One Man's Perspective: Sam Waller's Years at Moose Factory

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1 One Man's Perspective: Sam Waller's Years at Moose Factory CATH OBERHOLTZER McMaster University From September 1923 until August 1930, English-born Sam Waller taught at the Church Missionary Society's Moose Factory Indian Residential School in northern Ontario. Waller's diaries, photographs, ornithological specimens and artifacts provide us with vignettes of life in this remote community during those years. The glimpses of everyday life, visitors, travel, school activities, mission work, illness, births, deaths, and the all-pervasive vagaries of weather chronicled in his diaries are enhanced by his photographic record of local scenes and subjects. The significance of these observations, so tightly dated and supported by his ethnographic and ornithological collections, has tremendous potential for innumerable cultural, environmental and ethnohistoric studies. The ensuing discussion of Sam Waller as a teacher, lay missionary, student, musician, naturalist, gardener, ornithologist, photographer, chronicler, author and collector is an evaluation based primarily on Waller material. 1 What this assessment lacks in terms of broader contextualization and historiography, it gains by being one man's perspective, a personalized glimpse of social history. Biographical Sketch The biography generated from "The Sam Waller Papers Inventory and Finding Aid" (PA ) of The Sam Waller Little Northern Museum, 2 establishes that Sam Waller was born 23 June Raised by his publican father Research funding provided by the Department of Graduate Studies, McMaster University is gratefully acknowledged. The majority of the Sam Waller material was made available through the courtesy of Paul Thistle, Curator, Sam Waller Museum, The Pas, Manitoba and David L. Jones, Keeper of Human History, Ipswich Museum and Galleries, Ipswich, England. Thanks are extended to them and^to Dr. Ruth B. Phillips for drawing the Ipswich material to my attention. 2 The name of the museum was recently changed to "Sam Waller Museum." 310

2 SAM WALLER 311 and step-mother Nellie in the towns of Bildeston and Ipswich in southeastern England, he completed his education at Northgate School, Ipswich in After two years as an unspecified type of apprentice for J.J. Edwards, the 16-year-old Waller emigrated to Canada. Upon his arrival here in 1911, Waller settled in Ontario, workingfirstfor a Quaker farmer near Wooler, and then as a store clerk in the nearby communities of Codrington and Brighton. During this time Waller also served as a lay reader in the local Anglican churches, as well as an organist in Brighton. As a member of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the first World War, Waller served in the 29th Vancouver Battalion as an orderly and stretcher bearer. Subsequently, he was awarded the Military Medal for his participation in the Battle of Amiens. This stint in the army was also marked by his matriculation from the Canadian Khaki University. 3 Following his military discharge, Waller's pursuit of further formal education at Trinity College in Toronto met with failure (perhaps due toill health). For the next three years Waller worked in Toronto for a battery manufacturer, and continued as a lay reader at St. Monica's Anglican Church there. In response to offering his services to the Church Missionary Society, he was posted to the Moose Factory Indian Residential School in September 1923 remaining there until August At that time he moved to Manitoba where he continued in the mission-sponsored education field until his retirement in Retirement permitted all his energies to be directed to his museum (The Sam Waller Little Northern Museum) at The Pas, Manitoba. Sam Waller died in 1978 at the age of 83. The focus of this paper is the seven years Waller spent at Moose Factory. Fortunately, Waller was a meticulous recorder, leaving innumerable and varied sources to draw upon to assess his perspective of Moose Factory during the 1920s. Diaries, notebooks, photographs, correspondence, collections (of both natural and man-made items), literary works and records disclose Waller's viewpoint and personal involvement in this northern Ontario community. Based on these sources, I have come to view Sam Waller as having been a quiet self-possessed, sensitive man of slight stature 4 with a love for learning, a dedication to teaching and a devotion to Christian beliefs. He 3 As described by Hopkins in his book, Canada at War (1919: ), the Canadian Khaki University, with President H.M. Tory of the University of Alberta in charge, was a combined effort of the Canadian staff, the Y.M.C.A. and others to provide education for the troops training in England or on active service at the Front. The object was to take advantage of every spare moment to instruct the individual soldier in some line of study or occupation which he would like to continue when the war was over. According to Hopkins it was an overwhelming success. 4 According to his diary, he weighed 144 pounds in 1924.

