2 Arguments Philosophy has two main methods for trying to answer questions: analysis and arguments Logic is the the study of arguments An argument is a set of sentences, one of which is trying to be proven. The sentence to be proven is called the conclusion The claims in an argument which are not the conclusion are called premises
3 Good and Bad Arguments Once you have a set of sentences in which premises try to establish a conclusion, you have an argument. Then what? In philosophy, we are not just concerned with arguments, but with good arguments. What makes an argument good or bad? Consider the following: (1) Notre Dame is in Indiana (2) Indiana is in the midwest (C) Notre Dame is good at basketball.
4 (1) Notre Dame is in Indiana (2) Indiana is in the midwest (C) Notre Dame is good at basketball. Why is this a bad argument? (1) is true. (2) is true. (C) is true...usually and at the moment. So what is the problem? The issue is not with one of the statements, but with how the argument moves from the premises to the conclusion. The premises have nothing to do with whether or not the conclusion is true. Some years, sadly, both premises are true and the conclusion is false. If an argument is such that all its premises could be true and its conclusion false we call it invalid. Conversely, if it is impossible for all the premises of an argument to be true and the conclusion false (i.e. the premises guarantee the conclusion) we call it valid.
5 (1) Tom Brady plays for the Patriots. (2) The Patriots are all cheaters. (C) Tom Brady is a cheater. Valid (1) Julio Jones doesn t play for the Patriots. (2) The Patriots are all cheaters. (C) Julio Jones isn t a cheater. Invalid
6 (1) If Frodo destroys the ring Sauron will die. (2) Sauron died. (C) Frodo destroyed the ring. Invalid (1) If Frodo blows up the Death Star, Voldemort will die. (2) Frodo blew up the Death Star. (C) Voldemort died. Valid
7 Modal vs. Formal Validity Is the following argument valid? (1) Leslie is from Indiana (C) Leslie is a hoosier. Strictly speaking, it is not possible for the premise to be true and the conclusion false, so it is valid by the above standard (call this modal validity) However one would only know the validity if one also knew the fact that people from Indiana are called hoosiers
8 Modal vs. Formal Validity An argument is formally valid if it would be valid for any interpretation of the non-logical words (nouns, adjectives, etc.) (1) Leslie is from Indiana (C) Leslie is a hoosier. While modally valid, this argument is not formally valid, because hoosier could be a term for people from Illinois However, we can make it formally valid by filling in the missing assumption.
9 Modal vs. Formal Validity (1) Leslie is from Indiana (2) People from Indiana are hoosiers. (C) Leslie is a hoosier. Formally valid arguments, like this one, show their assumptions. While we will strictly evaluate for validity, it is worth trying for formal validity when formulating an argument.
10 Other Evaluations Logic is concerned entirely with the reasoning of arguments. This means logicians only evaluate validity and invalidity. As philosophers, there are more ways we can evaluate arguments, but we should always start with evaluating validity. One other thing we are concerned with is whether or not the premises are true. However, it does us no good to merely know the truth of the premises and conclusion. Consider: (1) The sun is bigger than the moon.true (2) Milk comes from cows. True (C) Tigers are carnivorous. True Is this argument helpful in any way? Why not? Arguments are supposed to move Introduction you to from Logic things you know
11 Soundness We only care about the truth of the premises if we already know that the argument is valid. If an argument is valid and its premises are true, then we call the argument sound. Notice that a sound argument will always have a true conclusion. This is precisely why sound arguments are useful.
