Studies on Muslims in India An Annotated Bibliography

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1 Studies on Muslims in India An Annotated Bibliography With Focus on Muslims in Andhra Pradesh (Volume: ) EMPLOYMENT AND RESERVATIONS FOR MUSLIMS By Dr.P.H.MOHAMMAD AND Dr. S. LAXMAN RAO Supervised by Dr.Masood Ali Khan and Dr.Mazher Hussain CONFEDERATION OF VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS (COVA) Hyderabad (A. P.), India 2003

2 Index Foreword Preface Introduction Employment Status of Muslims: All India Level 1. Mushirul Hasan (2003) In Search of Integration and Identity Indian Muslims Since Independence. Economic and Political Weekly (Special Number) Volume XXXVIII, Nos. 45, 46 and 47, November, Saxena, N.C., Public Employment and Educational Backwardness Among Muslims in India, Man and Development, December 1983 (Vol. V, No 4). 3. Employment: Statistics of Muslims under Central Government, 1981, Muslim India, January, 1986 (Source: Gopal Singh Panel Report on Minorities, Vol. II). 4. Government of India: Statistics Relating to Senior Officers up to Joint-Secretary Level, Muslim India, November, Muslim Judges of High Courts (As on ), Muslim India, July Government Scheme of Pre-Examination Coaching for Candidates for Various Examination/Courses, Muslim India, February National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), Department of Statistics, Government of India, Employment and Unemployment Situation Among Religious Groups in India: (Fifth Quinquennial Survey, NSS 50 th Round, July 1993-June 1994), Report No: 438, June Employment and Unemployment Situation among Religious Groups in India NSS 55 th Round (July 1999-June 2000) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, September Employment Status of Muslims in Andhra Pradesh 9. Andhra Pradesh Minorities Commission, Annual General Report ( ), Chairman: Abdul Kareem Khan, Hyderabad, Minorities Welfare Department, Note on Short Discussions on Minorities Issues in A.P. Legislative Assembly (31 July, 1998). 11. Muslim Employees in Osmania University, 1990, Muslim India, February, 1992 (Source: Osmania Diary, 1990).

3 Part II: Reservations for Muslims 12. Omar Khalidi: What are the advantages and disadvantages of reservations? 13. Anwar Alam, Democratisation of Indian Muslims Some Reflections. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, Sayyed Zainuddin (2003) Islam, Social Stratification and Empowerment of Muslim OBCs. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, Other Backward Classes (OBC) Among Muslims: Who are they and what do they want? - Omar Khalidi 16. Irfan Ahmad (2003) A Different Jihad: Dalit Muslims Challenge to Ashraf Hegemony. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, Shibani Roy (2003) Hindi Musalman: Vangujjar Transhumance in Uttaranchal. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, S A H Moinuddin (2003) Problems of Identification of Muslim OBCs in West Bengal. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, Seik Rahim Mondal (2003) Social Structure, OBCs and Muslims. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, Reservations in Andhra Pradesh 20. Reservation: Present Status of Reservation for Muslim Community, Muslim India, May, 1986 (Source: Lok Sabha Question No: May, 1986 by Syed Shahbuddin). 21. Reservation: Declaration of the Ansaris of Maharashtra as an OBC, Muslim India, November 1992 (source: Times of India). 22. Opinion Poll on Reservation conducted by The Siasat, an Urdu daily, published from Hyderabad.