3 312 CATH OBERHOLTZER pursued numerous interests and possessed a number of skills all of which seem to have worked in his favour as a "new northerner" and as a teacher. It is imperative to acknowledge, however, that "... friends of Mr. Wailer indicate that his true thoughts about Indians are not to be found in his diaries because he feared that his negative feelings would become known should there be a break-in and his private writings read by the intruders" (PA :5-6). If this is indeed a valid statement, Wailer's success at suppressing these feelings by means of a self-imposed editing of his journal entries should be recognized. The only hint of negative thoughts about Native peoples in the extant diaries is his entry for June 12th, which reads "I went into Dicks house today. It was an awful mess - One never need be surprised what they see around an Indian family besides lots of dogs, a cat and a menagerie of other animals." As a teacher Sam Wailer was a dedicated educator with a philosophy of bringing together enquiring minds and active hands. While all his personal interests and skills were focused and directed toward teaching, it must be appreciated that the school curriculum and most, if not all, of the extracurricular activities were designed within a Christian framework for the acculturation of Native children (Cook 1987:435; Long 1986:4). 6 There is no indication that he disagreed with this ideology. From his diaries we learn that Wailer was instrumental in introducing woodworking for the boys, sewing for the girls and an Annual School Sports Day and Exhibition for all. The success of this latter event elicited 5 While at Moose Factory, Wailer wrote four chronologically sequential diaries which he designated as Book 1, Book 2 and so on. As there is no explicit pagination, I have devised my own system noting diary number then a dash followed by a sheet number (two facing pages comprises one sheet; Wailer actually wrote across the two pages as if they were only one sheet). For example, the number for this particular notation would read: This system will be used throughout the paper. It should also be noted that only 18 sheets of Book 1 remain in the Museum and that all of Book 4 is missing. 6 The federal government delegated the provision of Indian education to individual Christian denominations. John S. Long (1986:11) comments that "For the nomadic hunters of the Subarctic... (S)chools, particularly residential farmschools, were an important tool in the task of restructuring Native beliefs and habits." This continued to be relevant during the 1920s, for as historian, Ramsay Cook (1987:435) notes specifically for that time period: "The major policy of the officials of that bureaucracy (the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department of the Interior] was the assimilation of native peoples into white society... Education was left largely in the hands of the missionaries who also had a crucial role in the assimilation process: the replacement of traditional religious beliefs and practices by Christianity."

4 SAM WALLER 313 the following comment in his diary for Tuesday, September 23, 1924: "This has been our Red Letter day. Our first Annual School sports [day] and everything has been most successful, All the Company [Hudson Bay Company] folks came and helped a great deal." Apparent success for his venture into teaching music seemed more tenuous as Waller expressed concerns that his initial attempts with Hubert McLeod, a half-breed, 7 would meet with failure. Although Waller provides no further elaboration, he must have considered the attempt sufficiently successful and worthwhile for later on he purchased a number of mouth organs for the school (2-9). From an historical point of view it is his recording of the more mundane administrative aspects of school life that paints a picture of the impact and relative success of the school system at that time. On May 12th 1924 he lists by name the 11 new scholars who arrived that day, swelling the numbers to 70. As more students continued to arrive (some from as far away as Albany on the west coast of James Bay), his solution to the overcrowding was to provide a second session with an overlapping half hour period when the "two sessions [were] in for prayers and drills at the same time" (1-11). At one point the numbers climbed to 92 (2-31) and, as he remarked on more than one occasion, these large classes were "quite a large number to handle alone" (1-13). These conditions did not seem to hinder Waller's teaching capabilities, for when Mr. Griffin, the clergyman, took over the teaching duties while Waller was ill, "He expressed surprise and satisfaction that they were so far advanced with their lessons" (2-60). 8 Further notations record such details as when holidays were given (for example, three days when the ice went out of the river in the Spring), when parents brought their children to the school, when they took them out for brief periods,fluctuationsin class size, when visiting medical personnel gave inoculations and did physical examinations, when the children were measured for new clothes, when Waller cut the boys' hair, and what celebrations they observed. Noteworthy are his comments regarding the native children's enjoyment of April Fools Day, the games played at Halloween and the lengthy descriptions of Christmas traditions. These latter observances included the writing of letters to Santa Claus, and Santa's appearance to 7 This is the term that Waller uses. "Waller's capability for managing the large number of students is reinforced, albeit in a rather backhanded manner, by an impassioned letter written to the Bishop of Moosonee by the school principal, the Reverend Joseph Blackburn. Imploring for transfer papers for a change to less arduous work and climate, Blackburn bitterly states in his letter: "Ifind it to be a heartbreaking, thankless task having charge of a Residential school... I really feel... that it would be much wiser to put a layman in charge of the school..." (Anglican Archives Mf 81-4 reel I; emphasis in original). Blackburn had assumed the combined duties after Waller left for Manitoba in 1930.

