The Extended Mind. But, what if the mind is like that? That is, what if the mind extends beyond the brain?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Extended Mind. But, what if the mind is like that? That is, what if the mind extends beyond the brain?"

Transcription

1 The Extended Mind 1. The Extended Body: We often have no problem accepting that the body can be augmented or extended in certain ways. For instance, it is not so far-fetched to think of someone s prosthetic limb as being an extension of a PART of their body. For a blind person, a cane can be an extension of their body; a truly great musician will often claim that their instrument is a part of them; they become one with their instrument. But, what if the mind is like that? That is, what if the mind extends beyond the brain? 2. The Extended Mind: We manipulate the world in order to aid and augment some cognitive processes all the time (call this an epistemic action). We use scrap paper (or our fingers!) to figure out tough math problems, we write down important things so that we can remember them, and so on. Now, imagine that you are asked to determine how various shapes ought to be rotated and arranged in order to form a perfect square: You solve this puzzle in three different scenarios: (a) You perform the rotations in your head in order to figure it out. (b) You are given the option to either figure it out naturally in your head or use a neurally implanted computer chip which you can operate with your brain to visually rotate each shape inside your head. (c) You are given the option to either figure it out naturally in your head or use an external computer, pressing keys to manually rotate each shape on a screen. 1

2 It is uncontroversial that solving the puzzle the old-fashioned, in your head way involves a cognitive process of your mind. In that scenario, you consciously manipulate the world in such a way as to solve it namely, your brain. Now ask: Are the processes that occur in (b) and (c) a part of your mind s cognitive processes? If not, why not? Privilege brain-matter? After all, when you use a computer that is inside your head (b), you are ALSO consciously making a decision to manipulate some part of the world in order to solve it only, the stuff inside of your head that you are manipulating is not organic brain matter, but rather a computer chip. So, is the BRAIN, or CARBON somehow privileged over, say, SILICON? There doesn t seem to be any good reason for such discrimination. [Or is there? Do you agree?] Privilege the inside of the skull? Furthermore, the only difference between (b) and (c) is the LOCATION of that computer namely, OUTSIDE of your skull, rather than inside. So, is the location INSIDE of the skull somehow privileged over those locations that are outside of it? This doesn t seem like a justifiable discrimination either. [Do you agree?] But, once we reject the claim that there is are no good reasons to insist that (i) the material of the mind is restricted to organic brain matter, or that (ii) the location of the mind is restricted only to those locations inside the skull, an interesting thesis arises: The Extended Mind Thesis. This thesis is the first premise of the following argument: 1. The Extended Mind Thesis: If, as we confront some task, a part of the world functions as a process which, were it done in the head, we would have no hesitation in recognizing it as part of the cognitive process, then that part of the world is part of the cognitive process. 2. Your iphone functions in such a way. 3. Therefore, your iphone is a part of your cognitive process (i.e., your mind). 3. Objections: Here are some worries: 1. The mind is conscious. But, your iphone is not conscious. Reply: Surely, there are many non-conscious cognitive processes that are uncontroversially a part of your mind. 2. The mind is portable. It goes with you wherever you go. But, the external world does not. 2

3 Reply: Even if this were a requirement for something to be a part of your mind, we could still include things like your iphone as a part of your mind, since it too is portable, and reliably goes with you wherever you go. 3. Even if we admitted that some COGNITIVE PROCESSES occur outside of the head, this does not entail that the MIND is outside of the head. Reply: Consider the following two stories: Inga: Inga just heard that the new Star Wars movie came out today. She forms the desire to go see it. She thinks for a moment and recalls that the movie theater is in New Town. She goes and sees the movie. Otto: Otto suffers from Alzheimer s disease. He has trouble forming new memories. He carries around a notebook where he keeps important information that he wants to remember. Otto has just heard that the new Star Wars movie came out today. He forms the desire to go see it. He consults his notebook and it says that the movie theater is in New Town. So he goes there and sees the movie. Now, clearly Inga believes that the proposition <The movie theater is in New Town> is true. Furthermore, she believes this BEFORE she consults her memory. Surely, we do not want to say that people only believe things that they are CURRENTLY thinking of. (Call these occurrent beliefs.) Admittedly, her belief is not an OCCURRENT belief. We might instead call it a dispositional belief i.e., she is DISPOSED to report that she believes this proposition when asked. But, ask yourself: Do you have beliefs that you are not currently thinking of? E.g., don t you believe that you live in Williamsburg, that you are a human being, and so on, even when you are not consciously thinking about these beliefs? So, Inga s beliefs are stored in her brain and beliefs are a part of the mind. But, the two cases are completely analogous except for the fact that Otto must consult a notebook instead of his brain. So, it seems that Otto ALSO believes that <The movie theater is in New Town> even BEFORE he consults his notebook. So, Otto s beliefs are stored in his notebook and beliefs are a part of the mind. Therefore, a part of Otto s mind is in his notebook. The alternative is to say that, at best, Otto believes that the movie theater is wherever his notebook SAYS it is. But, then, in Inga s case, we would have to say that, at best, she merely believes that the museum is wherever her memory has recorded that it is. But, this doesn t seem to be what she believes. Or at least, that is not ALL she believes. Imagine if I asked you, Do you believe that you live in Williamsburg? and you replied, I m not sure. I only believe that I live wherever my memory tells me I believe. Hold on. [consulting memory] Yes, now I believe that I live in Williamsburg. That is absurd. 3