4 23. S A A Saheb (2003) Dudekula Muslims of Andhra Pradesh An Ethnographic Profile. Economic and Political Weekly Volume XXX VIII No. 46, November 15, CONCLUSION B I B L I O G R A P H Y

5 TABLES 1. State-wise Distribution of Muslims in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) as on January, State-wise Distribution of Muslims in the Indian Police Service (IAS) as on January Share of Muslims in Central Secretariat, Muslims Share in Government Jobs in 1981 and during Growth of Muslim IPS Officers 6. Percentage of Muslim employees of the total in various categories of services 7. Class III and Class IV jobs in various organizations 8. Representation of minorities in State Services as on Representation of Muslims in judicial Services in Muslims performance in competitive examinations held during Muslims performance in written and oral examinations during Results of central subordinate services commission 1979 sample 13. Muslims share in private sector employment 14. Muslim share in licenses 15. Community wise break up of incomes. 16. Occupational status of respondents. 17. Percentage distribution of households by religion of household head and monthly household income. 18. Percentage distribution of workers by caste/region and employment types. 19. Religion wise distribution of elite 20. Employment of Muslims under the Central Government 21. Class-wise Employment of Muslims in the Central Government (Class I & II) 22. Employment of Muslims in the Central Government categories (Class III & IV) 23. The targets and achievements under the scheme of CEEP, Secondary Grade Teachers & Upper Primary Teachers (Hyderabad) Teacher Training Course (Hyderabad) TTC (Hyderabad) since launching 24. Worker Population Ratio for Persons of age 15 years and above for main religious groups during and Per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons of age 15 years and above by

6 general educational level for main religious groups during and Per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons (15+) by broad industry for main religious groups during and Per 1000 distribution of usually unemployed persons of 15 yrs age and above for main religious groups during and India 28. Unemployment Rates (UR) i.e. the number of persons (15+) unemployed per 1000 persons in the labour force according to the usual status (principal &subsidiary status taken together) for each broad education level and major religious groups 29. Proportion (per 1000) of households and persons belonging to the self-employed and regular salaried and casual labour households by major religions in urban areas 30. Proportion (per 1000) of household and persons belonging to the self-employed and rural labour households by major religion 31. Worker Population Ratio for persons of age 15 years and above for main religious groups during and Employment and Unemployment Situation among Religious Groups in India NSS 55 th Round (July 1999-June 2000) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, September Proportion (per 1000) of households and persons belonging to the self employed and rural labour households by major religions. 34. Proportion (per 1000) of households and persons belonging to the self employed and regular salaried and casual labour households by major religions in urban areas. 35. Labour force participation rates according to usual status of (principal and subsidiary taken together) among major religions and sex 36. Worker population Ratio (WPR) for persons according to usual status (principal and subsidiary taken together) among main religious groups during and per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons of age 15 years (principal and subsidiary taken together) and above general educational level for main religious groups during and

7 38. WPR for persons of age 15 years and above according to usual status (principal and subsidiary taken together) by general educational level for main religious groups during and Per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons ( all workers) by status of employment for main religious groups during and Number of persons unemployed per 1000 persons in the labour force (unemployment rate) for the main religious groups during and Share of Minorities in the Competitive Examinations Conducted by A.P. Public Service Commission 42. Share of Minorities in the Live Register of Employment Exchanges and in the Placements in A.P., Share of Minorities in the Recruitments Made by the Police Department in A.P., Share of Minorities in the Scheme of Self-Employment of Educated Youth in Urban Areas of A.P. 45. Share of Minorities in the Industrial Units Established with the Assistance of Dept. of Industries in the Entire State 46. Share of Minorities in the IRDP Programs in A.P 47. Minorities in Competitive Examinations 48. Control of Resources and Institutions of Muslim Community 49. Population estimates of vangujjar in Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh 50. Muslim OBC Communities and their Population in West Bengal 51. Individual Muslim OBC in West Bengal 52. Table showing opinion about inclusion of Muslims under Reservation 53. Table showing Reasons for favouring Reservations for Muslims 54. Table showing the view about the percentages/share of Muslims in Reservation 55. Table showing whether income or profession should be the basis of Reservation