5 314 CATH OBERHOLTZER distribute gifts. As Waller proffers no comments as to the acculturative effects of these observances, I sense that by registering his willing participation in these Eurocanadian traditions he is declaring his belief in their validity and value for instructing the children. Waller's success as a teacher was, in part, a reflection of his own eagerness to learn and to try new experiences. During his tenure at Moose Factory, his teachers were his own students, his friends in the community, and his own efforts of self-instruction from books and the trial-and-error method. The diaries are replete with such anecdotes of his endeavours as building his own "birch bark lodge in the bush" (1-5), learning to set snares which "(They) take amateurs like myself a long time to set" (2-38), and "Tonight I am tired and sore as I had m yfirstexperience shooting and trapping..." (2-44). Skills acquired in photography, taxidermy, woodworking and the Cree language were developed through determination and practice. As a lay missionary Under the auspices of the Christian Missionary Society, Waller continued to serve The Church of England as a layman of St. Thomas' church in Moose Factory. With up to five Sunday services, midweek services, special church events, and the seemingly constant collection and tabulation of mission boxes, the demands were many. Whatever duties Waller performed were done in a quiet manner with not a hint of complaint. My interpretation of this uncomplaining commitment is subject, of course, to the consideration that he was keeping the diaries. His comments were restricted to the acknowledgement of the large amounts that "some of the poor creatures gave", up to $20.00 in some cases. Even Waller's donations of a brass alms basin, handcrafted hymn boards,flags, and a small brass panel of Leonardo de Vinci's picture of the Last Supper brought back from Holland received only minor reference. And only two lines hint at the inner fears that he must have felt before and during hisfirstreading in Cree. On Sunday, August 30, 1925 his entry reads, "Today for thefirst time I read part of the service in Indian at church it was a queer experience but I'm glad I made the attempt." At no point in his journals does Waller record any concerns that he might be questioning his religious commitment. Comparison of his diary entries for his two trips to Toronto suggest, however, that he may have harboured some doubts. Hisfirsttrip "out" in August of 1924 is typical of most trips out to-day: he had dental work done, shopped, visited, enjoyed the excitement of the Canadian National Exhibition and Sunnyside (a Toronto entertainment park), had photographs developed, took short jaunts on the train did some research into the records of the S w a m p y Cree at the Parliament Buildings (2-7), attended several different churches for a number of

6 SAM WALLER 315 services, and "Had a good shower in the Y.M.C.A." (2-7). A sense of excitement emanates from his journal entries for this trip. By way of contrast, the entries during his second trip in April and May of 1927 are terse three or four word statements with no further elaboration or commentary. During this trip to Toronto his activities centred around attending services at various churches, visiting a few friends, participating in Mission-sponsored activities, and culminating in a week spent at the School of Missions listening to lectures. Does this change in his entries and his behaviour intimate a need for reaffirmation and revitalization and reinforcement of his Christian beliefs and practices? Granted, Waller did undergo a tonsillectomy three weeks after arriving in Toronto and thus may not have felt well during that time. Still, the notations do reflect a difference in demeanour from the first trip, and even from the last entries recorded at Moose Factory. Furthermore, prior to this trip innumerable evenings had been spent with his native friend, Sydney Archibald. Waller was fascinated by the Cree legends and stories of the old ways as told to him by Archibald (for example, 3-81, 3-87, 3-90, 3-92). As well, Waller was now adept at a number of native techniques for survival in the bush and could converse in Cree. It may have been this transition into the native sphere that caused him to question his own beliefs. I doubt that we will ever know for certain. As a chronicler The daily happenings of a small community take on greater significance as the documented evidence of residents, visitors, and the almost constant movement of people from place to place. For instance, the roster of names extracted from the diaries alone 9 provides an invaluable record for the reconstruction and composition of the local population, the personnel of the rival French and English trading companies and their movements between posts up and down the coasts, as well as visits from government, medical, and church officials. The recording of illnesses, epidemics, and accidents; of births, baptisms, marriages, deaths and burials, in addition to their demographic and genealogical significance, are also poignant reminders of the isolation and remoteness of the regional community. The impact and the implications surrounding the arrival of a policeman who was to be stationed there for some time are made quite evident. Later Waller exhibits a controlled excitement when the policeman arrived from Albany. Handcuffed to him was "Sandy Metat. [I presume Metatawabin] the renowned conjurer from Albany district" (3-101). So, too, do we learn when the ice went out of the river, when the river froze, when the weather was unseasonably mild, when it was stormy, 9 I counted over 200 different names mentioned in just 65 pages of one diary.

