1 THE LIFE, DEATH AND LEGACY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN...he ll never come to much, fur I ll tell you he wuz the puniest, cryin est little youngster I ever saw. Said by Dennis Hanks, a first cousin of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, on the day Abraham Lincoln was born Qualities of Lincoln: Intelligent -Found education amongst a family with little or no education. Hard-Working -A hillbilly from the Midwest working hard and becoming President. Good Ethics and Morals -Honesty: Honest Abe was not afraid to be blunt about his beliefs -Spoke out concerning equality among all people -He was very much against slavery Powerful Speaker -Motivating speeches captivating a country -Intelligent speeches to play the political debate game Worked Several Jobs -Shopkeeper -President -Surveyor -Judge -Lawyer -Shipper -Postmaster Sacrifice As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is not democracy. -Abraham Lincoln -Gives his life for his country, his beliefs, and for the freedom of the people in the United States of America THE IMPACT OF THE DEATH OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN The death of Abraham Lincoln was felt all throughout America, by many different people: Humanity has lost a firm advocate, our race its Patron Saint, and the good of all the world a fitting object to emulate... The name Abraham Lincoln will ever be cherished in our hearts, and none will more delight to lisp his name in reverence than the future generations of our people. -Edgar Dinsmore, a black soldier from New York stationed in South Carolina I spect its no use to be here. I might as well stayed where I was. It pears we cant be free, nohow. -Jack Flowers, a Sea Island black That we... look upon the death of the Chief Magistrate of our country as a national calamity, and an irrepressible loss beyond the power of words to express, covering the land with gloom and sorrow, mourning and desolation. -Resolution of a community of blacks at Hilton Head Whereas Abraham Lincolns originality of manner, his humor, wit, sarcasm, and wondrous powers of ridicule, were weapons peculiarly his own, which no one else could imitate. Add to these qualities courage, will, and indomitable persistence of purpose, which never flagged or faltered, and he was a power felt and acknowledged by the nation. Take him all in all, it will be long ere we look upon his like again; Whereas he is dead; but the days of his pilgrimage, although in troublesome times, were full of honor, love, and troops of friends. The nation mourns. Peace be with him. -The Joint Resolution of Congress upon Lincolns death dated April 17, 1865 Sending armies to McClellan is like shoveling fleas across a barnyard. Not half of them get there. -Abraham Lincoln
2 Family and friends may mourn but his death will do more for the cause than any human life, for it will fix the sentiments of the Country perhaps of mankind. To my mind few have been happier. -Charles Sumner to his English reformer friend John Bright To some men, the world of matter and of man comes ornamented with beauty, life, and action, and hence more or less false and inexact. No lurking illusion delusion error, false in itself, and clad for the moment in robes of splendor, woven by the imagination, ever passed unchallenged or undetected over the threshold of his mind.... He saw all things through a perfect mental lens. There was no diffraction or refraction there.... He was not impulsive, fanciful, or imaginative, but cold, calm and precise. -William Herndon ABRAHAM LINCOLN, THE SPEAKER June 16, 1858 A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the union to be dissolved I do not expect the house to fall but I do expect that it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. August 22, 1862 My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free. January, 1863 The hen is the wisest of all the animal creation because she never cackles until after the egg has been laid. November 19, 1863 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal... December 3, 1861 The struggle of today, is not altogether for today it is for a vast future also. March 4, 1861 In your hands, my dissatisfied countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without yourselves being the aggressors. You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it. I am loth to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearth-stone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. January 26, 1863 Major-General Hooker, December, 1862 If there is a worse place than Hell, I am in it. I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. I have heard, in such a way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the Army and the Government needed a Dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only those generals who gain successes, can set up as dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship. And now beware of rashness. Beware of rashness, but with energy, and sleepless vigilance, go forward, and give us victories. - A. Lincoln - Abraham Lincoln is remembered for his vital role as the leader in preserving the Union during the Civil War and beginning the process that led to the end of slavery in the United States. He is also remembered for his character, his speeches and letters, and as a man of humble origins whose determination and perseverance led him to the nation s highest office. When George Templeton Strong heard that Lincoln had dreamed the night before his assassination of a fine ship entering harbor under full sail, he wrote in his diary: A poet could make something out of that. And poet did--walt Whitman.