8 INTRODUCTION This volume is devoted to focus on the studies undertaken on the representation of Muslims in public employment. Also the issue of reservations for Muslims which is gaining momentum in the present circumstances is being reviewed with the help of the studies which have highlighted the subject matter. Though there is some literature available on the above dimensions, it is hardly based on empirical research and basically drawn from flimsy sources. To cover such gap, some attempts have been made (e.g. Saxena, N.C.1983) to collect the data mostly from Union Home Ministry thus developing a data bank and facilitating for further research/debate on Muslims vis-a-vis education and employment. It is observed that the employment situation of Muslims in the government and the public sector units has been deteriorating sharply. This is caused by various factors, such as the bifurcation of the country into India and Pakistan due to which the successive generations have lacked the spirit and guide of the elderly and the intellectuals. Besides the dwindling started in the self employment sector, where Muslims were mainly working, have been undermined causing influx of Muslim population to the towns and the cities and to take up occupations like automobile business, hotel workers, auto driving, etc. This has resulted in poor education of their children. The remaining who stayed in the country side have attempted to educate their children at the cost of their agriculture operations and with great hardships. But this category of educated young Muslims remain largely unemployed due to several factors. As a consequence, there grew a moment among the Muslim population for seeking the concessions such as reservations as applied to other deprived communities - Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes- in the country. Because due to increase in quota of reservations to 50% with the inclusion of Other Backward Castes in the reservations category, it has become very difficult for Muslims to get jobs in government sector in the present scenario. It is to be noted that the condition of Muslims is no better than the poorest of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Backward Classes. Given these realities, if they have to compete for jobs in the merit category, they would need to face competition with richer sections of the society, who have a social, political and

9 economic advantage and pursue education through high standard public schools and other urban based educational institutions having good infrastructure and competitive and pro-active atmosphere. Where as their counter parts belonging to the Muslim community, who hail from poor economic status will mostly study in the rural based educational institutions and lag behind in competing with others. In this background, the demand for the reservations for the Muslims is very appropriate. The policy of reservation in jobs was quite firmly established during the closing decades of the British Rule, but, such a policy was designed to redress communal inequalities in the representation in public services rather than a social engineering device to redress the rooted socio-economic inequalities of the disadvanged sections of the society because of past societal discrimination. So the argument goes that if the Muslims had reservations during those days when their socio - political situation was comparatively better, why not now where the community is facing disastrous conditions? The British rule had virtually shattered the previous patterns of dominance and accommodation by permitting, if not fostering, open rivalry in the political arena. With this, the Muslims were not only concerned with the loss of privileged position which was more aggravated by the feeling that they were not only lagging behind in government jobs but were being reduced to subordinate position. In 1906 a Muslim elitist group submitted a petition to safeguard their interests in forth coming elections by reserving separate set of seats to be elected exclusively by the Muslim electorate. The British reacted favourably to alleviate their apprehensions. Thus, when Minto-Morley reforms were proclaimed in 1909, separate electorates were provided for them. In this background, the present context of the demand for the reservations for Muslims is only a part of the continuation of their legacy of projecting their economic, social and political backwardness.

10 Part I EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF MUSLIMS The annotated bibliography of available sources addressing the issue of employment situation among the Muslims in India, in general, and in the State of Andhra Pradesh, in particular, has been presented in this part. Besides, the volume focuses upon the emerging issue of reservations for Muslims as a separate section in this volume. STUDIES ON STATUS OF MUSLIMS IN EMPLOYMENT AT ALL INDIA LEVEL Mushirul Hasan (2003) In Search of Integration and Identity Indian Muslims Since Independence. Economic and Political Weekly (Special Number) Volume XXXVIII, Nos. 45, 46 and 47, November, According to the author, what has angered Muslims is not so much the fact that State patronage of religious fervour has encouraged the fringe of Hindu extremism, but that a systematic neglect of their interests has contributed to their economic decline. When it comes to employment, Muslims present a grim picture of their under representation and complain that they have been reduced to being the hewers of wood and drawers of water. The following tables lend weight to the above argument. TABLE: State-wise Distribution of Muslims in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) as on January, 1984 State Total Muslims Percentage Andhra Pradesh Assam & Meghalaya Bihar Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur & Tripura Nagaland