4 Chalmers says this is one step too many. For simplicity, we should just cut out this middle-man. He writes: The moral is that when it comes to belief, there is nothing sacred about skull and skin. What makes some information count as a belief is the role it plays, and there is no reason why the relevant role can be played only from inside the body. Rebuttal: We might insist that there are relevant disanalogies between Inga and Otto s case, which entail that Inga has the non-occurent belief but Otto does not: Inga s belief is in her head, but Otto s is outside of his head. Reply: We cannot simply STIPULATE this. That is begging the question i.e., assuming to be true the very claim that is being debated. Inga s belief stays put. It is reliable, and doesn t come and go as Otto s notebook might. It would seem odd to say that Otto only has certain beliefs when he is carrying his notebook with him, but that he forgets things when he accidentally leaves it at home. Reply: But, Inga s beliefs don t really stay put either. The come and go when, e.g., she is sleeping, or intoxicated. As long as they are reliably there under certain conditions e.g., when she is awake, sober, parts of her brain are not removed by an evil neuroscientist, etc. then we can still attribute non-occurrent beliefs to her. Similarly, as long as Otto s beliefs are reliably there under certain conditions e.g., when he is awake, sober, his notebook is with him, etc. then we can do the same for Otto. Otto s belief is gained by PERCEPTION (i.e., LOOKING AT his notebook). Meanwhile, Inga s belief is gained by INTROSPECTION (i.e., looking INWARD, mentally). Reply: But, the phenomenological FEEL of retrieving a belief, memory, etc., does not seem important. We might imagine a being who has to use his EYES to recall memories, form occurrent beliefs, etc. (Chalmers mentions The Terminator as being portrayed in this way.) Conclusion: Unless you want to deny the existence of non-occurrent beliefs, then we must accept that Otto s mind extends into his notebook. In short, the mind ain t all inside of the head! 4

5 4. Some Implications: The Extended Mind Thesis is not just an interesting philosophical thesis. If true, it may have some surprising implications for the way we view the world: Exams test your mind s ability to figure out problems, etc. But, if the external world is a part of your mind, then ought exams be open-book, allow calculators, computers, etc.? Some say that google is making us stupid. But, if the Extended Mind Thesis is true, then isn t it really making us much smarter? After all, it vastly extends our access to knowledge. If your mind extended, and your self exists wherever your mind exists, it follows that your SELF is extended into the world too. You are not just your body, but an extended SYSTEM that reaches out into, and is intermingled with, the external world. Whoa Dude On a related note, if parts of the external world are parts of your mind, then destruction or theft of those things is very serious. They are a destruction or a theft of a part of your mind! If I steal your iphone, it is as invasive as if I have gone into your mind and erased some of your memories, etc.! This pairs with the previous point nicely. It is not uncommon for a couple who have been together for decades to finish each other s sentences, to serve to fill in the gaps in each other s memories, etc. What is more, when one of them dies, it is not unusual for the remaining partner to say, I lost a part of myself that day. For more, see Chalmers TED talk on this subject, here. 5

Foreword to Andy Clark s Supersizing the Mind

Foreword to Andy Clark s Supersizing the Mind Foreword to Andy Clark s Supersizing the Mind David J. Chalmers A month ago, I bought an iphone. The iphone has already taken over some of the central functions of my brain. It has replaced part of my

More information

Seeing Through The Veil of Perception *

Seeing Through The Veil of Perception * Seeing Through The Veil of Perception * Abstract Suppose our visual experiences immediately justify some of our beliefs about the external world, that is, justify them in a way that does not rely on our

More information

Chisholm s Simple Souls vs. Clark s Extended Selves 1

Chisholm s Simple Souls vs. Clark s Extended Selves 1 Chisholm s Simple Souls vs. Clark s Extended Selves 1 Selmer Bringsjord Selmer.Bringsjord@gmail.com version of 020411-1045NY As the bibliography for his volume (XXV) of The Library of Living Philosophers

More information

THE FREGE-GEACH PROBLEM AND KALDERON S MORAL FICTIONALISM. Matti Eklund Cornell University

THE FREGE-GEACH PROBLEM AND KALDERON S MORAL FICTIONALISM. Matti Eklund Cornell University THE FREGE-GEACH PROBLEM AND KALDERON S MORAL FICTIONALISM Matti Eklund Cornell University [me72@cornell.edu] Penultimate draft. Final version forthcoming in Philosophical Quarterly I. INTRODUCTION In his