3 1865 ABRAHAM LINCOLN, FROM THE ODE RECITED AT THE HARVARD COMMEMORATION by James Russell Lowell From The Ode Recited at the Harvard Commemoration, 21 July, LIFE may be given in many ways, And loyalty to Truth be sealed As bravely in the closet as the field, So bountiful is Fate; But then to stand beside her, When craven churls deride her, To front a lie in arms and not to yield, This shows, methinks, God s plan And measure of a stalwart man, Limbed like the old heroic breeds, Who stands self-poised on manhood s solid earth, Not forced to frame excuses for his birth, Fed from within with all the strength he needs. Such was he, our Martyr-Chief, Whom late the Nation he had led, With ashes on her head, Wept with the passion of an angry grief: Forgive me, if from present things I turn To speak what in my heart will beat and burn, And hang my wreath on his world-honored urn. Nature, they say, doth dote, And cannot make a man Save on some worn-out plan, Repeating us by rote: For him her Old-World moulds aside she threw, And, choosing sweet clay from the breast Of the unexhausted West, With stuff untainted shaped a hero new, Wise, steadfast in the strength of God, and true. How beautiful to see Once more a shepherd of mankind indeed, Who loved his charge, but never loved to lead; One whose meek flock the people joyed to be, Not lured by any cheat of birth, But by his clear-grained human worth, And brave old wisdom of sincerity! They knew that outward grace is dust; They could not choose but trust In that sure-footed mind s unfaltering skill, And supple-tempered will That bent like perfect steel to spring again and thrust. His was no lonely mountain-peak of mind, Thrusting to thin air o er our cloudy bars, A sea-mark now, now lost in vapors blind; Broad prairie rather, genial, level-lined, Fruitful and friendly for all human kind, Yet also nigh to heaven and loved of loftiest stars. Nothing of Europe here, Or, then, of Europe fronting mornward still, Ere any names of Serf and Peer Could Nature s equal scheme deface And thwart her genial will; Here was a type of the true elder race, And one of Plutarch s men talked with us face to face. I praise him not; it were too late; And some innative weakness there must be In him who condescends to victory Such as the Present gives, and cannot wait, Safe in himself as in a fate. So always firmly he: He knew to bide his time, And can his fame abide, Still patient in his simple faith sublime, Till the wise years decide. Great captains, with their guns and drums, Disturb our judgment for the hour, But at last silence comes; These all are gone, and, standing like a tower, Our children shall behold his fame, The kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man, Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame, New birth of our new soil, the first American. Walt Whitman ( ). Leaves of Grass O Captain! My Captain! O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather d every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up-for you the flag is flung-for you the bugle trills; For you bouquets and ribbon d wreaths-for you the shores a- crowding; For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head; It is some dream that on the deck, You ve fallen cold and dead. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchor d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won; Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.
4 A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN 1809 Abraham is born on Sunday February 12. Born in the Lincolns rough-hewn cabin on Nolin Creek near Hodgenville, Kentucky. Thomas Lincoln was an uneducated carpenter and a farmer. Nancy Lincoln could not write In 1811 the Lincolns moved to a farm on Knob Creek which was also near Hodgenville. In 1811 or 1812 (possibly as late as 1815) Abraham s younger brother, Thomas, died in infancy Abraham spent a short amount of time in a log schoolhouse. He began to learn his ABC s from a teacher named Zachariah Riney. He attended school with his sister, Sarah. At home young Abraham heard the scriptures read from the family Bible Young Lincoln was saved from drowning by playmate Austin Gollaher. Abraham and Sarah briefly attended school taught by Caleb Hazel, a neighbor. Late in the year the Lincoln family moved near present-day Gentryville Abraham s mother, Nancy, passed away on October 5th. In Lexington, KY, Mary AnnTodd, Abraham s future wife, was born on December 13th Thomas Lincoln married Sarah Bush Johnston on December 2nd. Abraham grew to be much closer to his step-mother than he was to his father. During 1818 or 1819 young Abraham was kicked and almost killed by a horse Abraham began borrowing books from neighbors. He read Pilgrim s Progress, Aesop s Fables, Arabian Nights, and Robinson Crusoe Abraham attended school taught by James Swaney for about 4 months Abraham attended school taught by Azel Dorsey Abraham borrowed a book titled Life of Washington by Parson Mason Weems. When the book got soaked with rain, he worked off its worth for his neighbor from whom he had borrowed it. This was the very first book Abraham ever personally owned Abraham s sister, Sarah, dies in childbirth on January 28, 1828, just 3 weeks before her 21st birthday Abraham earned his first dollar ferrying passengers