Supplement to Chapter 17 Conflict and Change in the West

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1 Supplement to Chapter 17 Conflict and Change in the West The Native American Though the Native American is portrayed as being a singular stereotype, they were diverse in culture and in lifestyles The western tribes were unique The Plains Indians Not all western Indians lived on the plains The Buffalo was the centerpiece of survival Tribes moved to follow the food source Conflict between tribes caused by herd movements The horse is introduced by Spanish conquistadors. The Plains Indian Was Different The Buffalo was the primary food source of the plains Indian. The Plains Wars Greed becomes the primary motive of the European American Government often influenced by wealthy U.S. Army used to subdue native populations Treaties broken when minerals found on reservation President Jackson had forced all eastern tribes to move west of the Mississippi River Mormons migrate west & establish Utah Church started in Western New York Persecuted in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois Founder Joseph Smith is assassinated They flee to Utah to avoid prejudice Their communal lifestyle promotes survival and ultimately success They believe in polygamy (multiple wives) Joseph Smith Born in Saint Lawrence County, New York he preaches that an angel gave him a new book of the bible.

2 Chapter 17 Supplement...p. 2 The Great Awakening Tremendous growth in all religion throughout nation during from Though America was considered a Protestant nation there were few ministers. Most established Protestant churches ran seminaries; required ministers to be educated. A college education was a criteria for ordination Self-appoint ministers emerge to fill the needs of people; uneducated ministers preaching. Western New York is Fertile Ground for the Rebirth of Religion Numerous experimental religions emerge in the region west of Albany Religious communes are created in Oneida Religious revivals bring nominal Protestants back to one form of orthodoxy Joseph Smith emerged from this environment in western New York state. The Mormans and Polygamy Seven of Brigham Young s wives. Migration to the West Farms emerge when easterners move west Upheaval of Civil War sends people west Immigration Railroads connect east with west Discovering Gold and Silver bring prospectors Any personal or financial problem leads to western migration. The West was a Hostile Place The lure of freedom or a second chance did not come without a price. Hostile natives and the weather conspired to make it a real challenge. The importance of water Water is Scarce Congress establishes water rights in legislation The scarcity of water will dominate all other factors in west. Accommodation through water rights Irrigation was critical to survival Similar to the practices of the Mormons. Cattle was king in the plains Cattlemen want free range to allow their cattle to roam The come into conflict with farmers who don t want their crops trampled by roaming cattle. Literally a civil war breaks out between farmers and cattlemen

3 Cattlemen wealthier, farmers more numerous. Chapter 17 Supplement...p. 3 The Cowboy Merely the seasonal worker for the cattlemen the cowboy becomes the epitome of being American Federal government a major player in the West Why weren t militias created to subdue the indigenous people? Why was it federal troops? The federal government had bought the Louisiana. The federal government defeated the Mexicans. The West was a federal territory. The Slaughter of the Buffalo The wanton slaughter of the Buffalo by European Americans will com-pound the hardship to the Plains Indians. The so-called Indian Problem Efforts to Europeanize Native Americans ended in ruining their cultures. Forced to speak English Made to dress European Christianity suppressed their religions After 1871 Native Americans were federal wards Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 commits U.S. government to Native peoples. Western Indian Chief The Plains Indian roamed the west following the buffalo. The Spanish Presence in the West. Spanish colonies existed since the 16th Century U.S. conquers Mexican territory to expand slavery. War with Mexico is invented to rationalize taking Mexican territory La Ciudad de Los Angeles a vital center for commerce when Mexicans are defeated. Spanish Mission in the West Many Americans forget about how Spanish culture pre-dated English culture in the West. The Spanish were First Mexican presence in American southwest predates presence of non-hispanic peoples. The Native Americans were first but the Spanish were second. Southwestern America is Spanish by history and geography.

4 Chapter 17 Supplement...p. 4 The geography allows immigration from both the west and the south. The West is America For so many Americans and those throughout the world the West symbolizes America. The West in American myth. In literature the west symbolizes America=s promise. Throughout the world the west is what is most identified with America. The west most closely embodies the American dream of freedom and prosperity through conquering adversity. As long as the frontier existed Americans could always pick up and move. Miss Kitty was a what? Most bar maids and so-called dance hall girls were really prostitutes. What makes America so different? So Successful? Some historians believe the presence of the west was critical to the success of the American experiment. The presence of the frontier shaped not only our history but our culture. We are a Frontier Culture. The Significance of the Frontier in American History by Frederick Jackson Turner. The notion that America is exceptional. What is unique about America? Why did it become a world power? Why is it the richest country in the world? Isolation was Freedom Life was harsh but the setting could be spectacular, and isolation meant freedom Beliefs that anyone can make a living if they try originate along the frontier Wherever the frontier is at the time. Combines with the Calvinist beliefs that God designates the chosen through material success to create a uniquely American view of poverty. The land was free, but dangerous. The Myths impact on Modern Politics Conquering the west contributes to the belief that guns are an essential party of American culture.

5 Chapter 17 Supplement...p. 5 The right to bear arms application to individual gun ownership will be an advertisement campaign devised by Colt Firearms Company to sell Civil War surplus to westerners. More Myths, More Beliefs Most Americans believe that the poor are poor because they are lazy. Why, because for so long all you had to do to survive was move west. Most westerners do not want the federal government regulating their region. The federal government created western states and retained certain regions as federal The Confluence of Factors The Calvinist belief that our economic status reflects our spiritual status. The social Darwinist view that the fittest will survive. The frontier believe that survival is a matter of strength and hard work. All converge to produce the belief that the poor are solely responsible for their poverty.

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