12 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. (1) Tom Brady plays for the Patriots. True (2) The Patriots are all cheaters. False (C) Tom Brady is a cheater. Valid Unsound (1) Julio Jones doesn t play for the Patriots. (2) The Patriots are all cheaters. (C) Julio Jones isn t a cheater. Invalid Unsound
13 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. (1) Meryl Streep criticized Trump. True (2) Trump tweets negative comments about anyone who criticizes him. True (C) Trump tweeted negative comments about Meryl Streep. Valid SoundTrue (1) You showed up to class today. True (2) If you showed up to class today, you got an A on the quiz. False (C) You got an A on the quiz. Valid True? Unsound
14 to Anbe argument true andisthe sound conclusion if and only false. if it is valid and the premises are true. There are many other ways one could evaluate an argument. The last one we will look at is a bit subjective, but still can be important for certain purposes. Consider the following argument: (1) If atheists belief that there is no God is true, then there is no God. True (2) Atheists belief that there is no God is true. Maybe (C) There is no God. Valid Sound? Suppose this is a sound argument; is it then a good argument? Why might someone be unsatisfied with it? Let us call an argument informative if and only if the premises are more plausible than the conclusion.
15 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) All men are mortal. (2) Socrates is a man. (C) Socrates is mortal. Valid Sound Informative
16 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) Everyone who shows up to class gets an A. (2) Johnny got an A. (C) Johnny showed up to class. Invalid Unsound
17 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) Some Students have false beliefs. (2) I am a student who has false beliefs. (C) I have false beliefs. Valid Sound Uninformative
18 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) Snow is white. (2) Snow is cold. (C) Today is Tuesday. Invalid
19 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) All men are mortal. (C) All men are mortal. Valid Sound Uninformative
20 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) All gingers have souls. (2) Some students are not gingers. (C) Some students do not have souls. Invalid
21 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) No one should judge someone who is a part of a different culture. (2) None of us was a part of Nazi culture. (C) None of us should judge the Nazis. Valid Unsound
22 An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true. An argument is informative if and only if its premises are more plausible than its conclusion. Evaluate the following for validity, soundness, and informativeness. If it is invalid, show that it is invalid: (1) If the mind could exist without the body, then a person could survive death. (2) The mind can exist without the body. (C) A person can survive death. Valid Sound? Informative
23 Important Arguments Certain types of argument recur often enough that they deserve special attention. The ones we will focus on for this class are those involving if-then statements. If-then statements occur often in philosophy both because they can be used to express causal or other connections, and because they are connected with/can be supplied by necessary and sufficient conditions, which we have seen can be used to analyze concepts. If P then Q = P is sufficient for Q = P Q P only if Q (If Q then P) = P is necessary for Q = P Q P iff Q = P is necessary and sufficient for Q = P Q
24 The 4 forms Antecedent Consequent There are 4 and only 4 ways one can argue using an if-then statement Affirm (1) If P then Q (2) P (C) Q Modus Ponens (1) If P then Q (2) Q (C) P Affirming the Consequent Deny (1) If P then Q (2) Not P (C) Not Q Denying the Antecedent (1) If P then Q (2) Not Q (C) Not P Modus Tollens
25 Is the following argument Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Affirming the Consequent, or Denying the Antecedent? Is it valid? (1) If the Cubs won the world series, then the curse is broken. (2) The Cubs won the word series. (C) The curse is broken. Modus Ponens (1) If it rains, the sidewalks will be wet. (2) It did not rain. (C) The sidewalks are not wet. Denying the Antecedent
26 Is the following argument Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Affirming the Consequent, or Denying the Antecedent? Is it valid? (1) If a student goes to Notre Dame, then they are Catholic. (2) Pope Francis does not go to Notre Dame. (C) Pope Francis is not Catholic. Denying the Antecedent (1) If the government tracks where you are, they are invading your privacy. (2) The government is invading your privacy. (C) The government tracks where you are. Affirming the Consequent
27 Is the following argument Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Affirming the Consequent, or Denying the Antecedent? Is it valid? (1) If something is a table, then it has a flat surface. (2) The chair does not have a flat surface. (C) The chair is not a table. Modus Tollens (1) If this argument is not Modus Ponens, then it is Modus Tollens. (2) This argument is not Modus Tollens. (C) This argument is Modus Ponens. Modus Tollens
28 Formalization Outside of a philosophy classroom you will rarely encounter arguments in explicit premise-conclusion form. Instead, you are much more likely to come across them as paragraphs following no rigorous structure. So why do philosophers bother to state them in this way? CLARITY! when arguments are stated in premise-conclusion form it is much easier to evaluate whether or not they are valid. Furthermore, if an argument is valid but rests on a false assumption, it is much easier to point out the false assumption if one can point to an explicit premise which is false.