More information

DIVIDED WE FALL Fission and the Failure of Self-Interest 1. Jacob Ross University of Southern California

DIVIDED WE FALL Fission and the Failure of Self-Interest 1. Jacob Ross University of Southern California Philosophical Perspectives, 28, Ethics, 2014 DIVIDED WE FALL Fission and the Failure of Self-Interest 1 Jacob Ross University of Southern California Fission cases, in which one person appears to divide

More information

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori PHIL 83104 November 2, 2011 Both Boghossian and Harman address themselves to the question of whether our a priori knowledge can be explained in

More information

The Nature of Death. Here, we will ask: What is death? When does it become true that you are dead?

The Nature of Death. Here, we will ask: What is death? When does it become true that you are dead? The Nature of Death Here, we will ask: What is death? When does it become true that you are dead? 1. Death and Two Views of Personal Identity: What is death? According to Physicalism, you are a physical

More information

G.E. Moore A Refutation of Skepticism

G.E. Moore A Refutation of Skepticism G.E. Moore A Refutation of Skepticism The Argument For Skepticism 1. If you do not know that you are not merely a brain in a vat, then you do not even know that you have hands. 2. You do not know that

More information

Merricks on the existence of human organisms

Merricks on the existence of human organisms Merricks on the existence of human organisms Cian Dorr August 24, 2002 Merricks s Overdetermination Argument against the existence of baseballs depends essentially on the following premise: BB Whenever

More information

PHL340 Handout 8: Evaluating Dogmatism

PHL340 Handout 8: Evaluating Dogmatism PHL340 Handout 8: Evaluating Dogmatism 1 Dogmatism Last class we looked at Jim Pryor s paper on dogmatism about perceptual justification (for background on the notion of justification, see the handout

More information

In defence of an argument for Evans s principle: a rejoinder to Vahid

In defence of an argument for Evans s principle: a rejoinder to Vahid In defence of an argument for Evans s principle: a rejoinder to Vahid JOHN N. WILLIAMS In (2004) I gave an argument for Evans s principle: namely: Whatever justifies me in believing that p also justifies

More information

Utilitarianism. But what is meant by intrinsically good and instrumentally good?

Utilitarianism. But what is meant by intrinsically good and instrumentally good? Utilitarianism 1. What is Utilitarianism?: This is the theory of morality which says that the right action is always the one that best promotes the total amount of happiness in the world. Utilitarianism

More information

Please remember to sign-in by scanning your badge Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds

Please remember to sign-in by scanning your badge Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds AS A COURTESY TO OUR SPEAKER AND AUDIENCE MEMBERS, PLEASE SILENCE ALL PAGERS AND CELL PHONES Please remember to sign-in by scanning your badge Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds James M. Stedman, PhD.

More information

Kripke on the distinctness of the mind from the body

Kripke on the distinctness of the mind from the body Kripke on the distinctness of the mind from the body Jeff Speaks April 13, 2005 At pp. 144 ff., Kripke turns his attention to the mind-body problem. The discussion here brings to bear many of the results

More information

15. Russell on definite descriptions

15. Russell on definite descriptions 15. Russell on definite descriptions Martín Abreu Zavaleta July 30, 2015 Russell was another top logician and philosopher of his time. Like Frege, Russell got interested in denotational expressions as

More information

Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy, book 5

Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy, book 5 Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy, book 5 (or, reconciling human freedom and divine foreknowledge) More than a century after Augustine, Boethius offers a different solution to the problem of human

More information

How and How Not to Take on Brueckner s Sceptic. Christoph Kelp Institute of Philosophy, KU Leuven

How and How Not to Take on Brueckner s Sceptic. Christoph Kelp Institute of Philosophy, KU Leuven How and How Not to Take on Brueckner s Sceptic Christoph Kelp Institute of Philosophy, KU Leuven christoph.kelp@hiw.kuleuven.be Brueckner s book brings together a carrier s worth of papers on scepticism.

More information

New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 12: 2-15 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (full.pdf) 2. Next week a. Locke, An Essay

More information

Property Dualism and the Knowledge Argument: Are Qualia Really a Problem for Physicalism? Ronald Planer Rutgers Univerity

Property Dualism and the Knowledge Argument: Are Qualia Really a Problem for Physicalism? Ronald Planer Rutgers Univerity Property Dualism and the Knowledge Argument: Are Qualia Really a Problem for Physicalism? Ronald Planer Rutgers Univerity Abstract: Where does the mind fit into the physical world? Not surprisingly, philosophers

More information

From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence

From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Prequel for Section 4.2 of Defending the Correspondence Theory Published by PJP VII, 1 From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Abstract I introduce new details in an argument for necessarily existing

