Al-Mujadila. Al-Hashr

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1 Al-Mujadila Revealed after the Battle of the Trench, it deals with social behaviors and manners, divorce, and also addresses hypocrites. Al-Hashr Revealed around 4 A.H. it deals with the events surrounding the banishment of the Bani An-Nadir tribe.

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5 Al-Mumtahinah This surah was revealed during the period after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and before the Conquest of Makkah. Three issues are covered: 1) Allah has taught the lesson that no Believer should have relations of love and friendship with Disbelievers who are actively hostile to Islam and Muslims. However, there is no harm in dealing kindly and justly with Disbelievers who are not engaged in hostile activities against Islam and persecution of Muslims. 2) The second part of this Surah relates to the 2nd term in the treaty of Hudaibiyah that any Muslims that flee to Medinah should be returned to the Quraish in Makkah. Specifically in regards to women who had run from Makkah. These were women who had fled to Medinah, but whose husbands were pagans. There were also many Muslim men in Medinah whose pagan wives remained in Makkah. Allah (SWT) settled this matter by saying that a pagan husband was not lawful for a Muslim woman and that a pagan wife was not lawful for a Muslim male.

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8 1) The third section consisting of verse 12, the Prophet (PBUH) has been instructed to ask the women who accept Islam to pledge that they would refrain from the major sins that were prevalent among women of the pre-islamic era and that they would follow the ways of goodness. As-Saff Revealed after the battle of Uhud, this surah addresses the Believers by warning them not to be like the Israelites were to Musa (PBUH) whom they maligned and Isa (PBUH) whom they did not believe despite seeing his miracles. Al-Jumuah First section was revealed before or after the Jewish settlements had surrendered to the Islamic government in approximately 7 A.H. The second section was sent down shortly after the Hijrah before the Muslims had received full training concerning etiquettes of religious congregation.

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11 The first section was sent down concerning the failed efforts of Jewish tribes to obstruct the Message of Islam. Their efforts resulted in 2 tribes being exiled and 1 being dismantled. They settled in Khaiber which was also taken after the Battle of the Trench, and the Jews agreed to live as tenants of the Muslims. This surah is a final address to the Jews. Two points are made: 1) You were under the false delusion that the Messenger (PBUH) must come from your community. You were convinced that anyone who claimed to be a Prophet from outside your community must be an impostor thinking that the Messenger could not be from among the gentiles. But Allah did raise a Messenger from the gentiles who is reciting the book in front of your eyes, purifying souls, and showing the Right Way to the people whose misdeeds are well known to you. This is Allah s bounty whom he may bestow on whoever he pleases. You have no monopoly over it. 2) You had been bearers of the Torah, but did not understand your responsibility for it nor discharged it as you should have. You are under the delusion that you are Allah s favorites and the blessing of Prophethood is for you alone. More than that, you entertain the notion that whether you fulfill the demands of Allah s message or not, Allah is going to keep you as the Bearer of his message.

12 The second part was sent down many years later, when Allah had bestowed Friday on the Muslims as a special day. These verses were sent down on the occasion when a caravan had come to Medina right at the time of Friday Prayer. Upon hearing the bells and drums of the caravan, many Muslims got up and went to the caravan, leaving the the Prophet (PBUH) and 12 companions in the middle of his khutba. After this incident, it was ordered that once the call to Prayer for Friday Prayer is made, all trade, business, and occupations were forbidden. The Believers should suspend every kind of transaction and hasten to the Remembrance of Allah. However, after the prayer, they had the right to disperse and resume their normal occupations. Why it was included in this surah as the topic seems to be completely independent of the issues regarding the Jews has been debated, but the leading explanation is that it is included here in the verses in which the Jews have been warned of causes of their evil end as an example of what the Muslims should do to avoid their own evil end.