11 Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Union Territories Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total Source: Muslim India, May 1985 P.204 TABLE: State-wise Distribution of Muslims in the Indian Police Service (IAS) as on January State Total Muslims Percentage Andhra Pradesh Assam & Meghalaya Bihar Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur & Tripura Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Union Territories Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total 2, Source: Muslim India, May 1985 P.205 TABLE: Share of Muslims in Central Secretariat, 1971 Central Secretariat Service 1. Selection Grade I 2. Grade I 3. Section Officers 4. Assistants Central Stenographers Secretariat Total No of Total No of Percentage of officials Muslim officials Muslim officials

12 1. Selection Grade 2. Grade I 3. Grades II and III Central Secretariat Clerical Service 1. Upper Division Clerks 2. Lower Division Clerks 3. Class IV Nil Nil Saxena, N.C., Public Employment and Educational Backwardness Among Muslims in India, Man and Development, December 1983 (Vol. V, No 4). The paper refers to the dearth of reliable empirical data on representation of Muslims in public employment and their educational backwardness. The author felt that absence of data regarding estimates on education and employment among Muslims has sent wrong signals as it led the people to state, without subjecting to empirical and scientific scrutiny, about the negative attitude of them towards education and employment. Hence an attempt is made by this author to present the data collected from various branches of the Home Ministry (GOI) on education and employment among Muslims. He attempted to develop a statistical base for further research/debate on Muslims vis-a-vis education and employment. The data presented in this paper is pertaining to various districts spread over the country where Muslim population was significant. Important tables contained in the article pertaining to employment status among the Muslims are: (a) Table 12: Muslims Share in Government Jobs; (b) Table 13: Percentage of Muslim Employees of the Total in Various Categories of Services; (c) table 14: Class III and IV Jobs in Various Organisations; (d) Table 18: Representation of Muslims in Judicial Service; (e) Table 19: Muslim Performance in Competitive Examinations held During ; (I) Table 21: Results of Central Subordinate Services Commission 1979; (f) Table 22: Muslims Share in Private Sector Employment; (g) Table 23: Muslims Share in Licenses; (h) Table 24: Growth of Muslim IPS Officers. Relevant tables cited in this article are given below:

13 TABLE: Muslims Share in Government Jobs in 1981 and during Name of service Years/Number of Establishments IAS Total in 1981 IPS Do Income Tax I Intake during Railway Traffic & Accounts Service Do Banks 1,317 branches Total 3,883 1, ,13,772 Muslims Percentage , Central Govt Offices State Govt Offices 105 offices in 13 States 876 offices in 13 States 75,951 8,26,669 3,346 49, Public Sector Under-takings (Central & State) 168 undertakings in 13 States 4,76,972 51, Total 15,81,296 1,07, Table: Growth of Muslim IPS Officers Year Total number of Number of Muslim Percentage IPS Officers Officers Addition during Recruitment during The word growth in this context pronounces an adverse meaning as against the decreasing percentage. However the word is drawn from the original source. The net increase in Muslim IPS officers, as shown in above table, was only two for a total increase of 567 IPS officers from 1960 to Thus the percentage of Muslim IPS officers appointed during accounts to only 0.35%. Further, the total number of IPS officers in service till 1981 were 1753 and the strength of Muslims among them was only 2.85%. The representation of Muslim officers appears to be very low with regard to the figures relating to fresh recruities. As shown in the above table there were total 279 IPS officers inducted for the period

14 of But the Muslims among them were only three which accounts to a meager percentage of one and it shows there has been drastic decline of Muslims representation in employment. The percentage of Muslim employees to the proportion of total employees in different categories is as follows: TABLE: Percentage of Muslim employees of the total in various categories of services Employer Class IV/workers Central Govt. State Govts Central & State P S Us Class I /Execu tive cadre Class II/ Supervisory cadre (technical) Class III/Supervisory cadre (non-technical) As shown by the author (Saxena) in his paper The author presented the break-up of class-iii and class IV employees in different sectors. As the majority of jobs are provided in these two categories, he felt it appropriate to analyse the representation of Muslims in these two categories TABLE: Class III and Class IV jobs in various organizations CLASS III Total Muslims Percentage Total employees employees Banks 61,151 1, ,305 Central Govt. 52,000 2, ,669 State Govt. 4,98,327 32, ,26,558 Public Sector Undertakings 2,20,235 26, ,29,129 Private enterprises 50,464 4, ,796 CLASS IV Muslims Percentage ,381 23, , Total 8,82,177 66, ,66,457 44, The figures referred in this table appears to be collected from various sample districts across different States in the country (Refer Saxena, 1983 P.126)