29 Consider the following argument: Notre Dame should invite Trump to speak at commencement because like it or not he is the President and they always invite newly-elected Presidents to speak. We can formalize this argument: (1) Notre Dame always invites newly elected Presidents to speak at commencement. (2) Donald Trump is the newly elected President. (3) If Notre Dame has always done something, then they should always do it. False (C) Therefore, Notre Dame should invite Donald Trump to speak at commencement. InvalidValidUnsound
30 Formalizing When turning paragraphs into explicit arguments there are a few things to keep in mind: Figure out what is actually being argued the conclusion isn t always the last sentence of the paragraph Eliminate unnecessary information Paragraphs will often include other information not relevant to the argument at hand Simplify the premises as much as possible Try to make arguments valid; be as charitable as possible when interpreting people. If there is an assumption that is needed to make an argument valid fill it in, but mark it as something you added.
31 Turn the following argument into explicit premise-conclusion form: Every person has a right to life. So the fetus has a right to life. Not doubt the mother has a right to decide what shall happen in and to her body; everyone would grant that. But surely a person s right to life is stronger and more stringent than the mother s right to decide what happens in and to her body, and so outweighs it. So the fetus may not be killed; an abortion may not be performed.
32 Turn the following argument into explicit premise-conclusion form: The development of a human being from conception through birth into childhood is continuous; to draw a line, to choose a point in this development and say before this point the thing is not a person, after this point it is a person is to make an arbitrary choice, a choice for which in the nature of things no good reason can be given. Therefore, the fetus is, or should be treated like, a person from the moment of conception.
University of Notre Dame Fall, 2015 Arguments Philosophy is difficult. If questions are easy to decide, they usually don t end up in philosophy The easiest way to proceed on difficult questions is to formulate
Philosophy 1100: Ethics Topic 1 - Course Introduction: 1. What is Philosophy? 2. What is Ethics? 3. Logic a. Truth b. Arguments c. Validity d. Soundness What is Philosophy? The Three Fundamental Questions
Lecture 3 Arguments Jim Pryor What is an Argument? Jim Pryor Vocabulary Describing Arguments 1 Agenda 1. What is an Argument? 2. Evaluating Arguments 3. Validity 4. Soundness 5. Persuasive Arguments 6.
PHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy Session 3 September 9 th, 2015 All About Arguments (Part II) 1 A common theme linking many fallacies is that they make unwarranted assumptions. An assumption is a claim
Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations
Logic Book Part 1 by Skylar Ruloff Contents Introduction 3 I Validity and Soundness 4 II Argument Forms 10 III Counterexamples and Categorical Statements 15 IV Strength and Cogency 21 2 Introduction This
Lecture 1: Validity & Soundness 1 Goals Today Introduce one of our central topics: validity and soundness, and its connection to one of our primary course goals, namely: learning how to evaluate arguments
Relevance Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provide some evidence that the conclusion is true Premises are irrelevant when they do not 1 Non Sequitur Latin for it does
LOGIC ANTHONY KAPOLKA FYF 101-9/3/2010 LIBERALLY EDUCATED PEOPLE......RESPECT RIGOR NOT SO MUCH FOR ITS OWN SAKE BUT AS A WAY OF SEEKING TRUTH. LOGIC PUZZLE COOPER IS MURDERED. 3 SUSPECTS: SMITH, JONES,
A short introduction to formal logic Dan Hicks v0.3.2, July 20, 2012 Thanks to Tim Pawl and my Fall 2011 Intro to Philosophy students for feedback on earlier versions. My approach to teaching logic has
A03.1 Introduction Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: With valid arguments, it is impossible to have a false conclusion if the premises are all true. Obviously valid arguments play a very important
Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential
Exercise Sets KS Philosophical Logic: Modality, Conditionals Vagueness Dirk Kindermann University of Graz July 2014 1 Exercise Set 1 Propositional and Predicate Logic 1. Use Definition 1.1 (Handout I Propositional
Arguments Man: Ah. I d like to have an argument, please. Receptionist: Certainly sir. Have you been here before? Man: No, I haven t, this is my first time. Receptionist: I see. Well, do you want to have
A Primer on Logic Part 1: Preliminaries and Vocabulary Jason Zarri 1. An Easy $10.00? Suppose someone were to bet you $10.00 that you would fail a seemingly simple test of your reasoning skills. Feeling