13 Al-Munafiqun After Hijrah in year 6 AH. It deals with the hypocrites, their conduct and their attitudes. At-Taghaabun Partly revealed in Makkah and partly in Medinah The theme is an invitation to the Faith and Obedience of Allah (SWT) and the teaching of good morals. The first part, which is addressed to all mankind, points out four fundamental truths: 1) The Universe in which we live is not Godless, but its Creator, Master, ad Ruler is an All Powerful God, and everything in the Universe testifies to Him being the most perfect and absolutely flawless. 2) The Universe is not without purpose and wisdom, but the Creator has create it with truth and no one should be under the delusion that it is a mock show which has no purpose. 3) The excellent form that God has create you with and the choice that HE has given to you between belief and unbelief is not a useless and meaningless activity that has no consequence 4) You have not been created irresponsible and unanswerable. You have to return to the Creator to whom everything is known.

14 Then the surah addresses the Disbelievers, pointing out that nation after nation has risen and fallen. Man by his intellect and reason has tried to explain this phenomenon in many different ways but the fundamental causes are only two: 1) they refused to believe in the Messengers whom Allah (SWT) sent for their Guidance, with the result being that Allah left them to themselves, and allowed them to create their own philosophies which resulted in them bouncing from one error to another. 2) they refused the doctrine of the Hereafter, and thought this this worldly life was an end in itself. This corrupted their whole attitude towards life, and resulted in impure morals and character and their demise.

15 The Disbelievers are reminded that they will all be accountable for everything that they did in this life. Then Allah (SWT) addresses the Believers stating: 1) when an affliction befalls a person, it does by Allah s leave. When this happens, he who stays steadfast in his Faith, Allah blesses his heart with Guidance. He who turns away from Allah when he meets an affliction, which cannot be averted except by Allah s leave, suffers the greatest affliction of all, that his heart is deproved f the Guidance of Allah. 2) the Believer is not required to affirm faith with his tongue only, but he should obey Allah and the Messenger in his practical life as well. If he turns away from this responsibility, he himself will be responsible for his loss as the Prophet (PBUH) has already delivered the message. 3) The Believer should put his trust in Allah alone and not in some other power 4) Worldly goods and children are a test and a temptation for the Believer, for it is their love that generally distracts man from the Path of good and obedience. Spend in the cause of Allah to keep the self safe against temptations. 5) Every man is responsible only to the extent of his power and ability.

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18 At-Talaaq It contains additions to the rules of divorce that were first revealed in surah Baqarah and answers questions that remained following the verses of surah Baqarah regarding family law. At-Tahrim Revealed some time between the 7 to the 8th year A.H. The power to declare something lawful or unlawful, permissible or forbidden are entirely in the hands of Allah (SWT). The Prophet (PBUH) can only declare something lawful or unlawful if he receives an inspiration from Allah (SWT). The position of a Prophet (PBUH) is a delicate one. A minor incident that occurs to an ordinary man may be of no consequence, but when it happens to a Prophet, it assumes the status of law. That is why the lives of Prophets have been kept under close supervision by Allah (SWT) so that none of their acts, even the most trivial ones, may deviate from Divine Will. Whenever such an act happened, it was rectified immediately so that Islamic Law and its principles should reach the people in its absolute purity not only through the Divine Book, but also through the example of the Prophet (PBUH). And they should include nothing that is in contradiction to the Divine Will.

19 This also holds true for the wives of the Prophet (PBUH). If they are corrected as they are in this Surah, Allah does not correct them to embarrass them and the Prophet (PBUH), but rather to be certain that they are revered in the correct manner. The Prophet (PBUH) is a Prophet, not God, that he may commit no error. Respect of the Prophet (PBUH) has not been enjoined because he is infallible, but because he is a perfect representative of the Divine Will, and Allah (SWT) has not let any of his errors to pass by unnoticed. This gives us the satisfaction that the noble pattern of life left behind by the Prophet (PBUH) wholly and fully represents the will of Allah. Likewise, the wives and Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) were human, not angels or supermen. They could commit mistakes. That is why when errors were committed due to human weaknesses, the Prophet (PBUH) corrected his wives/companions and sometimes these corrections appear in the Qur an as well. This helps us to remember that these were men and women, not Gods and Goddesses.