15 In continuation with the above table, where the overall figures relating to employment in different States was highlighted, the author presented the grim picture of Minorities representation in employment, in the following table by taking the case point of Uttar Pradesh State. The figures in the following table are pertaining to the State of Uttar Pradesh. Table: Representation of minorities in State Services as on Classification of Total number Minorities posts of employees Number Percentage Class A Class B Class C Class D Total (excluding sweepers 7.47 Table: Representation of Muslims in judicial Services in 1981 Name of the State Total Muslims Percentage Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Kerala Maharastra Orissa U.P West Bengal Total Table: Muslims performance in competitive examinations held during Name of the commission Muslim Percentage in total Appeared Called for Selected interview Andhra Pradesh PSC Tamilnadu, PSC U.P. Combined State Services Bihar Combined State Services Madhya Pradesh

16 Table: Muslims performance in written and oral examinations during Name of the State Number of candidates appeared in written examinations Number called for interview Number selected Total Muslims Total Muslims Total Muslims (1.7) Madhya Pradesh Bihar (5.0) Uttar Pradesh (2.5) Total (3.0) In the above table the performance of Muslims in the results declared for written and the oral examinations conducted for Provincial Civil Services Examinations of M.P., Bihar and U.P., held during are presented. Among the total candidates who appeared for the examinations, the representation of Muslims was only 4.5 percent, out of whichonly 2.9% are qualified for interviews. However, if the representation of Muslims in written and oral examinations is compared with others, 4.4% only were appeared for written exams and their representation out of the total candidates selected for interview only 2.69%. Similarly the representation of the Muslims in final selection was 3.5%. This is much lower than their population proportion in the selected States. This is another example highlighted by the author to show the poor representation of the Muslims in employment. Similar status of the Muslims is being observed in the following tables where percentage of Muslim applicants for subordinate services conducted during 1979 and their rate of success in those examinations is being presented. The table is self explanatory. In this table the author presented the micro level evidence to show poorer representation of Muslims, as a result of poor performance in the results declared for written examinations conducted for recruiting Class-III service clerical cadre in Cetral Secretariat, held by the central subordinate services commission in 1979, selection to which was made purely on the basis of written examination.

17 Table: Results of central subordinate services commission 1979 sample survey Religion Percentage Number and Number of declared according to percentage of successful and population in 1971 total applicants percentage Muslim (2.59%) 83 (1.56) Christian (4.6%) 366 (3.85) Sikh (1.77%) 90 (2.47%) Buddhist (0.27%) 12 (2.19 %) Parsi Negligible 270 (0.01%) Nil Besides the efforts made by the author to show the poorer representation of Muslims in public sector employment in both central and State governments, Saxena (1983) also has collected data from 145 private sector enterprises, in 33 districts across 12 States, to highlight the plight of Muslims representation in private sector employment also. Table: Muslims share in private sector employment Name of Muslims share in (in Percentage) undertaking Executive cadre Supervisory cadre Workers cadre TISCO TEXMACO Nil Mafatlal Nil Calico 0.68 NA 10.2 Mahindra &Mahindra Orkay JK Industries Indian Explosives Nil Note: Data appears to be from the year Table: Muslim share in licenses category sample Total No. Muslims Percentage Fair price shops 73 districts 3.5 lakhs 0.24 lakhs 6.97 in 14 States Other/shops/licenses 18 districts 1.94 lakhs 0.24 lakhs in 9 states Truck Permits 62 districts in 13 states Bus permits Do Auto rickshaws/taxis Do Sale of houses 22 districts