What does it mean to provide an argument for a statement? To provide an argument for a statement is an activity we carry out both in our everyday lives and within the sciences. We provide arguments for
Chapter 3: More Deductive Reasoning (Symbolic Logic) There's no easy way to say this, the material you're about to learn in this chapter can be pretty hard for some students. Other students, on the other
Critical Thinking Lecture Four October 5, 2012 Chapter 3 Deductive Argument Patterns Diagramming Arguments Deductive Argument Patterns - There are some common patterns shared by many deductive arguments
PHILOSOPHER S TOOL KIT PROFESSOR JULIE YOO 1. Arguments 1.1 Deductive vs Induction Arguments 1.2 Common Deductive Argument Forms 1.3 Common Inductive Argument Forms 1.4 Deduction: Validity and Soundness
Pryor, Jim. (2006) Guidelines on Reading Philosophy, What is An Argument?, Vocabulary Describing Arguments. Published at http://www.jimpryor.net/teaching/guidelines/reading.html, and http://www.jimpryor.net/teaching/vocab/index.html
L4: Reasoning Dani Navarro Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning Informal reasoning WE talk of man* being the rational animal; and the traditional intellectualist philosophy has always made a great point
The cosmological argument (continued) Remember that last time we arrived at the following interpretation of Aquinas second way: Aquinas 2nd way 1. At least one thing has been caused to come into existence.
1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by
Chapter 1 What is Philosophy? Thinking Philosophically About Life Why Study Philosophy? Defining Philosophy Studying philosophy in a serious and reflective way will change you as a person Philosophy Is
MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC FOR PRIVATE REGISTRATION TO BA PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMME 1. Logic is the science of-----------. A) Thought B) Beauty C) Mind D) Goodness 2. Aesthetics is the science of ------------.
Lecture 9: Propositional Logic I Philosophy 130 1 & 3 November 2016 O Rourke & Gibson I. Administrative A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November B. I am working on the group
Handout 1: Arguments -- the basics It is useful to think of an argument as a list of sentences. The last sentence is the conclusion, and the other sentences are the premises. Thus: (1) No professors
Syllogistic Reasoning Thinking and Reasoning Syllogistic Reasoning Erol ÖZÇELİK The other key type of deductive reasoning is syllogistic reasoning, which is based on the use of syllogisms. Syllogisms are
Philosophy 10100 Introduction to Philosophy Jeff Speaks email@example.com What is philosophy? What is philosophy? Philosophy comes from the ancient Greek φιλοσοφία philosophia. philosophia = philo + sophia
Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic Standardizing and Diagramming In Reason and the Balance we have taken the approach of using a simple outline to standardize short arguments,
ACADEMIC SKILLS THINKING CRITICALLY In the everyday sense of the word, critical has negative connotations. But at University, Critical Thinking is a positive process of understanding different points of
Explanation for Question 1 in Quiz 8 by Norva Lo - Tuesday, 18 September 2012, 9:39 AM The following is the solution for Question 1 in Quiz 8: (a) Which term in the argument is being equivocated. (b) What
Handout 1 ELEMENTS OF LOGIC 1.1 What is Logic? Arguments and Propositions In our day to day lives, we find ourselves arguing with other people. Sometimes we want someone to do or accept something as true
Organon F 23 (2) 2016: xxx-xxx Between the Actual and the Trivial World MACIEJ SENDŁAK Institute of Philosophy. University of Szczecin Ul. Krakowska 71-79. 71-017 Szczecin. Poland firstname.lastname@example.org
ARGUMENTS IN ACTION Descriptions: creates a textual/verbal account of what something is, was, or could be (shape, size, colour, etc.) Used to give you or your audience a mental picture of the world around
Appendix: The Logic Behind the Inferential Test In the Introduction, I stated that the basic underlying problem with forensic doctors is so easy to understand that even a twelve-year-old could understand
Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions Christopher Menzel Texas A&M University March 16, 2008 Since Arthur Prior first made us aware of the issue, a lot of philosophical thought has gone into
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University Chapter 2 Analyzing Arguments 2.1 Introduction Now that we have gotten our "mental muscles" warmed up, let's see how well we can put our newly
PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC AND LANGUAGE WEEK 5: MODEL-THEORETIC CONSEQUENCE JONNY MCINTOSH OVERVIEW Last week, I discussed various strands of thought about the concept of LOGICAL CONSEQUENCE, introducing Tarski's
