Lesson 10 The Prayer of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and The Farewell Sermon

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1 Lesson 10 The Prayer of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and The Farewell Sermon... is the sun of virtues and the others are, in comparison to him, stars diffusing light for people at night. THINK Anas said that God s Messenger was the most handsome of people. Jabir Ibn Samura remarks: Once during a full moon, we were sitting in the mosque. God s Messenger came in. I looked first at the shining moon, and then at his face. I swear by God that his face was brighter than the moon. God s Messenger is superior to all other Prophets. This could not be otherwise, for he was sent as a mercy to all the worlds. The religion he relayed includes all essential tenets of the previously revealed religions as well as everything necessary to solve all human problems until the Last Day. In contrast, all earlier Prophets were sent to certain people and for a limited period. Prophet Muhammad, in the words of Busiri:... is the sun of virtues and the others are, in comparison to him, stars diffusing light for people at night. When the sun rises, both the moon and stars are no longer visible. Likewise, when the Sun of Prophethood (Prophet Muhammad) rose to illuminate the whole universe, starlight became unnecessary. Like his predecessors, Prophet Muhammad was infallible. They said he was mad he madly loved God and, again, madly desired and sought for the people to be guided. Thus he was mad, but not in the sense of being crazy. They said he was a magician who charmed people he did charm them, but with his personality, as well as with Islam and the Qur an, both of which he brought from God. But he was not a magician. They said he was a soothsayer he made hundreds of predictions, most of which have already come true and the others waiting to be proven. But he was not a soothsayer. Many Prophetic traditions and Qur anic verses also state clearly that his Prophethood was for all nations and all times. Among them are the following: In one hadith, the Prophet says: Each Messenger was sent to his own nation. I was sent to humanity. In another tradition, it is narrated as to blacks and whites. Confirming this, al-tabari narrates a different hadith: I was sent to all both as a mercy and a Prophet. Complete my mission. May God s mercy be on you. Key vocabulary Soothsayer: someone who makes predictions about what is going to happen in the future

2 PRAYERS AND SUPPLICATIONS OF THE SEAL OF THE PROPHETS O God, put between me and errors a distance as great as that which you have put between East and West. O God, cleanse me of my errors as a white garment is cleansed of dirt. God, I ask You for all good, including what is at hand and what is deferred, what I already know and what I don t know. I take refuge in You from every evil, including what is at hand and what is deferred, what I already know and what I don t know. God, nothing hinders what You grant, nor is anything granted that You hinder. No wealthy one can do us good, as wealth belongs to You. God, I have not told anything, taken an oath, made a vow, or done anything that You did not previously will. Whatever You willed is, and whatever You didn t will is not. There is no strength or power save with You, and You are indeed All-Powerful over everything. God, whatever prayer I have said, let it before whomever You have mercy, and what ever curse I have called down, let it be for whomever You have cursed. Surely You are my Guardian in this world and the Hereafter. Make me die as a Muslim, and include me among the righteous.

3 THE LAST PILGRIMAGE PRAYER God, I seek refuge in You from all all knowledge that gives no benefit, from a heart that does not fear You, from an unsatisfied soul, and from prayer that cannot be answered Key vocabulary God, I ask You for contentment after misfortune, a peaceful life after death, the pleasure of observing Your Face, and a desire to meet You. I take refuge in You from wronging others and from being wronged, from showing animosity and being subject to animosity, and from erring or committing unforgivable sins. If You leave me to myself, you leave me in weakness, need, sinfulness and error. I depend only on Your Mercy, so forgive all my sins, for only You can do so. Accept my repentance, for You are the Oft-Relenting, All-Compassionate. God, You deserve most to be mentioned, and none but You deserve to be worshipped. You are more helpful than anyone whose help may be sought, more affectionate than every ruler, more generous than anyone who may be asked for something, and more generous than any- one who gives. You are the Monarch without partners, and the Unique One without like. Everything is perishable except You. You are never obeyed but by Your permission, and never disobeyed but within Your knowledge. When somebody obeys You, You reward them; when someone disobeys You, You forgive them. You witness everything, being nearer to it than any other witness; and protect everything, being nearer to it than any other protector. You ordained the acts of all people and determined their time of death. You know what is in every mind, and all secrets are manifest to You. The lawful is what You have made lawful; the for- bidden is what You have forbidden. Religion is what You have laid down; the commandment is what You have decreed. The creation is Your creation, and the servants are Your servants. You are God, the All-Clement, All-Compassionate. I ask You, for the sake of the light of Your Face, by which the Heavens and Earth were illuminated, for the sake of every right belonging to You, and for the sake of those who ask of You, to forgive me just in this morning and just in this evening, and to protect me, by Your Power, from Hellfire. God, I ask You for steadfastness in my affairs, resolution in guidance, gratitude for Your bounties and acceptable service to You, and a truthful tongue and a sound heart. I seek refuge in You from the evil of what You know. I ask You for the good of what You know, and Your forgiveness for what You already know. Surely You are the Knower of the Unseen. God, I ask You to enable me to do good, to refrain from vice, to love the poor, and to forgive me and have mercy on me. When You will people s deviation and dissension and disorder in public life, make me die before taking part in that disorder. I ask You for Your love and for the love of whom You love, and the love of the acts that will make me nearer to Your love. God, I ask You for the good in the beginning and in the end, in its most comprehensive form with its beginning and result, its manifest and secret kinds, and for the highest rank in Paradise. Vice: bad or immoral behavior