More information

Philosophy Epistemology. Topic 3 - Skepticism

Philosophy Epistemology. Topic 3 - Skepticism Michael Huemer on Skepticism Philosophy 3340 - Epistemology Topic 3 - Skepticism Chapter II. The Lure of Radical Skepticism 1. Mike Huemer defines radical skepticism as follows: Philosophical skeptics

More information

Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument

Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument 1. The Scope of Skepticism Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument The scope of skeptical challenges can vary in a number

More information

Introduction to Philosophy. Spring 2017

Introduction to Philosophy. Spring 2017 Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2017 Elements of The Matrix The Matrix obviously has a lot of interesting parallels, themes, philosophical points, etc. For this class, the most interesting are the religious

More information

Creation & necessity

Creation & necessity Creation & necessity Today we turn to one of the central claims made about God in the Nicene Creed: that God created all things visible and invisible. In the Catechism, creation is described like this:

More information

DOES NEUROSCIENCE UNDERMINE RESPONSIBILITY?

DOES NEUROSCIENCE UNDERMINE RESPONSIBILITY? DOES NEUROSCIENCE UNDERMINE RESPONSIBILITY? Walter Sinnott-Armstrong Duke University COMMON CLAIMS Many smart people see neuroscience as a threat to free will and responsibility. Other smart people think

More information

Wittgenstein and Moore s Paradox

Wittgenstein and Moore s Paradox Wittgenstein and Moore s Paradox Marie McGinn, Norwich Introduction In Part II, Section x, of the Philosophical Investigations (PI ), Wittgenstein discusses what is known as Moore s Paradox. Wittgenstein

More information

9 Knowledge-Based Systems

9 Knowledge-Based Systems 9 Knowledge-Based Systems Throughout this book, we have insisted that intelligent behavior in people is often conditioned by knowledge. A person will say a certain something about the movie 2001 because

More information

Experience and the Passage of Time

Experience and the Passage of Time Experience and the Passage of Time Bradford Skow 1 Introduction Some philosophers believe that the passage of time is a real phenomenon. And some of them find a reason to believe this when they attend

More information

Hume s emotivism. Michael Lacewing

Hume s emotivism. Michael Lacewing Michael Lacewing Hume s emotivism Theories of what morality is fall into two broad families cognitivism and noncognitivism. The distinction is now understood by philosophers to depend on whether one thinks

More information

24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI

24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI 24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI perception Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. 1 reminder from first lecture: course overview 1. can computers think? 2. from dualism to functionalism a survey of theories

More information

WHY WE REALLY CANNOT BELIEVE THE ERROR THEORY

WHY WE REALLY CANNOT BELIEVE THE ERROR THEORY WHY WE REALLY CANNOT BELIEVE THE ERROR THEORY Bart Streumer b.streumer@rug.nl 29 June 2017 Forthcoming in Diego Machuca (ed.), Moral Skepticism: New Essays 1. Introduction According to the error theory,

More information

Craig on the Experience of Tense

Craig on the Experience of Tense Craig on the Experience of Tense In his recent book, The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination, 1 William Lane Craig offers several criticisms of my views on our experience of time. The purpose

More information

Dualism: What s at stake?

Dualism: What s at stake? Dualism: What s at stake? Dualists posit that reality is comprised of two fundamental, irreducible types of stuff : Material and non-material Material Stuff: Includes all the familiar elements of the physical

More information

Philosophy of Consciousness

Philosophy of Consciousness Philosophy of Consciousness Direct Knowledge of Consciousness Lecture Reading Material for Topic Two of the Free University of Brighton Philosophy Degree Written by John Thornton Honorary Reader (Sussex

More information

Berkeley, Three dialogues between Hylas and Philonous focus on p. 86 (chapter 9) to the end (p. 93).

Berkeley, Three dialogues between Hylas and Philonous focus on p. 86 (chapter 9) to the end (p. 93). TOPIC: Lecture 7.2 Berkeley Lecture Berkeley will discuss why we only have access to our sense-data, rather than the real world. He will then explain why we can trust our senses. He gives an argument for

More information

Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason

Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason Alexander R. Pruss Department of Philosophy Baylor University October 8, 2015 Contents The Principle of Sufficient Reason Against the PSR Chance Fundamental

More information

The readings for the course are separated into the following two categories:

The readings for the course are separated into the following two categories: PHILOSOPHY OF MIND (5AANB012) Tutor: Dr. Matthew Parrott Office: 603 Philosophy Building Email: matthew.parrott@kcl.ac.uk Consultation Hours: Thursday 1:30-2:30 pm & 4-5 pm Lecture Hours: Thursday 3-4

More information

Anselmian Theism and Created Freedom: Response to Grant and Staley

Anselmian Theism and Created Freedom: Response to Grant and Staley Anselmian Theism and Created Freedom: Response to Grant and Staley Katherin A. Rogers University of Delaware I thank Grant and Staley for their comments, both kind and critical, on my book Anselm on Freedom.