20 These corrections that are found in different chapters of the Qur an are found in the same Quran in which Allah Himself has paid tribute to the Companions and the Prophet s wives (R) for their great merits and granted them certificate of His good pleasure, saying, Allah became well pleased with them and they with Allah. By showing the greatness of the Companions along with their weaknesses, errors and mistakes, we are shown that they were human and we should not make any mistake of elevating them to the position of Gods. Lastly, Allah s religion is absolutely just and fair. Every persons worth is judged on his own faith and works. No relationship or connection with the most righteous person can be beneficial for him/her and no relationship to an evil or wicked person can be harmful to him just on the virtue of being affiliated with that person.

21 Al-Mulk Likely one of the earliest surahs to be revealed in Makkah Following the style of the early surahs, where the teachings of Islam are re-introduced briefly to awaken those whose spiritual side is sleeping. Then the Surah begins by making Mankind realize that the Universe in which he lives is a most well-organized and fortified Kingdom in which he cannot detect any fault, any weakness or flaw, how ever hard he may try to find one. This perfect Kingdom has been brought from nothing into existence by Allah (SWT) himself and all the powers of controlling, administering, and ruling it are also entirely in Allah s hand and His Power is infinite. Man is also told that in this wise system, he has not been created without purpose, but has been sent here for a test and in this test he can only succeed by his righteous deeds and conduct. The Disbelievers are warned as if to say, Now, if you do not believe in what the Prophets say and correct your attitude and behavior accordingly, in the Hereafter, you will yourselves have to admit that you really deserve the punishment you are being given.

22 Allah is aware of all things. He is aware of each open and hidden secret, even the most innermost ideas of your hearts. Therefore the right basis for morality is for man to avoid evil, both what is displayed openly and what is hidden in the Heart, for the fear of accountability with Allah, whether in this world there is a power to take his account or not. Those who adopt such a conduct in this world alone will deserve forgiveness and a rich reward in the Hereafter. Allah asks Mankind to look around us at the things we take for granted. Allah says, Look at the Earth on which you move about freely and with peace of mind, and from which you obtain sustenance, and how it has been subdued by Allah (SWT); otherwise this earth may start shaking suddenly to cause your destruction, or a typhoon might occur, which may annihilate you completely. Look at the birds flying above, it is only Allah (SWT) who is sustaining them in the air. If Allah wills to inflict a scourge on you, none can save you from it, and if he wills to close the doors of sustenance, none can open them for you. These things are there to make you aware of the Truth, but you see them like animals, which are unable to draw any conclusions from observation, and you do not use your sight, hearing, and minds which Allah (SWT) has bestowed on you as men. This is why you do not see the right way.

23 You ultimately have to appear before God. It is not the Prophet s job to tell you when. It is his job to warn you of its inevitability. Today you do not listen to him and dare him to cause the event to occur prematurely before you; but when it does actually occur, and you see it with your own eyes, you will then be astounded. Then it will be said to you, This is the very thing you were calling to be hastened. The Disbelievers were also calling for the destruction of the Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions. Allah addresses this by saying, Whether those who call you to the right way are destroyed or shown mercy by Allah (SWT), how will that change your destiny. You should look after yourselves and consider who would save you if you are overtaken by the scourge of God? You regard those who put their trust in Allah as misguided. The time will come when it will be evident to you, who was misguided. Surah ends with a question, If the water which has come out of the Earth at some place in the desert or hill country of Arabia upon which depends your whole life activity, should sink into the ground and vanish, who besides Allah (SWT) can restore to you this life giving water.

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27 Please study these surahs on your own! Al-Qalam Al-Haaqqa Al-Maarij Nooh

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