7 316 CATH OBERHOLTZER and when an earthquake shook the area (9:25 p.m. on Saturday February 28, 1925) (2-66). When people are so closely tied to the environment for their lives and livelihoods, these climatic phenomena are significant. The primacy of obtaining a living from the land for all concerned took on an added dimension for the Company and Mission with their efforts to provide vegetables for the kitchens and hay for the livestock. Indeed, many of Waller's entries are focused on planting, haying, harvesting and his beloved flower garden. The diaries are also replete with interesting and at times, amusing tidbits of information: being told the same Cree name for 5 or 6 different birds; requiring an emergency repair, the Natives plugged a hole in the canoe with pork fat; a description for setting a fox trap; that each bird shot by a boy with his bow and arrow is recorded by marking the bow; the fun they had opening bales sent out for the poor by the Indian Department; noting "lots of white whales passed by today"; recording a total of 6 dead from flu; and so on. As an ornithologist Waller's diaries clearly establish his interest in birds by providing dates and descriptions of thefirstarrivals in spring and noting the last stragglers of the fall migrations. Recognizing his interest, people brought or sent him a number of specimens. Over the years (including those spent later in Manitoba), Waller sent an impressive collection of some 700 birds representing 192 species as well as 85 egg sets of 40 species to the Ornithology Department of the Royal Ontario Museum (James personal communication). This absorption with acquiring birds aroused an interest in taxidermy. On May 13,1924 he noted receiving a book on taxidermy which he found "most interesting" and immediately began to teach himself to skin and stuff the birds. However, after wasting "several good skins" (1-13) in the process, his success remained somewhat questionable until November 1926 when he wrote, "I stuffed successfully a bird today. It was quite a job skinning it and it looks fairly normal." How skilful he actually became is not readily apparent, but he was able to teach the rudiments of taxidermy to some of the school boys. Gilbert Faries 10 of Moose Factory told me that he and some of the other students became sufficiently adept, continuing to provide Waller with stuffed birds into the 1950s and 1960s. As a photographer As ethnohistoric documents Waller's photographs are invaluable. The subs range from group shots to portraits to activities and events specific to "Interview July 1990.

8 SAM WALLER 317 the community and to portrayals of native life. Bracketed chronologically by Waller's years at Moose Factory the photographs in the Ipswich Museum collection document, for example, the use of oxen (Ipswich ) and horses (Ipswich ) by the Hudson's Bay Company, the breakup of the river photographed during the second week of May 1926 (Ipswich ), members of the community 11 and such ethnographic information as Cree boys playing a traditional game called "geese" (Ipswich ) and the drying of moss for use as "diapers" (Ipswich ). Waller labelled the back of each photograph with the information he considered to be relevant. As well, the diaries provide the exact dates when he took particular photographs. Hence, we know that the portraits of Peter Quachekan (Ipswich ), Oliver Chum (Ipswich ), Louisa Chum (Ipswich ) and Christine Hardisty (Ipswich ) were taken on February second and third, The significance of the photographs is further enhanced by their apparent lack of artifice. Beyond the usual convention of "posing for the camera", the scenes and subjects do not appear to be further staged or supplemented with props (cf. Blackman 1984). Such guileless notations as "Took several pictures of the Indian men running about with bows and arrows" (3-84) reinforce this assessment to some extent. As an author Between 1925 and 1976, Waller wrote articles on birds, local history, his museum, the Cree language, a Cree dictionary, Cree legends, and children's stories about the Cree children. In particular, it is the stories featuring the Cree children that reveal an aspect of Waller that is not evident in the other sources. Keeping in mind that these stories were written as Sunday School and Children's Mission Leaflets for young readers, the actual message was directed to adults: Sunday School teachers; parents; and ultimately, the governing/funding missionary society (see also Long 1986:5-6). Even with this admonition, we must acknowledge that Waller's tone is patronizing, revealing his views of the superiority of white Christian society. In his leaflet stories about the "Cree Indian Children", Waller establishes his view of the trials and tribulations that Cree children must face: a life of wandering and hunting, seldom remaining long in one place; living in tents the whole year round; reliance on rabbits as a staple food but which became scarce in some seasons; helping mother (but no mention of helping father) with wood cutting, skin stretching, snowshoe lacing or looking after younger siblings (Waller 1928a, 1928b, 1982c, 1982d). He contrasts this way of life 11 A number of the people were identified for me during fieldwork at Moose Factory and Waskaganish in 1990 and 1991.