More information

The Puzzle of Persisting Personal Identity

The Puzzle of Persisting Personal Identity The Puzzle of Persisting Personal Identity What s the puzzle exactly? One useful way to begin tackling the issue of personal identity is by considering the ancient puzzles associated with the ship of Theseus

More information

ZOMBIES AND THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL PICKPOCKET

ZOMBIES AND THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL PICKPOCKET M.P. LYNCH ZOMBIES AND THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL PICKPOCKET ABSTRACT. A prevailing view in contemporary philosophy of mind is that zombies are logically possible. I argue, via a thought experiment, that

More information

McDowell and the New Evil Genius

McDowell and the New Evil Genius 1 McDowell and the New Evil Genius Ram Neta and Duncan Pritchard 0. Many epistemologists both internalists and externalists regard the New Evil Genius Problem (Lehrer & Cohen 1983) as constituting an important

More information

How To Meditate and Go Within Los Angeles April 15, 2011

How To Meditate and Go Within Los Angeles April 15, 2011 How To Meditate and Go Within Los Angeles April 15, 2011 It took me many years to come back to Great Master and say, I haven t found anything better than what you said. Now I am going to practice your

More information

Analyticity and reference determiners

Analyticity and reference determiners Analyticity and reference determiners Jeff Speaks November 9, 2011 1. The language myth... 1 2. The definition of analyticity... 3 3. Defining containment... 4 4. Some remaining questions... 6 4.1. Reference

More information

Stem Cell Research on Embryonic Persons is Just

Stem Cell Research on Embryonic Persons is Just Stem Cell Research on Embryonic Persons is Just Abstract: I argue that embryonic stem cell research is fair to the embryo even on the assumption that the embryo has attained full personhood and an attendant

More information

Lecture 8 Property Dualism. Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia and What Mary Didn t Know

Lecture 8 Property Dualism. Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia and What Mary Didn t Know Lecture 8 Property Dualism Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia and What Mary Didn t Know 1 Agenda 1. Physicalism, Qualia, and Epiphenomenalism 2. Property Dualism 3. Thought Experiment 1: Fred 4. Thought

More information

the aim is to specify the structure of the world in the form of certain basic truths from which all truths can be derived. (xviii)

the aim is to specify the structure of the world in the form of certain basic truths from which all truths can be derived. (xviii) PHIL 5983: Naturalness and Fundamentality Seminar Prof. Funkhouser Spring 2017 Week 8: Chalmers, Constructing the World Notes (Introduction, Chapters 1-2) Introduction * We are introduced to the ideas

More information

Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori

Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori Lingnan University Digital Commons @ Lingnan University Theses & Dissertations Department of Philosophy 2014 Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori Hiu Man CHAN Follow this and additional

More information

Responses to the sorites paradox

Responses to the sorites paradox Responses to the sorites paradox phil 20229 Jeff Speaks April 21, 2008 1 Rejecting the initial premise: nihilism....................... 1 2 Rejecting one or more of the other premises....................

More information

Meta-conceivability. Essays in Philosophy. Philip Corkum University of Alberta. Volume 13 Issue 1 Philosophical Methodology. Article 12.

Meta-conceivability. Essays in Philosophy. Philip Corkum University of Alberta. Volume 13 Issue 1 Philosophical Methodology. Article 12. Essays in Philosophy Volume 13 Issue 1 Philosophical Methodology Article 12 January 2012 Meta-conceivability Philip Corkum University of Alberta Follow this and additional works at: http://commons.pacificu.edu/eip

More information

Is Truth the Primary Epistemic Goal? Joseph Barnes

Is Truth the Primary Epistemic Goal? Joseph Barnes Is Truth the Primary Epistemic Goal? Joseph Barnes I. Motivation: what hangs on this question? II. How Primary? III. Kvanvig's argument that truth isn't the primary epistemic goal IV. David's argument

More information

A Defense of the Significance of the A Priori A Posteriori Distinction. Albert Casullo. University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Defense of the Significance of the A Priori A Posteriori Distinction. Albert Casullo. University of Nebraska-Lincoln A Defense of the Significance of the A Priori A Posteriori Distinction Albert Casullo University of Nebraska-Lincoln The distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge has come under fire by a

More information

The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis

The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis 1 Morten Tolboll The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis We almost all have an experience of, how our senses and thoughts can deceive us. Therefore the question about, whether life could be

More information

in defence of an argument for evans s principle 167

in defence of an argument for evans s principle 167 in defence of an argument for evans s principle 167 conditions the non-branching psychological continuity theorist should revert to (5), which has not been shown to be circular. 5 I conclude that if the

More information

KNOWLEDGE ON AFFECTIVE TRUST. Arnon Keren

KNOWLEDGE ON AFFECTIVE TRUST. Arnon Keren Abstracta SPECIAL ISSUE VI, pp. 33 46, 2012 KNOWLEDGE ON AFFECTIVE TRUST Arnon Keren Epistemologists of testimony widely agree on the fact that our reliance on other people's testimony is extensive. However,

More information

Paul Teaches About Self-Respect

Paul Teaches About Self-Respect Paul Teaches About Self-Respect Ephesians 2:8-10 The Point We respect ourselves. Large-Group Lesson 3 CHOOSE YOUR OPTIONS Each option below is designed to last 10 minutes. The option used to tell the Bible

More information

Today we turn to the work of one of the most important, and also most difficult, philosophers: Immanuel Kant.