to a steamer on the Ohio River Using a flatboat for travel, Abraham took a load of farm produce down the Mississippi River to New Orleans Moving from Indiana, The Lincolns built a log cabin on the Sangamon River near Decatur, IL 1831 Young Lincoln decided to leave his family and go off on his own. His anti-slavery opinions may have been formulated when he saw the abuse of slaves during his second flatboat trip to New Orleans. On August 1 Lincoln cast his first ballot Lincoln joined the Illinois militia for the Black Hawk War. He was elected Captain of the volunteers but saw no military action during approximately 3 months of service. On August 6th Lincoln was defeated while running for the Illinois State Legislature. Lincoln began to operate a general store in New Salem along with William F. Berry Lincoln became Postmaster of New Salem on May 7th. The store he operated with William Berry failed Again Lincoln ran for the Illinois State Legislature, and was elected. During the summer, John T. Stuart advised Lincoln to study law. On December 1 Lincoln took his seat in state government in Vandalia (Illinois capital prior to Springfield). He became a member of the Long Nine (the nickname for the delegation from Sangamon County because their combined height was exactly 54 feet) When the state legislature adjourned in February, Lincoln returned to New Salem and resumed his legal studies with great determination. Additionally, he continued surveying. 1836
5 Lincoln was re-elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. On September 9th, Lincoln was licensed to practice law Lincoln, 28, was admitted to the Illinois Bar on March 1, and he moved to Springfield on April 15. He became a law partner of John T. Stuart. Lincoln now had income from a law practice as well as a state legislator Lincoln was elected for a 3rd time to the Illinois House of Representatives Lincoln met Mary Ann Todd who had moved to Springfield from Lexington, Kentucky. Despite great differences in background, they became interested in each other For the 4th and last time, Lincoln won election to the Illinois House of Representatives. In the fall Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd Lincoln and Mary Todd broke off their engagement. Lincoln became a law partner of Stephen T. Logan 1842 A proposed duel with James Shields on September 22 never came off. Lincoln married Mary Todd on November 4. Abraham gave Mary a gold wedding ring with the words Love is Eternal engraved inside the band. Mary wore this ring until the day she died. The Lincolns moved into the Globe Tavern in Springfield The first son of the Lincolns, Robert Todd, was born August 1 at the Globe Tavern The Lincolns had their first photograph taken. Abraham and Mary s second son, Edward Baker, was born on March 10th. On August 3 rd Lincoln was elected to the United States House of Representatives. He took his seat the next year and spoke out against the Mexican War The Lincolns boarded at Mrs. Anna G. Sprigg s boardinghouse in Washington (nowadays the Library of Congress is located on this site). On December 22nd Lincoln introduced the spot resolutions in Congress (having to do with his opposition to the Mexican War). Lincoln also became known for his opposition to slavery Lincoln campaigned for the Whig Presidential candidate, Zachary Taylor, throughout New England. His opposition to the Mexican War was not popular in Illinois. During the summer the Lincolns, with the two boys, traveled through the state of New York, visited Niagara Falls, and took a steamer from Buffalo across the Great Lakes Lincoln failed in his attempt to be appointed commissioner of the General Land Office, and he returned to a full time law practice in Springfield as his term in the House of Representatives had expired on March 4th. On March 7th he was admitted to practice law before the United States Supreme Court Lincoln s son, Eddie, died on February 1. His third son, William Wallace ( Willie ) was born on December 21st Lincoln s father, Thomas, passed away from a kidney ailment on January 17th. Abraham did not attend the funeral The fourth and last son of the Lincolns, Thomas ( Tad ), was born on April 4th Lincoln was elected to the Illinois legislature, but he declined the office on November 27th to become a candidate for the U.S. Senate. (He was defeated in this attempt early in 1855). His re-entry into politics was fueled by his opposition to the Kansas- Nebraska Act. Lincoln jotted down his famous quote on slavery and democracy: As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master - This expresses my idea of democracy - Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is no democracy Lincoln helped organize the new Republican Party in Illinois. In Bloomington he gave his famous Lost Speech on May 29th. Although he wasn t nominated, he received 110 votes for Vice-President at the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia. During the Presidential campaign, Lincoln gave over 50 speeches in support of the Republican nominee, John C. Fremont Lincoln spoke out against the Dred Scott decision Lincoln was nominated by the Republicans to run for the U.S. Senate against Stephen Douglas. He gave his famous House