18 constructed by in 9 States government Author has not mentioned the year for which the above licences were issued. Saxena has highlighted the occupational distribution of 294 slum dwellers to find out the Muslims representation in different occupation from among the sample. He presented the data, given in the following table, from a study conducted by Wahiduddin Khan among slum workers in Ahmedabad in Table: Percentage distribution of workers by caste/region and employment types. Caste/religion Selfemployed casual Domes Informal Formal Formal All tic establishment + casual permanent Brahmins,Pate ls& Banias Rajputs, Rabaris,etc Artisans Scheduled Castes Muslims Others Wage employees in establishments employing less than 10 workers. Casual wage employees in establishments employing more than 10 workers. Permanent wage employees in establishments employing more than 10 workers. In the table, it is highlighted that the Muslims are employed mostly in selfemployed and informal establishments which accounts to 76% in these both the categories. This is merely because they could not find the jobs in formal casual wage employment and formal permanent employment as there is no body who can support them to get jobs in formal sector. Employment: Statistics of Muslims under Central Government, 1981, Muslim India, January, 1986 (Source: Gopal Singh Panel Report on Minorities, Vol. II).

19 Following Tables give the detailed representation of Muslims in Central Government sector (from the same sample districts) in different categories. TABLE: Employment of Muslims under Central Government Class wise in 1981 S. No State (sampletotal No. Muslim Percentage Population districts) of employees proportion of employees Muslims in sample districts 1 Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat U.T. of Chandigarh 6 Haryana Kerala Madhya Pradesh 9 Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal GRAND TOTAL Year as quoted in contents page of Muslim India, January 1986, form which the reference has been cited by the author. TABLE: Class-wise Employment of Muslims in the Central Government (Class I & II) S. State (sample Class I Class II Population proportion districts) of Muslims in sample No. Total Musl % Total Musli % ims ms districts 1 Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat Chandigarh

20 6 Haryana Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Grand total TABLE: Employment of Muslims in the Central Government categories (Class III & IV) S. No. State (sample districts) Class III Class IV Population proportion Total Musl % Total Musli % of Muslims in sample ims ms districts Andhra Pradesh 2 Assam Bihar Gujarat Chandigarh Haryana Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal GRAND TOTAL Source: Gopal Singh Commission Report on Minorities, Vol. II. In fact the three tables above, consecutively are part of one table presented in the original source and is being produced in different ones for necessary clarity in the different categories of posts and the representation.

21 The representation of Muslims in the above table refers to the sample districts only. It may be noted that the population proportion of the Muslims in these sample districts was exuberantly high. Hence, the representation of them in different categories of employment across several States is also shown on higher side. However, when considered these figures in proportion to the higher population of Muslims in these selected sample districts, their representation is lesser. For example, if 10.47% of Muslims were represented in employment in the sample districts in the State of Andhra Pradesh where the population of Muslims was equally high, i.e., 26.45%, it is left to imagine the general picture of representation of Muslims in employment on average in the whole State where the average Muslim population was 8.09% (following the 1971 Census, which was the basis for Gopal Singh Panel Report 1981). Thus if these figures are calculated to State average of Muslim population their representation would be only about 3%. Government of India: Statistics Relating to Senior Officers up to Joint- Secretary Level, Muslim India, November, Details of the representation of Muslims in all Central Government offices belonging to Ministries and other key government departments/organizations of Government of India. According to this, there is no representation of Muslims in most of the organizations and in only a few in certain offices where the number is generally one. Muslim Judges of High Courts (As on ), Muslim India, July ABS: It deals with the representation of Muslim judges in High Courts in India. Table giving the list of Muslim Judges in High Courts in different States is given. It states that the Muslims comprise only 29 (6.99%) members of the total 415 Judges.