9 318 CATH OBERHOLTZER with that of brothers and sisters who were left in the mission school: "My! How they are changed. They are learning how to keep themselves clean and healthy, and how to prepare themselves and their people for the time when conditions will change and other knowledge will be needed to keep themselves comfortable and happy" (Wailer 1928a:6). Waller's selection of photographs used to illustrate these children's stories are correspondingly revealing. For instance, photographs of boys (Ipswich ) and girls (Ipswich ) attending Moose Factory Day School are labelled respectively, "Types of Cree Boys at School" and similarly "Types of Cree girls at school" as if the subjects were artifacts (Wailer 1928c:2;d:2). On the back of another illustration photograph he has written: "These little children have never been to school and were it not for the missionary effort no schools could be provided for them. They cannot speak English- but Swampy Cree" (Ipswich ; Wailer 1928a:5). Other illustrations selected for their "Indianness" included a Cree woman dressing a moose hide for moccasins (Ipswich ; Wailer 1928a:5) and Old Rose (Wesley) weaving a rabbit skin blanket (Ipswich ; Wailer 1928d:1). This position of Wailer's should not be viewed as solely a personal bias but one which reflects, in part, the prevailing white Christian attitudes of the times. As a collector Wailer was an inveterate collector of what he termed "souvenirs". This passion for collecting became apparent during the First World War when Waller refused to part with his accumulation of (European) "souvenirs" - even under adverse conditions at the Front (PA :2). Wailer's continuation with this hobby at Moose Factory created a collection with the eclecticism of a 17th-century "Cabinet of Curiosities" full of "the quaint and the curious" (Ames 1986:3). However, one salient feature is the consistently small size of each of the artifacts (at least in the Ipswich collection and as noted in his diaries). Small objects and models of larger items are wellsuited to a person with limited storage and/or display area. These items collected during the Moose Factory years also possess the requisite Indianness that appealed to Wailer's quest for both knowledge and "otherness". In other words, it has the criteria and composition of a teaching collection but one which also reflects Wailer's perception of the "uncivilized" Indian. The notebook accompanying the portion of the collection sent from Moose Factory to Wailer's boyhood school in Ipswich attests to this purpose. One line from the prefatory letter expresses Wailer's wish that the collection: "... to be there housed & displayed to advantage to arouse and encourage the interest of the scholars and visitors... " However, the remainder of the sentence once again reveals his missionary ardour as he continues: "... in

10 SAM WALLER 319 the work of uplifting the aboriginal and primitive races of people in our wonderful north country." This notebook also includes a detailed list providing a brief description of each one's function, construction and place of origin for each object. In many instances, further details can be garnered from a corresponding comment or notation in a diary. For January 27, 1925 Waller writes: "Went up to George McLeods [sic] this a.m. & was given what I have often longed for viz. [namely] two amulets from an old Indian. They are made from the skin of the bears [sic] chin. These were formerly regarded with great superstition" (2-57). Unfortunately, these bear chins, along with a number of other items listed in the notebook, are now missing. Approximately ethnographic objects and 36 photographs remain in the Waller collection of the Ipswich Museum. 12 Roughly one-third of the material is Inuit and the remainder Cree. The Cree material contains numerous models, games, moccasins, beaded garters, a "watch pocket" ("... part of the Indian dress formerly when hunting"), net cradle charms, a number of technological items (for example, afishingnet) and an example of Cree syllables. Ten pairs of model snowshoes, technically and aesthetically exquisite, represent a variety of styles which Waller tantalizingly describes in the inventory list as "differing according to Locality" but neglects to provide the names of those localities. The Sam Waller Museum in The Pas, Manitoba holds a further 30 to 40 pieces of Cree material and a number of uncatalogued photographs. Of particular interest is a beaded goat skin doily (PH 1.44), the remaining evidence of Waller's experiment to introduce goats at Moose Factory. A few minor pieces are in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Diary notations also refer to a number of transactions between Waller and Natives which add an important and often unknown dimension to our understanding of the collecting process. On one occasion he traded a watch and chain for a model kiyak [sic] and was then given "a fine birch bark canoe a model of the kind used here in Moose many years ago" (2-25). In a later entry he settled up with the Mcleods for some souvenirs, although no amounts or trade items are divulged. Some acquisitions appear to have been presented as gifts to Waller. The importance of this small and seemingly insignificant collection is not to be ignored. A collection such as this one which has relatively complete documentation, afirmlybracketed time frame and one or more named sources within a specific locality possesses immeasurable potential as a substantive and comparative source. Furthermore, the individual artifacts themselves are valid sources of information "for unlike written documents, 12 Waller also sent numerous natural objects including minerals and fossils which are not included here.

