2 Learning Target I can analyze the causes and consequences of the reform movements of the 1800s. I can describe the goals and actions of the Reform Movements.
3 Second Great Awakening Second Great Awakening continuedrejection of Puritan beliefs and more emphasis on the idea that God allowed people to make own decisions. Charles Grandison Finney- NY Presbyterian minister/lawyer- common sense religion Lyman Beecher- revivalist- reformistabolitionist father of Harriet Beecher Stowe
4 The Transcendentalists The Transcendentalists- to rise above - humans are naturally good- moral lives can make society better- good works can defeat evil Ralph Waldo Emerson- leader of movementunitarian pastor Character is higher than intellect... A great soul will be strong to live, as well as to think. Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail. Live in the sunshine, swim the sea, drink the wild air
5 Transcendentalism (European Romanticism) e Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning. e Transcend the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the soul, to create an original relationship with the Universe.
6 Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature (1832) Self-Reliance (1841) Henry David Thoreau Walden (1854) Resistance to Civil Disobedience (1849) The American Scholar (1837) R3-1/3/4/5
7 Public Education Public education was better in the North than South and middle states Reformers wanted working class children educated by tax-supported public schools Differentiated grade levels became widespread Free public schools became norm in North
8 Horace Mann ( ) Father of American Education e children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials e children should be molded into a state of perfection e discouraged corporal punishment e established state teachertraining programs R3-6
9 Prison Reform Dorothea Dix Reformer wanted prisons cleaned up and regulated Homes for mentally ill established in north
10 Utopian Communities Utopia is a pun meaning both "good place" and "no place. Based on book by the British author- Sir Thomas More. 19th century utopian communities tried to change the way man lived and create a perfect society
12 The Oneida Community New York, 1848 e Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred. e Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past. all residents married to each other. John Humphrey Noyes ( ) carefully regulated free love.
13 New Harmony, Indiana Robert Owen established a communistic colony in New Harmony, IN that gained prominence as a cultural and scientific center and attracted many noted scientists, educators, and writers. Dissension arose, and in 1828 the community ceased to exist as a distinct enterprise, although the town remained an intellectual center.
14 The Shakers The name Shakers comes from Shaking Quakers was originally applied as a mocking description of their rituals of trembling, shouting, dancing, shaking, singing The Shakers established several communities in the US The first in 1776 at Nikayuna near Albany, NY The governing principals of the Shaker life included celibacy and agrarian communal living
15 The Shakers
16 Shaker Hymn 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
17 Shaker Simplicity & Utility
18 The Utopian Communities Clash! Individual Freedom Demands of Community Life e spontaneity e discipline e self-fulfillment e organizational hierarchy
19 The Temperance Movement The Temperance Movement- the campaign to rid the US of demon rum Drunken lives wastedlives of families impacted- Reformers theorized that all could be changed if alcohol was made illegal ME-passed lawreformers had an impact in educating public of dangers
20 The Temperance Movement American Temperance Society Fought against Demon Rum! Frances Willard R1-6 The Beecher Family
21 Annual Consumption of Alcohol
22 The Drunkard s Progress From the first glass to the grave, 1846
23 Temperance in song and print By the late 1820s, temperance groups were holding public meetings and distributing prohibition pamphlets and songs.
24 Opposition to temperance I Saloon owners, liquor distributors, and other organizations that opposed the temperance movement, published their own songs suggesting that the prudes also enjoyed a drink from time to time.
25 Abolitionist Movements Anti-slavery groups became mush more organized and committed in the 1830 s-1840 s. Founders of Abolitionist movementsmennonites, Quakers, free blacks, northerners, women
26 Anti-Slavery Alphabet
27 Liberia African homeland established in western Africa for freed African-Americans Set up by African Colonization Society Not popular among most blacks Only 140,000 emigrated from US
28 William Lloyd Garrison Famous Boston abolitionist and publisher of The Liberator Slavery was a moral, not an economic issue Slavery undermined values. Wanted Immediate emancipation Helped get attention started a movement of radical abolitionists
29 The Liberator Premiere issue January 1, 1831 R2-5
30 The Tree of Slavery Loaded with the Sum of All Villanies!
31 Frederick Douglass ( ) R2-1 2 Former slave who escaped Maryland and became famous writer and speaker Publisher of the North Star- an abolitionist newspaperbecame advisor to President Lincoln later in life
32 Sojourner Truth ( ) or Isabella Baumfree Became religious reformer who took on the cause of both women rights and abolition > The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10
33 The Underground Railroad A network of escape routes from the South to the North/Canadasecret stops along the way made for a safe route to freedom. Harriet Tubman led more than 300 slaves to freedom and earned the name Moses
34 The Underground Railroad e Conductor ==== leader of the escape e Passengers ==== escaping slaves e Tracks ==== routes e Trains ==== farm wagons transporting the escaping slaves e Depots ==== safe houses to rest/sleep
35 Harriet Tubman ( ) Tubman suffered from seizures and blackouts due to a childhood injury that a slave-owner Moses had inflicted on her Let my people go I never lost a passenger e $40,000 bounty on her head. e Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.
36 Resistance to Abolition North- Merchants opposed due to the idea it would harm business and cause competition for jobs Whites did not want blacks in neighborhoods South- believed that the south should be able to decide for itself- no federal rules on what they believed was a states rights issue Anger and fear at the Nat Turner rebellion; Powerful Southern leaders invoked the gag rule in Congress which made it illegal to even speak or read abolitionist literature in Congress
37 Even Churches Split over Slavery American churches divided over the slavery issue The Methodist and Baptist churches split into two sides creating 2 churches in many towns Created Southern Baptists (Pro-slavery) Created Methodist Episcopal Church (Abolitionists) The South generally did not change in any large form by any reform movements The Northern abolitionists had to wait to Civil War for changes to happen
38 The Lack of Women s Rights Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor. Single could own her own property. Married no control over her property or her children. Could not initiate divorce. Couldn t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband s permission.
39 What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way! R2-8
40 Separate Spheres Concept Cult of Domesticity e A woman s sphere was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside). e Her role was to civilize her husband and family. e An 1830s MA minister: The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
41 Slow Progress for Women Urbanization and industrialization changed the lives of women Many working class women worked outside the home in factories Catherine Beecher- daughter of abolitionist Lyman Beecher became an advocate for women s rights established a school for women interested in pursuing an education
42 Tactics Used for Equal Rights The reformists used boycotts, lectures, demonstrations Women reformers became involved in abolitionist movement because of the many parallels between the two groups The first World Anti-slavery Convention was held in London Women were not allowed to attend. This caused the birth of a powerful group of women who set out to change things
43 Important Women Reformers Sojourner Truth became powerful speaker for movements as well as Catherine Beecher, her sister Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Harriet Tubman Lucretia Mott- Quaker minister who housed runaway slaves Elizabeth Cady Stanton- Lawyer who fought for women s rights and abolition
44 R2-6/7 Women s Rights > split in the abolitionist movement over women s role in it. London --> World Anti-Slavery Convention Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton > Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
45 The Seneca Falls Convention In Seneca Falls NY in 1848, a group of reformers met an presented a Declaration of Sentiments based on Declaration of Independence 12 Resolutions including suffrage for women Most Americans still believed a women s place was in the home Congress did not take the Seneca Falls Resolutions seriously However, it was step in the right direction
46 Declaration of Sentiments We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness
47 Women s Rights Take a Back Seat For Now After Seneca Falls, society became a bit more accepting of some rights for women Girls began to be educated Colleges accepted women But men and women reformers put the issue of slavery on the front burner Women s rights had to wait until after the Civil War and late 19th century-early 20th
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