22 National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), Department of Statistics, Government of India, Employment and Unemployment Situation Among Religious Groups in India: (Fifth Quinquennial Survey, NSS 50 th Round, July 1993-June 1994), Report No: 438, June The NSSO has been carrying out all-india surveys quinquennially for every five years on consumer expenditure, employment and unemployment. The fifth such quinquennial round survey was coincided with the 50 th Round of regular survey (July 1993-June 1994). The following analysis is based on the data collected for the fifth quinquennial survey round. The concepts used for this survey were essentially similar to that adopted in the previous four quinquennial rounds to facilitate comparability of estimates. Following statements (tables) provide survey results for the crucial areas of education and employment (including selfemployment) statuses of the major religious categories. They also give the findings of the earlier survey which facilitates comparison. TABLE: Worker Population Ratio for Persons of age 15 years and above for main religious groups during and

23 India Category HinduismIslam ChristianityAll* HinduismIslam Christianity All Rural male Rural female Rural person Urban male Urban female Urban person * includes all the religious groups TABLE: per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons of age 15 years and above by general educational level for main religious groups during and India General Education Religion round Iliterate Literate & middle secon- graduate secondary all upto & above & above Primary Rural male Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Rural Female Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Urban Male Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Urban Female Hinduism Islam Christianity All* secondary includes higher secondary also; NSS 50 th round: : NSS 43 rd round *includes all the religious groups

24 TABLE: per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons (15+) by broad industry for main religious groups during and India Religion Cate industry HinduiIsm Islam Christianity all* Hindu ism Islam Christianity all* gory Rural male Rural female Urban male Urban female *includes all the religious groups TABLE: Number of persons unemployed per 1000 persons in labour force (unemployment rate) for the main religious groups during and India Religion Category Hindu- Islam Christ- all* Hindu- Islam Christ- all* Ism ianity ism ianity Rural male Rural female Rural persons Urban male Urban female Urban persons * includes all the religious groups TABLE: Per 1000 distribution of usually unemployed persons of 15 yrs age and above for main religious groups during and India General Education

25 Religion Round Illiterate Literate Middle Secon- Graduate Secondary all & upto & above & above Primary Rural male Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Rural Female Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Urban Male Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Urban Female Hinduism Islam Christianity All* secondary includes higher secondary also; NSS 50 th round: : NSS 43 rd round

26 *includes all the religious groups TABLE: Unemployment Rates (UR) i.e. the number of persons (15+) unemployed per 1000 persons in the labour force according to the usual status (principal &subsidiary status taken together) for each broad education level and major religious groups India General Education Religion Round Illiterate Literate Middle Secon- Graduate Secondary all & upto & above & above Primary Rural male Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Rural Female Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Urban Male Hinduism Islam Christianity All* Urban Female Hinduism Islam Christianity All* secondary includes higher secondary also; NSS 50 th round: : NSS 43 rd round *includes all the religious groups

27 TABLE: Proportion (per 1000) of households and persons belonging to the self-employed and regular salaried and casual labour households by major religions in urban areas India Urban Religion House Hinduism Islam Christianity all* Hinduism Islam Christianity all* hold type households selfemployed reg Salaried Casual Labour persons selfemployed reg. Salaried casual labour including all the religious groups TABLE: Proportion (per 1000) of household and persons belonging to the self-employed and rural labour households by major religion India Rural Religion house Hinduism Islam Christianity all* Hinduism Islam Christianity all* hold type Households Self- employed Agriculture Non-agri Rural labour persons Self-employed: Agriculture Non-agri Rural labour * including all the religious groups Report 438: Employment and Unemployment situation among Religious Groups in India : NSS 50 th Round TABLE: Worker Population Ratio for persons of age 15 years and above for main religious groups during and India category Hinduism Islam Christianity all* Hinduism Islam Christianity all* rural