ILLOCUTIONARY ORIGINS OF FAMILIAR LOGICAL OPERATORS 1. ACTS OF USING LANGUAGE Illocutionary logic is the logic of speech acts, or language acts. Systems of illocutionary logic have both an ontological,
16. Universal derivation 16.1 An example: the Meno In one of Plato s dialogues, the Meno, Socrates uses questions and prompts to direct a young slave boy to see that if we want to make a square that has
LOGIC GUIDE 2 To better understand VALIDITY, we now turn to the topic of logical form. LOGICAL FORM The logical form of a statement or argument is the skeleton, or structure. If you retain only the words
What is an argument? PHIL 110 Lecture on Chapter 3 of How to think about weird things An argument is a collection of two or more claims, one of which is the conclusion and the rest of which are the premises.
1 A Brief Introduction to Key Terms 5 A Brief Introduction to Key Terms 1.1 Arguments Arguments crop up in conversations, political debates, lectures, editorials, comic strips, novels, television programs,
Introduction to Analyzing and Evaluating Arguments 1. HOW TO ANALYZE AN ARGUMENT Example 1. Socrates must be mortal. After all, all humans are mortal, and Socrates is a human. What does the author of this
The Little Logic Book Hardy, Ratzsch, Konyndyk De Young and Mellema The Calvin College Press, 2013 Exercises for The Little Logic Book may be downloaded by the instructor as Word documents and then modified
Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2013 Class 1 - Introduction to Introduction to Philosophy My name is Russell. My office is 202 College Hill Road, Room 210.
Logic A Primer with Addendum The Currency of Philosophy Philosophy trades in arguments. An argument is a set of propositions some one of which is intended to be warranted or entailed by the others. The
Example Arguments ID1050 Quantitative & Qualitative Reasoning First Steps to Analyzing an Argument In the following slides, some simple arguments will be given. The steps to begin analyzing each argument
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University Chapter 1 - Basic Training 1.1 Introduction In this logic course, we are going to be relying on some mental muscles that may need some toning
Fate and free will From the first person point of view, one of the most obvious, and important, facts about the world is that some things are up to us at least sometimes, we are able to do one thing, and
How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail Matthew W. Parker Abstract. Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer
1. Overview: A. What is an essay? The primary focus of an essay is to explain and clarify your understanding of and opinion about a particular topic, much like an editorial or essay article in a newspaper
Philosophical Arguments An introduction to logic and philosophical reasoning. Nathan D. Smith, PhD. Houston Community College Nathan D. Smith. Some rights reserved You are free to copy this book, to distribute
How to Write a Philosophy Paper The goal of a philosophy paper is simple: make a compelling argument. This guide aims to teach you how to write philosophy papers, starting from the ground up. To do that,
Study Guides Chapter 1 - Basic Training Argument: A group of propositions is an argument when one or more of the propositions in the group is/are used to give evidence (or if you like, reasons, or grounds)
Chapter 1 What is Philosophy? Summary Chapter 1 introduces students to main issues and branches of philosophy. The chapter begins with a basic definition of philosophy. Philosophy is an activity, and addresses
Dr. Isidoro Talavera Franklin University, Philosophy Ph.D. in Philosophy - Vanderbilt University M.A. in Philosophy - Vanderbilt University M.A. in Philosophy - University of Missouri M.S.E. in Math Education
Announcements CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Tuesday Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete
Logic for Computer Science - Week 1 Introduction to Informal Logic Ștefan Ciobâcă November 30, 2017 1 Propositions A proposition is a statement that can be true or false. Propositions are sometimes called
Module 5 Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Lesson 12 Propositional Logic inference rules 5.5 Rules of Inference Here are some examples of sound rules of inference. Each can be shown
Announcements CS311H: Discrete Mathematics First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Instructor: Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now! Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Wednesday Instructor:
Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8 - Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truth-value of a given truth-functional compound proposition depends
Introduction to Logic Instructor: Jason Sheley In this section we will learn: What is the difference between Deduction and Induction? Why use different types of logic? What is a valid argument? Invalid?