Today we turn to the work of one of the most important, and also most difficult, philosophers: Immanuel Kant. Kant s antinomies Today we turn to the work of one of the most important, and also most difficult, philosophers: Immanuel Kant. Kant was born in 1724 in Prussia, and his philosophical work has exerted

More information

Revelation, Humility, and the Structure of the World. David J. Chalmers

Revelation, Humility, and the Structure of the World. David J. Chalmers Revelation, Humility, and the Structure of the World David J. Chalmers Revelation and Humility Revelation holds for a property P iff Possessing the concept of P enables us to know what property P is Humility

More information

6.080 / Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science Spring 2008

6.080 / Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science Spring 2008 MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 6.080 / 6.089 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

More information

WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI?

WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI? Diametros nr 28 (czerwiec 2011): 1-7 WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI? Pierre Baumann In Naming and Necessity (1980), Kripke stressed the importance of distinguishing three different pairs of notions:

More information

Shieva Kleinschmidt [This is a draft I completed while at Rutgers. Please do not cite without permission.] Conditional Desires.

Shieva Kleinschmidt [This is a draft I completed while at Rutgers. Please do not cite without permission.] Conditional Desires. Shieva Kleinschmidt [This is a draft I completed while at Rutgers. Please do not cite without permission.] Conditional Desires Abstract: There s an intuitive distinction between two types of desires: conditional

More information

Mind = Brain? Brain Physiology. Materialism = Physicalism. What is materialism? Humans are made of only one kind of stuff-- matter.

Mind = Brain? Brain Physiology. Materialism = Physicalism. What is materialism? Humans are made of only one kind of stuff-- matter. Mind = Brain? Materialism = Physicalism What is materialism? Humans are made of only one kind of stuff-- matter. We have a mind, but what we call the mind is really just a complicated arrangement of matter--namely,

More information

TWO VERSIONS OF HUME S LAW

TWO VERSIONS OF HUME S LAW DISCUSSION NOTE BY CAMPBELL BROWN JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY DISCUSSION NOTE MAY 2015 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT CAMPBELL BROWN 2015 Two Versions of Hume s Law MORAL CONCLUSIONS CANNOT VALIDLY

More information

UNDERSTANDING, JUSTIFICATION AND THE A PRIORI

UNDERSTANDING, JUSTIFICATION AND THE A PRIORI DAVID HUNTER UNDERSTANDING, JUSTIFICATION AND THE A PRIORI (Received in revised form 28 November 1995) What I wish to consider here is how understanding something is related to the justification of beliefs

More information

Chapter Summaries: Introduction to Christian Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1

Chapter Summaries: Introduction to Christian Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1 Chapter Summaries: Introduction to Christian Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1 In chapter 1, Clark reviews the purpose of Christian apologetics, and then proceeds to briefly review the failures of secular

More information

REVIEW OF DUNCAN PRITCHARD S EPISTEMIC LUCK

REVIEW OF DUNCAN PRITCHARD S EPISTEMIC LUCK REVIEW OF DUNCAN PRITCHARD S EPISTEMIC LUCK MARIA LASONEN-AARNIO Merton College Oxford EUJAP VOL. 3 No. 1 2007 Original scientific paper UDk: 001 65 Abstract Duncan Pritchard argues that there are two

More information

Grounding and Analyticity. David Chalmers

Grounding and Analyticity. David Chalmers Grounding and Analyticity David Chalmers Interlevel Metaphysics Interlevel metaphysics: how the macro relates to the micro how nonfundamental levels relate to fundamental levels Grounding Triumphalism

More information

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning................... 3 1.1.1 Strong Syllogism......................... 3 1.1.2 Weak Syllogism.......................... 4 1.1.3 Transitivity

More information

A Priori Skepticism and the KK Thesis

A Priori Skepticism and the KK Thesis A Priori Skepticism and the KK Thesis James R. Beebe (University at Buffalo) International Journal for the Study of Skepticism (forthcoming) In Beebe (2011), I argued against the widespread reluctance

More information

Judith Jarvis Thomson s Normativity

Judith Jarvis Thomson s Normativity Judith Jarvis Thomson s Normativity Gilbert Harman June 28, 2010 Normativity is a careful, rigorous account of the meanings of basic normative terms like good, virtue, correct, ought, should, and must.

More information

Goldman on Knowledge as True Belief. Alvin Goldman (2002a, 183) distinguishes the following four putative uses or senses of

Goldman on Knowledge as True Belief. Alvin Goldman (2002a, 183) distinguishes the following four putative uses or senses of Goldman on Knowledge as True Belief Alvin Goldman (2002a, 183) distinguishes the following four putative uses or senses of knowledge : (1) Knowledge = belief (2) Knowledge = institutionalized belief (3)

More information

The knowledge argument purports to show that there are non-physical facts facts that cannot be expressed in

The knowledge argument purports to show that there are non-physical facts facts that cannot be expressed in The Knowledge Argument Adam Vinueza Department of Philosophy, University of Colorado vinueza@colorado.edu Keywords: acquaintance, fact, physicalism, proposition, qualia. The Knowledge Argument and Its

More information

Take Home Exam #1. PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert

Take Home Exam #1. PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert Name: Date: Take Home Exam #1 Instructions (Read Before Proceeding!) Material for this exam is from class sessions 2-8. Please write your answers clearly

More information

Christian Coseru University of Charleston, USA

Christian Coseru University of Charleston, USA Information about the Conference: http://eng.iph.ras.ru/7_8_11_2016.htm RAS Institute of Philosophy Tibetan Culture and Information Center in Moscow First International Conference Buddhism and Phenomenology

More information

Epistemic two-dimensionalism

Epistemic two-dimensionalism Epistemic two-dimensionalism phil 93507 Jeff Speaks December 1, 2009 1 Four puzzles.......................................... 1 2 Epistemic two-dimensionalism................................ 3 2.1 Two-dimensional

More information

How Subjective Fact Ties Language to Reality

How Subjective Fact Ties Language to Reality How Subjective Fact Ties Language to Reality Mark F. Sharlow URL: http://www.eskimo.com/~msharlow ABSTRACT In this note, I point out some implications of the experiential principle* for the nature of the

More information

This support pack accompanies the story: Mr. Smith s New Nose by Chris Rose To read or listen to the story online, go to:

This support pack accompanies the story: Mr. Smith s New Nose by Chris Rose To read or listen to the story online, go to: Introduction Story Mr. Smith s New Nose This support pack accompanies the story: Mr. Smith s New Nose by Chris Rose To read or listen to the story online, go to: This support pack contains the following

More information

HOW TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SOMETHING WITHOUT CAUSING IT* Carolina Sartorio University of Wisconsin-Madison

HOW TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SOMETHING WITHOUT CAUSING IT* Carolina Sartorio University of Wisconsin-Madison Philosophical Perspectives, 18, Ethics, 2004 HOW TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SOMETHING WITHOUT CAUSING IT* Carolina Sartorio University of Wisconsin-Madison 1. Introduction What is the relationship between moral

More information

Epistemic Consequentialism, Truth Fairies and Worse Fairies

Epistemic Consequentialism, Truth Fairies and Worse Fairies Philosophia (2017) 45:987 993 DOI 10.1007/s11406-017-9833-0 Epistemic Consequentialism, Truth Fairies and Worse Fairies James Andow 1 Received: 7 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published online:

More information

AQUINAS S METAPHYSICS OF MODALITY: A REPLY TO LEFTOW

AQUINAS S METAPHYSICS OF MODALITY: A REPLY TO LEFTOW Jeffrey E. Brower AQUINAS S METAPHYSICS OF MODALITY: A REPLY TO LEFTOW Brian Leftow sets out to provide us with an account of Aquinas s metaphysics of modality. 1 Drawing on some important recent work,

More information

ARTIFICIAL AGENCY, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND THE CRITERIA FOR MORAL AGENCY: WHAT PROPERTIES MUST AN ARTIFICIAL AGENT HAVE TO BE A MORAL AGENT?

ARTIFICIAL AGENCY, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND THE CRITERIA FOR MORAL AGENCY: WHAT PROPERTIES MUST AN ARTIFICIAL AGENT HAVE TO BE A MORAL AGENT? Kenneth Einar Himma Associate Professor Department of Philosophy Seattle Pacific University (USA) http://home.myuw.net/himma ARTIFICIAL AGENCY, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND THE CRITERIA FOR MORAL AGENCY: WHAT PROPERTIES

More information

Norva Y S Lo Produced by Norva Y S Lo Edited by Andrew Brennan. Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Part-Whole Relations

Norva Y S Lo Produced by Norva Y S Lo Edited by Andrew Brennan. Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Part-Whole Relations CRITICAL THINKING Norva Y S Lo Produced by Norva Y S Lo Edited by Andrew Brennan LECTURE 8! Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Part-Whole Relations Summary In this lecture, we will learn three more

More information

Faults and Mathematical Disagreement

Faults and Mathematical Disagreement 45 Faults and Mathematical Disagreement María Ponte ILCLI. University of the Basque Country mariaponteazca@gmail.com Abstract: My aim in this paper is to analyse the notion of mathematical disagreements

More information

On David Chalmers's The Conscious Mind

On David Chalmers's The Conscious Mind Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LIX, No.2, June 1999 On David Chalmers's The Conscious Mind SYDNEY SHOEMAKER Cornell University One does not have to agree with the main conclusions of David

More information

Semantic Externalism, by Jesper Kallestrup. London: Routledge, 2012, x+271 pages, ISBN (pbk).

Semantic Externalism, by Jesper Kallestrup. London: Routledge, 2012, x+271 pages, ISBN (pbk). 131 are those electrical stimulations, given that they are the ones causing these experiences. So when the experience presents that there is a red, round object causing this very experience, then that

More information

Descartes Method of Doubt

Descartes Method of Doubt Descartes Method of Doubt Philosophy 100 Lecture 9 PUTTING IT TOGETHER. Descartes Idea 1. The New Science. What science is about is describing the nature and interaction of the ultimate constituents of

More information

Robert Audi, The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and. Substance of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Pp. xvi, 286.

Robert Audi, The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and. Substance of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Pp. xvi, 286. Robert Audi, The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and Substance of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Pp. xvi, 286. Reviewed by Gilbert Harman Princeton University August 19, 2002

More information

Possibility and Necessity

Possibility and Necessity Possibility and Necessity 1. Modality: Modality is the study of possibility and necessity. These concepts are intuitive enough. Possibility: Some things could have been different. For instance, I could

More information

Free Will [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

Free Will [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 8/18/09 9:53 PM The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Free Will Most of us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to

More information

Evidence and Normativity: Reply to Leite

Evidence and Normativity: Reply to Leite Forthcoming in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Note: this short paper is a defense of my earlier Epistemic Rationality as Instrumental Rationality: A Critique, Philosophy and Phenomenological

More information

On the Nature of Intellectual Vice. Brent Madison, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, UAE

On the Nature of Intellectual Vice. Brent Madison, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, UAE http://social-epistemology.com ISSN: 2471-9560 On the Nature of Intellectual Vice Brent Madison, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, UAE Madison, Brent. On the Nature of Intellectual Vice. Social

More information

New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 11: 2-13 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (full.pdf) 2. Next time a. Descartes, Meditations

More information

Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The Story of the Sun

Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The Story of the Sun Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2014 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The

More information

Is#God s#benevolence#impartial?#!! Robert#K.#Garcia# Texas&A&M&University&!!

Is#God s#benevolence#impartial?#!! Robert#K.#Garcia# Texas&A&M&University&!! Is#God s#benevolence#impartial?# Robert#K#Garcia# Texas&A&M&University& robertkgarcia@gmailcom wwwrobertkgarciacom Request#from#the#author:# Ifyouwouldbesokind,pleasesendmeaquickemailif youarereadingthisforauniversityorcollegecourse,or

More information

Kripke s skeptical paradox

Kripke s skeptical paradox Kripke s skeptical paradox phil 93914 Jeff Speaks March 13, 2008 1 The paradox.................................... 1 2 Proposed solutions to the paradox....................... 3 2.1 Meaning as determined

More information

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Vocabulary Someone, nothing, anywhere...

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Vocabulary Someone, nothing, anywhere... BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Vocabulary Someone, nothing, anywhere... This is not a word-for-word transcript Hello! Welcome to 6 Minute Vocabulary. I m And I m. And today we re talking about words like

More information

A Solution to the Gettier Problem Keota Fields. the three traditional conditions for knowledge, have been discussed extensively in the

A Solution to the Gettier Problem Keota Fields. the three traditional conditions for knowledge, have been discussed extensively in the A Solution to the Gettier Problem Keota Fields Problem cases by Edmund Gettier 1 and others 2, intended to undermine the sufficiency of the three traditional conditions for knowledge, have been discussed

More information

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Draw a Venn diagram for the given sets. In words, explain why you drew one set as a subset of

More information

1. I like to organize events and the people around me to do something meaningful.

1. I like to organize events and the people around me to do something meaningful. SPIRITUAL GIFTS ASSESSMENT There are many in depth spiritual gifts assessment test that you can take online, or find in books and other resources. What follows is a basic assessment to get you thinking

More information

Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 1b Knowledge

Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 1b Knowledge Think by Simon Blackburn Chapter 1b Knowledge According to A.C. Grayling, if cogito ergo sum is an argument, it is missing a premise. This premise is: A. Everything that exists thinks. B. Everything that

More information

Reductio ad Absurdum, Modulation, and Logical Forms. Miguel López-Astorga 1

Reductio ad Absurdum, Modulation, and Logical Forms. Miguel López-Astorga 1 International Journal of Philosophy and Theology June 25, Vol. 3, No., pp. 59-65 ISSN: 2333-575 (Print), 2333-5769 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research

More information