11 320 CATH OBERHOLTZER they provide their own tangible and unchanging confirmation of their presence within the culture at that time" (Reynolds 1986:301). Discussion Although brief and sketchy in parts, this overview, derived as it is from a number of sources, gives us a convincing glimpse of Sam Waller - - his interests, his accomplishments, his contributions to the community, and his perspective of life in Moose Factory during the 1920s. A sense of an "other worldliness" experienced through the remoteness and geographical isolation of James Bay in the 1920s is discerned from his lack of comment even during his visits to Toronto on provincial, national or global events. Canada in the 1920s was experiencing chaotic Federal politics, the end of prohibition, the union of the Methodist, Congregationalist and most Presbyterian Churches into the United Church of Canada, and an impact from the automobile, the radio and moving pictures. Of these events only the radio was mentioned by Waller, and perhaps only as a consequence of having one in the house where he lived. The 1920s were also the last years of the "old way" in the James Bay area. In 1932 the railway reached Moosonee, and the patterns of life in the Bay region changed once again. Clearly evident in Waller's writings is the presence of a closely- knit white community with much interaction and support. In emphasizing a continual round of visiting, support in times of illness or distress, sharing and exchanging food, labour and "extras" (books, journals, slides, and negatives) Waller portrays an idealized life. While he cites only one example of dissension, his comment that "It is a great sorrow that these eruptions must come... I did not expect such trivial things in a mission station were so unpleasant and discouraging" (2-27) reveals another aspect of community life. This community insularity within the Native matrix is an issue that needs to be considered more thoroughly, particularly in its function as a reinforcing factor for white Christian ideology and its impact on Native society. And to dispel any concerns that Sam Waller was always serious, his final entry in "Book 2" was this limerick: There was a young woman named Florence, Who for kissing held great abhorrence, But when she'd been kissed, And found what she had missed, She criedtill the tears came in torrents.

12 SAM WALLER 321 Ames, Michael M. REFERENCES 1986 Museums, the Public and Anthropology. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Blackman, Margaret B Posing the American Indian. Pp in Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives. Washington. Blackburn, Joseph 1933 Letter to Rt. Rev. Bishop David Anderson D.D. Anglican Archives. Diocese of records Mf 81-4, reel I. Cook, Ramsay 1987 The Triumph and Trials of Materialism ( ). Pp in The Illustrated History of Canada. Craig Brown, ed. Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys. Hopkins, J. Castell, F.S.S., F.R.G.S Canada at War: A Record of Heroism and Achievement Toronto: The Canadian Annual Review Limited. Long, John S "Shaganash": Early Protestant Missionaries and the Adoption of Christianity by the Western James Bay Cree, PhD thesis, University of Toronto. Reynolds, Barrie 1986 Artifactual Documents: Ethnological Museum Collections as an Ethnohistorical Resource. Pp in Ethnohistory: A Researcher's Guide. Williamsburg, Virginia: Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary. Thistle, Paul C Museums and Municipal Funding. Project Report sponsored by Culture, Heritage and Recreation. Manitoba. Waller, Sam 1928a I Cree Indian Children. The Institute Leaflet. 8(37): b II Bows and Arrows of the Cree. The Institute Leaflet. Junior No. 7 n.s. 8(38):l c III Stories of Cree Indian Children. The Institute Leaflet. 8(39): d IV Stories of Indian Cree Children. The Institute Leaflet, Junior No. 7 n.s. 8(40):l-3. Waller, Sam, compiler 1929 Notes and Records. Church of St. Thomas, Moose Factory, former Protestant Cathedral and Mother Church of the Diocese of Moosonee. Anglican Archives: MM52.6.W1213.

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