Deduction by Daniel Bonevac Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Logic Logic defined Logic is the study of correct reasoning. Informal logic is the attempt to represent correct reasoning using the natural language
PHILOSOPHY ESSAY ADVICE One: What ought to be the primary objective of your essay? The primary objective of your essay is not simply to present information or arguments, but to put forward a cogent argument
Lecture 17:Inference Michael Fourman 2 Is this a valid argument? Assumptions: If the races are fixed or the gambling houses are crooked, then the tourist trade will decline. If the tourist trade declines
Unit 8 Categorical yllogism What is a syllogism? Inference or reasoning is the process of passing from one or more propositions to another with some justification. This inference when expressed in language
Reconstructing Arguments Argument reconstruction is where we take a written argument, and re-write it to make the logic of the argument as obvious as possible. I have broken down this task into six steps:
Introduction to Philosophy Crito Instructor: Jason Sheley Recall again our steps for doing philosophy 1) What is the question? 2) What is the basic answer to the question? 3) What reasons are given for
Logic -type questions [For use in the Philosophy Test and the Philosophy section of the MLAT] One of the questions on a test may take the form of a logic exercise, starting with the definition of a key
by SALVATORE - 5 September 2009, 10:44 PM I`m having difficulty understanding what steps to take in applying valid argument forms to do a proof. What determines which given premises one should select to
Conditionals IV: Is Modus Ponens Valid? UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 The intuitive counterexamples McGee  offers these intuitive counterexamples to Modus Ponens: 1. (a)
Early Russell on Philosophical Grammar G. J. Mattey Fall, 2005 / Philosophy 156 Philosophical Grammar The study of grammar, in my opinion, is capable of throwing far more light on philosophical questions
1 2 What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? Wilfrid Hodges Herons Brook, Sticklepath, Okehampton March 2012 http://wilfridhodges.co.uk Ibn Sina, 980 1037 3 4 Ibn Sīnā
Analysis Breaking down an idea, concept, theory, etc. into its most basic parts in order to get a better understanding of its structure. This is necessary to evaluate the merits of the claim properly (is
Stance Volume 6 2013 29 Fatalism and Truth at a Time Chad Marxen Abstract: In this paper, I will examine an argument for fatalism. I will offer a formalized version of the argument and analyze one of the
Deductive arguments are commonly used in various kinds of academic writing. In order to be able to perform a critique of deductive arguments, we will need to understand their basic structure. As will be
TOPIC: You need to be able to: Lecture 2.1 INTRO TO LOGIC/ ARGUMENTS. Recognize an argument when you see one (in media, articles, people s claims). Organize arguments that we read into a proper argument
The Ontological Argument for the existence of God Pedro M. Guimarães Ferreira S.J. PUC-Rio Boston College, July 13th. 2011 The ontological argument (henceforth, O.A.) for the existence of God has a long