4 DISCUSS Prayer was a fundamental part of the Prophet s life. All the supplications quoted, together with many, have become keys in the hands of such great saints as Abu Hasan al-shadhili, Ahmad al-badawi, Ahmad al-rifa i, and Abd al-qadir al-jilani, who used them to knock on the door of God s Mercy. How can we ensure prayer becomes and stays a part our life on a daily basis. God, help me remember and mention You, thank You, and worship You most properly. God, I ask You for guidance, fear of You, chastity, and independence from others. God, bring all of our affairs to a good conclusion, protect us from disgrace and ignominy in the world, and from being tormented in the Hereafter God, we ask You for all of the good for which Your Prophet Muhammad asked You, and seek refuge in You from every evil from which Your Prophet Muhammad sought refuge in You. THE PROPHET S FAREWELL SERMON O People, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today. O People, just as you regard this month, this day, and this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Treat others justly so that no one would be unjust to you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take riba, usury; therefore all usury obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, how- ever, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no usury and that all the usury due to Abbas ibn Abdulmuttalib, may Allah be pleased with him, shall henceforth be waived.

5 Every right arising out of homicide in pre-islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi ah ibn al- Harith ibn Abdulmuttalib, may Allah be pleased with him. O Men, the nonbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah has made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve in number. Four of them are sacred, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha ban. Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things. O People, it is true that you have certain rights over your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and commit- ted helpers. It is your right and they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste... O People listen to me in earnest, worship Allah (The One and only Creator of the universe), perform your five Daily Prayers, Salah, fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your financial obligation, Zakah, of your wealth. Perform Hajj, the holy pilgrimage if you can afford to. All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-arab nor a non-arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor does a black have any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that all Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim that belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves. Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and you will answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone. O People, no Prophet or Messenger will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand the words I convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of Allah, the Holy Qur an and my Sunnah; if you follow them you will never go astray. All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my wit- ness O Lord, I have conveyed your message to your people.

6 WHAT DID WE LEARN? LESSON SUMMARY: God s Messenger is superior to all other Prophets This could not be otherwise, for he was sent as a mercy to all the worlds Many Prophetic traditions and Qur anic verses also state clearly that his Prophethood was for all nations and all times The farewell sermon was a message of guidance for all Muslims LESSON REVIEW: INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT 1. Why is Prophet Muhammad superior to all other prophets? 2. Why did the non-believers call Prophet Muhammad mad? 3. Describe why you think it is important to ask Allah for the good in the beginning and in the end. 4. What is the only way a person can have superiority over someone else? ESSAY The Prophet reminded those around him several times during the farewell sermon to listen and pay close attention. However, this wasn t just a message to those in attendance, but to all of us and the entire ummah. He also mentioned that if we follow the Sunnah and the Qur an, we will not go astray. Enjoining good and forbidding evil is one example, but what are some other examples of things we can do from the Qur an and Sunnah to keep us on the straight path? Soothsayer Vice LESSON VOCABULARY

7 CHAPTER REVIEW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN DETAIL What was the mission of all the Prophets? How many Prophets are mentioned in Qur an? Describe why it is important to know and discuss the Prophets and their miracles? Are the Prophets responsible for the results of their Prophecies? Why or not not? ESSAY Describe the essential attributes of the Prophets with examples of at least 4 of the Prophets mentioned. Each Prophet should consist of one paragraph, making your essay a minimum of 4 paragraphs.

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