Binary relations Definition A binary relation R is reflexive on a set S iff for all d in S the pair d, d is an element of R.

74 1.2 Binary relations Definition A binary relation R is reflexive on a set S iff for all d in S the pair d, d is an element of R. The relation with the following diagram is reflexive on the set {France, Austria, Italy}. France Italy Austria 5

75 1.2 Binary relations The relation with the following diagram is not reflexive on {France, Austria, Italy}, but reflexive on {France, Austria}: France Austria Italy

76 Functions Definition A binary relation R is a function iff for all d, e, f : if d, e R and d, f R then e = f. 1.3 Functions

77 Functions Definition A binary relation R is a function iff for all d, e, f : if d, e R and d, f R then e = f. 1.3 Functions The relation with the following diagram is a function: France Austria Italy There is at most one arrow leaving from every point in the diagram of a function.

78 1.3 Functions Example The set of all ordered pairs d, e such that e is mother of d is a function. This justifies talking about the mother of so-and-so.

79 1.3 Functions Example The set of all ordered pairs d, e such that e is mother of d is a function. This justifies talking about the mother of so-and-so. You might know examples of the following kind from school: Example The set of all pairs d, d 2 where d is some real number is a function. One can t write down all the pairs, but the function would look like this: { 2, 4, 1, 1, 5, 25, 1 2, }

80 1.3 Functions Example The set of all ordered pairs d, e such that e is mother of d is a function. This justifies talking about the mother of so-and-so. You might know examples of the following kind from school: Example The set of all pairs d, d 2 where d is some real number is a function. One can t write down all the pairs, but the function would look like this: { 2, 4, 1, 1, 5, 25, 1 2, } One also think of a function as something that yields an output, e.g. 25 when given an input, e.g. 5, or that assigns the value 25 to the argument 5.

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