28 rural female rural person urban male urban female urban person * includes all the religious groups Report 438: Employment and Unemployment Situation Among Religious Groups in India, : NSS: 50 th Round Employment and Unemployment Situation among Religious Groups in India NSS 55 th Round (July 1999-June 2000) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, September As referred the NSSO carries out all-india household surveys on employment and unemployment with a large sample usually once in five years. The sixth such survey was conducted in the 55 th round (July 1999-June 2000). Following this the employment status of the Muslims is presented in the following tables. Table: Proportion (per 1000) of households and persons belonging to the self employed and rural labour households by major religions. Rural India Household type religion Hindu Islam Christia all Hindu Islam Christia all ism nity ism nity households Self employed: Agriculture Non-agri Rural labour Persons Self-employed: Agriculture Non-agri Rural labour includes all the religious groups. NSS report no. 468: Employment and unemployment situation among religious groups in India, Table: Proportion (per 1000) of households and persons belonging to the self employed and regular salaried and casual labour households by major religions in urban areas. All-India Household type religion

29 Hindu Islam Christia all Hindu Islam Christia all ism nity ism nity households Self employed: Reg. Salaried casual labour Persons Self-employed: Reg. salaried Casual labour includes all the religious groups. Reg = regular. NSS report no. 468: Employment and unemployment situation among religious groups in India, Table: Labour force participation rates according to usual status of (principal and subsidiary taken together) among major religions and sex urban India category religion of persons Hindu Islam Christia all Hindu Islam Chris- all ism nity ism tianity Rural male Rural female Rural person Urban male Urban female Urban person includes all the religious groups. Reg = regular. NSS report no. 468: Employment and unemployment situation among religious groups in India, Table: Worker population Ratio (WPR) for persons according to usual status (principal and subsidiary taken together) among main religious groups during and All-India category persons Hindu Islam Christia all Hindu Islam Chris- all ism nity ism tianity Rural male

30 (840) (845) (816) (839) (866) (870) (797) (864) Rural female (470) (267) (444) (449) (510) (267) (509) (486) Rural person (657) (553) (625) (646) (690) (568) (652) (678) Urban male (750) (781) (667) (752) (765) (801) (719) (768) Urban female (203) (151) (301) (197) (228) (189) (303) (223) Urban person (488) (482) (479) (486) (510) (510) (508) (509) includes all the religious groups. Reg = regular. Note: Figures in parentheses give the corresponding rates for persons of age 15 years and above NSS report no. 468: Employment and unemployment situation among religious groups in India, Table: per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons of age 15 years (principal and subsidiary taken together) and above general educational level for main religious groups during and All-India Religion round general education not literate midd secon higher gradu- seco all lite- & upto le dary secon ate& ndary rate primary dary above rural male Hinduism Islam Christianity all rural female Hinduism Islam Christianity all

31 urban male Hinduism Islam Christianity all Urban female Hinduism Islam Christianity all NSS 55 th round: ; NSS 50 th round includes all the religions NSS report no. 468: Employment and unemployment situation among religious groups in India, Table: WPR for persons of age 15 years and above according to usual status (principal and subsidiary taken together) by general educational level for main religious groups during and All-India Religion round general education not literate midd secon higher gradu- seco all lite- & upto le dary secon ate& ndary rate primary dary above rural male Hinduism Islam Christianity all

32 rural female Hinduism Islam Christianity all urban male Hinduism Islam Christianity all Urban female Hinduism Islam Christianity all NSS 55 th round: ; NSS 50 th round includes all the religions NSS report no. 468: Employment and unemployment situation among religious groups in India, Table: per 1000 distribution of usually employed persons ( all workers) by status of employment for main religious groups during and All-India Status of religion Hindu Islam Christia all Hindu Islam Christia all ism nity ism nity

unjustified. Similarly 66 percent women felt that the practice of triple talaq was incorrect and unjustified.

unjustified. Similarly 66 percent women felt that the practice of triple talaq was incorrect and unjustified. Appendix 2 Salient Points Highlighted by Dr. Sanjay Kumar, (Fellow, Centre for Study of Developing Societies), in his Paper titled Social and Economic Status and Popular Perception of Muslims in India,

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