6 Divided speech. During the summer, Lincoln and Douglas engaged in a series of 7 debates throughout Illinois. On November 2nd Douglas won the election Lincoln gave political speeches in Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin, and the Kansas Territory. If any personal description of me is thought desirable, it may be said, I am, in height, six feet, four inches, nearly; lean in flesh, weighing, on an average, one hundred and eighty pounds; dark complexion, with course black hair, and grey eyes - no other marks or brands recollected Lincoln gained national fame because of his powerful speech at Cooper Union in New York City on February 27th. He toured New England making more speeches. Regarding the presidency, he wrote a friend on April 29th that The taste is in my mouth a little. On May 18th he was nominated for President at the Republican National Convention in Chicago. On October 15th 11- year-old Grace Bedell of Westfield, New York, wrote Lincoln a letter suggesting he grow a beard. He decided to follow her advice. On November 6th Lincoln was elected President over 3 opponents (Stephen Douglas, John Breckinridge, and John Bell) winning 39% of the popular vote but nearly 60% of the electoral vote On the rainy Monday morning of February 11th he left Springfield by train bound for Washington. He had roped his trunks himself and labeled them, A. Lincoln, The White House, Washington, D.C. Lincoln arrived in Washington on February 23rd and was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States on March 4th. The Civil War began with the Confederate attack on Ft. Sumter in April. On April 15th Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to serve for 3 months On February 20th Willie Lincoln died in the White House of typhoid fever. Lincoln proposed a plan of compensated emancipation for slaves in states that remained loyal to the Union. On September 22nd the President announced the Emancipation Proclamation after the Battle of Antietam. On October 2nd the President visited General George McClellan and other Union officers at Antietam On January 1st the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed the slaves in the rebelling areas, took effect. On March 3rd Lincoln approved the first draft law in U.S. history. In early July the Union won two major battles at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. A huge anti-draft riot took place in New York City, and many were killed. On October 3rd Lincoln issued a proclamation creating Thanksgiving Day. On November 19th Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address which dedicated the battlefield there to the soldiers who had perished. He called on the living to finish the task the dead soldiers had begun. He spoke for about 2 1/2 minutes following a 2 hour speech by Edward Everett. On November 26 the first national observance of Thanksgiving was held Lincoln nominated Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant as the first full lieutenant general since George Washington. Grant assumed his role as General-in-Chief of Union armies. Lincoln received the Republican (National Union Party) nomination on June 8th to run for a 2nd term as President. Andrew Johnson was his Vice-Presidential running mate. On November 8th he easily defeated Democrat George B. McClellan in the Presidential election On March 4th Lincoln was inaugurated as President for the second time. Richmond was abandoned by the Confederates, and Lincoln walked through the streets of that city on April 4th. On April 9th Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox. Lincoln gave his last public speech on April 11th. He told a crowd at the White House that he hoped for an early return of all the seceded states to the Union. The Lincolns attended the play Our American Cousin at Ford s Theatre on April 14th, and Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth at about 10:15 P.M. The President died the next morning at 7:22 A.M seconds. He was 56 years old at the time of his death. Andrew Johnson took the oath of office as the 17th President on April 15th. On April 21st a nine car funeral train that included 300 dignitaries left Washington, D.C. and began a nearly 1700 mile journey back to Springfield. During the afternoon of May 4th, Lincoln s body was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery. Sources: With Malice Toward None Stephen B. Oates Abraham Lincoln and Walt Whitman William E. Barton Presented By Mark Lang & Gary Grogan
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Collection # M 0015 OMB 0060 DAVID ENOCH BEEM PAPERS, 1821 1954 (BULK 1821 1923) Collection Information Biographical Sketch Scope and Content Note Box and Folder List Cataloging Information Reprocessed
The Battle with the Dragon 7 With Grendel s mother destroyed, peace is restored to the Land of the Danes, and Beowulf, laden with Hrothgar s gifts, returns to the land of his own people, the Geats. After
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C Dunklin, Daniel (1790-1844), Papers, 1815-1877 97.6 linear feet This collection is available at The State Historical Society of Missouri. If you would like more information, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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AP United States History 2009 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity.