1 The current Georgia Studies textbook gives sufficient information about the Cherokee, but scarcely mentions the Creek. Yet the Native Americans who inhabited this area and in fact most of Georgia were the Creek. Europeans and European-Americans had a great impact on the lives of the Native Americans. Their relationship was often volatile, dangerous for the settlers and their families, and was an important part of the history of our state. The village of Scull Shoals was located on the eastern bank of the Oconee River. For years that river was the far western boundary of lands that were open to whites for settlement. In fact, when newcomers first arrived in that area they were settling on land that had only recently been made available to white settlers, and the Creeks were not happy with their arrival. It was the real frontier, full of danger and excitement as well as new opportunities for the settlers. This mini-unit emphasizes the Native American point of view because that aspect is often overlooked. By doing this, the students are allowed a different perspective and a closer look at ideas they have only glanced at in the past. H1 b European contact H1 c Exploration & settlement H3 b Revolutionary era, Elijah Clarke H5 b Headright system H5 d Removal of Creeks To achieve a better understanding of the impact European explorers and European- American settlers had on the Creeks in Georgia, through reading, discussion, and active participation in role-playing. Students will demonstrate their understanding by writing an in-class essay.
2 A 5-minute quick-write to answer the EQ. What If? 1 Did You Know? 2 The Creek Nation 2 Skull, or Scull? 2 I Own the Air Around Me! 3 Mystery Man 4 Why Was McGillivray Important? 4 The First Settlers 5 Governor Peter Early 5 Elijah Clarke and the Trans-Oconee Republic 6 Hands-On History 7 10 About the Treaties A Fair Trade? 11 Questions for Discussion 11 Vocabulary Fun 12 A more complete in-class essay to answer the EQ, followed by class discussion. Hands-On History for this mini-unit is a skit depicting various interactions among Native Americans and European-Americans who lived in the Scull Shoals region. You may want your students to read through the entire script before assigning (or having students choose) roles. The number of roles/students is flexible and should be able to accommodate a class of any size. In a class as small as six students, one could read all of the Creek parts and another could read all of the resident parts. If you have a very large class, the resident and the Creek parts could be divided up further than the way they are in the script is written to allow everyone to participate.
3 The actual text of the 1790 Treaty of New York is provided here so that you may, if you so desire, share it with your students. This is the treaty that promised perpetual friendship to the Indians, guaranteed that whites would not trespass onto their territory (west of the Oconee River), and forced the Indians to give up their rights to all lands east of the Oconee. Note: Names before colons (such as Cusetahs) are tribes within the Creek Nation. The word Mico that appears with some names means chieftain. CLUES ANSWERS CLUES ANSWERS ALIEN FOREIGN INTRUSION INVASION AREA REGION LAWFUL LEGAL BEST PRIME LIBERTY FREEDOM BRAVERY COURAGE MURDERED KILLED DIFFERENT UNLIKE PROMISE GUARANTEE EVERLASTING PERPETUAL RESIDENTS INHABITANTS FAITHFUL LOYAL SHOPPING CENTER MALL GO ON CONTINUE TAKEN CONFISCATED GOT OBTAINED THIN SLENDER HOLY SACRED UNBELIEVBLE INCREDIBLE HONESTY INTEGRITY UNDERSTAND COMPREHEND IDEA CONCEPT UNKNOWN MYSTERY ILLNESS DISEASE WELL-KNOWN FAMOUS
4 Language Arts: understanding points of view Facts for Kids: Creek Indians (Muskogee Creeks) ARTICLE I. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America, and all the individuals, towns and tribes of the Upper, Middle and Lower Creeks and Seminoles composing the Creek nation of Indians. ARTICLE V. The United States solemnly guarantee to the Creek Nation, all their lands within the limits of the United States to the westward and southward of the boundary described in the preceding article. ARTICLE VI. If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an Indian, shall attempt to settle on any of the Creeks lands, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States, and the Creeks may punish him or not, as they please. ARTICLE VII. No citizen or inhabitant of the United States shall attempt to hunt or destroy the game on the Creek lands: Nor shall any such citizen or inhabitant go into the Creek country, without a passport first obtained from the Governor of some one of the United States, or the officer of the troops of the United States commanding at the nearest military post on the frontiers, or such other person as the President of the United States may, from time to time, authorize to grant the same. In witness of all and every thing herein determined, between the United States of America, and the whole Creek nation, the parties have hereunto set their hands and seals, in the city of New York, within the United States, this seventh day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety. In behalf of the United States: H. Knox, Secretary of War and sole Commissioner for treating with the Creek nation of Indians.
5 In behalf of themselves and the whole Creek nation of Indians: Alexander McGillivray, Cusetahs: Fuskatche Mico, or Birdtail King, his x mark, Neathlock, or Second Man, his x mark, Halletemalthle, or Blue Giver, his x mark, Little Tallisee: Opay Mico, or the Singer, his x mark, Totkeshajou, or Samoniac, his x mark, Big Tallisee: Hopothe Mico, or Tallisee King, his x mark Opototache, or Long Side, his x mark, Tuckabatehy: Soholessee, or Young Second Man, his x mark Oeheehajou, or Aleck Cornel, his x mark Natehez: Chinabie, or the Great Natehez Warrior, his x mark, Natsowachehee, or the Great Natehez Warrior s Brother, his x mark Thakoteehee, or the Mole, his x mark, Oquakahee, his x mark, Cowetas: Tuskenaah, or Big Lieutenant, his x mark Homatah, or Leader, his x mark, Chirmabie, or Matthews, his x mark, Juleetaulematha, or Dry Pine, his x mark Of the Broken Arrow: Chawookly Mico, his x mark, Coosades: Coosades Hopoy, or the Measurer, his x mark Muthtee, the Misser, his x mark, Stimafutchkee, or Good Humor his x mark; Alabama Chief: Stilnaleeje, or Disputer, his x mark, Oaksoys: Mumagechee, David Francis, his x mark, Done in the presence of- Richard Morris, chief justice of the State of New York, Richard Varick, mayor of the city of New York, Marinus Willet, Thomas Lee Shippen, of Pennsylvania, John Rutledge, jun r Joseph Allen Smith, Henry Izard, Joseph Cornell, interpreter, His x mark.
6 2008 Friends of Scull Shoals, Inc., Inviting Georgia Students to Learn About Our Past Think about the places you like to go to hang out with your friends, and the places where you like to just chill out by yourself. Did you list the mall, parks, a swimming pool, the library, your church, or ball games? Now think about the places you or your family members need to visit on a regular basis: the grocery store, the bank, school, clothing stores, restaurants, the doctor or dentist, etc. What if your whole world began to change? New people begin moving to your neighborhood who are unlike anyone you have ever known. Their bodies are about the same size and shape as people you ve known, but their skin is purple, their hair is blue, and most of them have orange eyes. Their clothing looks very different, too: it s made of some kind of unknown material and the styles are very strange. They have brought an incurable disease that has killed many of your people. When they are close enough for you to hear them, you can t tell what they are saying, but by looking at their gestures and expressions they seem to be talking about you. Clearly, they don t like you and are afraid of you. Why are they here? What do they want? Gradually, more and more of them arrive until you feel as though they are crowding you out. It s an invasion! It becomes harder and harder to get to the grocery store to buy your food. It becomes more and more difficult to go to any of the places you used to be free to visit. Over time, you learn to understand some of their language and become somewhat informed about their beliefs and customs, which are also very different from yours. It all seems incredible and confusing. Why don t they just go back to wherever they came from? Everyone is frustrated with the situation. Some are becoming very angry. Should you fight with them? You have just walked in the moccasins of the Native Americans at the time that white settlers began to move into their territory. The settlers looked, talked, and behaved much differently from the Native Americans. After a while they had less access to their traditional hunting grounds and lands that were sacred to them. They had been invaded by strangers, and they were losing their freedom.
7 The Native Americans who lived in the region of Scull Shoals had their very first encounter with white men in about 1540, when Hernando DeSoto and his men traveled through Georgia. There is no direct evidence that DeSoto himself was in the area that later became Scull Shoals, but evidence has been found that indicates men of his party were nearby. The Native Americans who lived in the area at that time were of the Mississippian Culture. They were ancestors of the Muscogee tribe and others. Your textbook doesn t give a lot of information about the Creeks, but they are the ones who inhabited this area. You know that they didn t call themselves Creeks that name was given to them by traders and that they were not one tribe but rather a group of several tribes that joined together for political reasons. At one time, the Creeks land included about three-quarters of what is now the state of Georgia, plus virtually all of Alabama, much of Mississippi, and parts of Tennessee and the Carolinas. On some old maps and on some of the village s century businesses, the name of the village was spelled Skull Shoals. Why was it spelled with a k instead of a c? Ancient Indian Mounds from the Mississippian era were located just a little way upstream from the Scull Shoals site. The mounds were sacred places where their people were buried. Supposedly, after heavy rain caused a flood many years ago, some skulls from the mounds were carried downstream to the village site and that is how the village of Skull Shoals got its name! The word scull has to do with the type of oars and the way they were used on boats to pass the shoals in the river. The name of Scull Shoals is the one that stuck, but don t you think the other one is more interesting? This 1842 maps shows Skull Shoals. Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection
8 The air above me and all around me is mine! I own it, and you can t take it or use it. You can t breathe it or come into its space. Does that make sense to you? Of course not! It s an idea that people of our culture simply can t comprehend, yet the Creeks were faced with a comparable notion that seemed to be just as ridiculous when the European-American settlers arrived. The European-American settlers were hungry for land. Land ownership was common in their cultures and highly desired as a measure of wealth and prestige. Some of the newcomers to America had been too poor to own land in their old country and were determined to do better here. Owning land was the best way to provide for their families, to build a home and raise a garden and some animals, and therefore feel successful. Others were land owners in Europe or in other states (or colonies, prior to statehood) before coming to Georgia and wanted to own land here, too. However, the concept of land ownership was completely foreign to the Native Americans. They were caretakers of the earth who revered the soil, the water, and all things in nature. Mother Earth nourished them, as edible plants were grown and animals thrived that they needed to hunt for food. The good things that came from the earth were for everyone to share and for no one to own. Veterans of the Revolutionary War and other men were given land for their families through the Headright system. Others were able to claim ownership simply by moving onto unclaimed property, building a house and tilling the land. Still others bought land from previous owners. Regardless of how the settlers obtained their land, the whole idea of land ownership remained incomprehensible to the Creeks and other Native Americans. These differences in values and beliefs were responsible for most of the trouble between Indians and settlers.
9 has been described (presumably by people who knew him) as tall and slender, striking looking with fine piercing eyes and a large forehead. He is said to have usually dressed in a combination of Indian and American clothing. That description seems to fit the subject of the drawing. It may be a reasonable assumption that Trumbull would choose to draw the most important members of the delegation rather than the lesser chiefs, but we may never know for certain who this mystery man really is. Who is this man? This is a drawing of a Creek Indian made by John Trumbull, a famous artist in his time. Trumbull made this drawing, and some others, during the time that a group of Creeks were in New York City in 1790 to sign the Treaty of New York. The man in the drawing is most often identified as Hopothle Mico, also called Tallisee King. However, some historians believe that it is really a drawing of Alexander McGillivray, the Creek chief who was the leader of the delegation. Both men were there and signed the treaty and there is no other known drawing or painting of McGillivray. Alexander McGillivray Alexander McGillivray has been called the most important Native American statesman of the eighteenth century and Emperor of the Creek Nation. He was well educated and highly respected. Even though he was never strong and healthy, he was a natural leader with great influence over his people. His father, a Scotsman, was a pro- British Royalist and so his property in Georgia was confiscated by the Americans at the end of the war. This made Alexander fight for Indian rights for the rest of his life, and against the encroaching American settlers. His poor health kept him from most battle fields, but he led 10,000 warriors.
10 The first land owner of record in the Scull Shoals area was Henry Wagner, whose deed was recorded in Within the next three years more than twenty others made their homes in the region; some of them had families. Perhaps you know some of the descendants of these early settlers who received their land through Headright Grants. This part of Georgia was the new frontier, and people were eager to come here to make a new beginning in their lives. Many of the early settlers were veterans of the Revolutionary War and were given large parcels of land in payment for their service in the Army. For others, it was a welcome opportunity to have and develop more or better land than they had before. Many of the newcomers were former residents of Virginia. So many, in fact, that the people of Scull Shoals were often referred to as Virginians even though they may not have ever lived there. Governor Peter Early Peter Early, the governor of Georgia ( ), lived at Scull Shoals for several years. His father, Joel, had received land through a Headright Grant and was one of the early settlers in the area. Joel established a large plantation nearby on the bank of the Oconee River. Part of that land was later included in the village of Scull Shoals. Prior to being elected Governor, Peter Early served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1803 to 1807 and was a Superior Court Judge from 1807 to Afterward, he was a member of the Georgia Senate from 1816 until his death in He was well known for his intelligence, integrity and fairness.
11 Elijah Clarke was born in South Carolina in 1742 and moved to Wilkes County, Georgia, in There, he joined the militia and fought against Indians and later, the British during the Revolutionary War. As a colonel in the militia he was wounded three or more times and became a hero fighting in several battles. He retired from the militia as a brigadier general, and was given a plantation in Wilkes County. He became known, again, as an Indian fighter. Clarke was elected to the State Assembly, where he served from 1781 to While there he was part of the commission for confiscated estates, the commission for Georgia s treaties with Native Americans, and attended the state constitutional convention. In May of 1794, Gen. Clarke, leading a couple of hundred other veterans, went into Creek territory west of the Oconee River and formed several small settlements, each with a fort to protect them from the Indians. He was starting his own country separate from the United States of America. At the time, he called it The Republic of Georgia, but it became known as the Trans-Oconee Republic. Clarke, like many others, was impatient for the land west of the river to be opened up for white settlement. It was not legal for him to reside there at that time, and the Indians had the right to kill any white trespassers on that side of the river. The Creeks knew him as a brave Indian fighter, however, and respected him enough to not fight against him even though they hated him as their enemy. They let him and his people alone. The federal government, however, did not approve. Government officials met with Gov. George Matthews, who sent the militia to arrest Clarke. By the end of September 1794 he had surrendered, and that was the end of his Republic. Colonel Elijah Clarke Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library/ University of Georgia Libraries
12 In this skit Alexander McGillivray, three other Creek Indians, Henry Knox, and several residents of Scull Shoals describe effects of the American Revolution and events of the following twenty years on the Creeks and the settlers. The characters portrayed are all speaking to the audience, not to each other, and each is giving his/her own point of view. Your participation in the skit will be an enjoyable way to deepen your understanding of these events. We tried to stay out of the war they called the American Revolution. It was not our war, but the Creeks were divided in their loyalties. Some of the Upper Creeks wanted England to win, and the Lower Creeks were in favor of the Americans. Even though we decided to remain neutral, all of our lives changed after the war was over. We found out that the British, before they left in 1783, gave Creek lands to the new United States. Settlers in Georgia quickly began to fill up those lands. Georgia encouraged new settlers by giving us land. They wanted more men to be available to serve in the militia when needed, and they wanted more whites than Indians as inhabitants of the state. Each head of household could have 200 acres of land, plus 50 more acres for each member of his family, even each slave if he had them. Veterans got even more. They called this the Headright system. In fact, that s what brought Joel Early, Peter Early s father, here. I was one who fought for our liberty in the war. The soldiers suffered many hardships during the war lack of food, inadequate clothing, sometimes harsh weather and there was no money, so we were not paid for our services. When the war ended, we were offered land in payment if we were willing to settle in the new frontier up to 1000 acres! Many veterans gladly accepted that offer. Who could blame us? It was a chance for a new beginning in a new land. There were no longer a great many white-tailed deer, so we had few deerskins to trade. The new state of Georgia no longer saw us as valuable trading partners, but more as objects in the way of their settlers who wanted large parcels of land for plantations. Our great leader, Alexander McGillivray, inspired us to fight for our hunting lands and our rights.
13 I stepped forward as the leader of the Creek Nation. The Spanish in Florida agreed to become our trading partners and allies; they supplied us with arms. My people joined together to stop the trespassers and we declared war on Georgia in the spring of I am not sorry to say we attacked many settlements and burned many homes. We were determined to keep fighting until our official boundaries were once again those decided upon in the Augusta treaty of The Georgians would not agree to that, so the battles continued. The Creek uprising had people around here afraid for their lives. People were calling it the Oconee War. We feared a major attack and wondered whether we could defend ourselves against them with the small fort we had built. In 1787 the Indians were still at war against Georgians, trying to make us leave. They staged an attack on the town of Greensboro, which was not far from our little village. They burned many homes and killed over thirty people! At least twenty others were wounded, and still others were captured! It was the worst massacre of the war. The very next year, there was a sneak attack at the Scull Shoals fort where Captain John Fielder was commander. No civilians were killed, but the Indians stole Captain Fielder s rifle! If we hadn t been so terrified of the Creeks, we might have seen some humor in that. In the spring of 1790, President George Washington sent a special emissary to meet with me. He was Col. Marinus Willett. He was to persuade me to go to New York City and meet with Mr. Henry Knox, the Secretary of War. Col. Willett told me that Washington wanted to come to an agreement with the Creek Nation that would guarantee everlasting peace and friendship between us. After meeting with other Creek leaders, twenty-four of us agreed to travel to New York with Col. Willett. There we met with Mr. Knox. The Treaty of New York was a fair and just agreement. It set the eastwest boundary between the Creek Nation and the United States proper at the Oconee River and promised that no U.S. citizen would hunt or attempt to settle on the west side of the river if the Creeks would stay to the west. Furthermore, the government of the U.S. would help to civilize the Indians by
14 giving them domestic animals and farming equipment along with interpreters who could help them become farmers and keep the lines of communication open. In fulfilling this agreement, there shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America and the Creek Nation of Indians. The treaty also stated that all animosities for past grievances would end and would be forgiven. The twenty-four of us, representing the Creek Nation, signed the treaty. Mr. Knox, their Secretary of War, signed for the United States. We knew that many Creeks would not want to become farmers, and we realized that we had to give up some more land, but we decided it would be worth these drawbacks if the whites would respect the new boundary and stay out of our territory. Many Americans were very angry when they heard about that treaty. It seemed as though the government favored the Creeks! Why should those Indians have so much land to themselves, and so much power! Why shouldn t we be able to cross the river if we wanted to? Well, the result was that white settlers ignored the treaty and went across the river if they wanted to take their chances with the Indians. And sometimes the Indians didn t seem to care. That was fair enough, wasn t it?... To go there if the Creeks chose not to punish us? We were promised peace, and we didn t want to fight any more. Not many whites crossed the river for a while, so we got along with them. Even after the treaty of 1790 we continued to be uneasy. The Indians were still so close! Our worst fears came to pass as soon as Alexander McGillivray passed away. In April of 1793, thirty Creek Indians stormed across the river right here at the Shoals and brutally attacked and killed six settlers at the village. We were very upset by that attack. Things had been fairly calm for a period of time. We had a town meeting and made an urgent request for a blockhouse to be constructed right here along the Oconee River in full view of the shoals where people crossed the river. The government agreed, and Fort Clark was built. We felt somewhat safer after that.
15 Then, the next year, General Elijah Clarke came to our area. He was well known both as an Indian fighter and also a hero in the Revolution with the Georgia Militia. He had some of his loyal troops with him, even though he said he had resigned from the militia. The villagers wondered what he was up to, and soon we found out: Gen. Clarke once again proved his courage, but also showed himself to be a hard-headed rebel. Clarke took his troops across the river into Creek lands and claimed a large area as his own. He tried to start his own country! He called it the Republic of Georgia, and he promised free land to anyone who would join him there. He tried to get the land settled before the federal and state governments had time to react. Actually, a couple of hundred folks did go. That was prime land over there, and he wanted it for himself and other whites. He was counting on the Creeks to not resist, even though they had the perfect right to run him off or even kill him if they wanted to. Well, to make a long story short, President George Washington himself got involved and had Governor Mathews arrest Clarke for going against the treaty. That was the end of the Republic, but after Gen. Clarke was released from custody he went right back to occupying that land across the river. I don t know why those Indians just let him be! Gen. Clarke was counting on the fact that he had already earned their respect. But, y know, those lands did open up to white settlers after the Treaty of Ft. Wilkinson in 1802, and all the way west to the Ocmulgee River with the Treaty of Washington in Maybe the old general was just eight or ten years ahead of his time! We knew we would be safe after The Indians were gone! We could finally relax and feel secure. Why did the Creeks and other Native Americans agree to the many treaties that resulted in their losing their traditional lands? The Creeks traded deerskins and received items such as guns, ammunition, tools and alcohol in return. The U.S. Government told the Creeks that the value of the things they received was greater than what they had paid in hides. Therefore, they owed large debts and had to give up the land in order to pay off the debts they had accumulated.
16 What Native Americans contributed to European Americans: What we gave them : 1. How would you react to an alien invasion? 2. Would you have gone with Elijah Clarke to live in the Trans-Oconee Republic? Why or why not? 3. Do you believe the Trans-Oconee Republic should have been allowed to continue to exist? Why or why not? 4. Do you believe that the Creeks were cheated out of their land? Defend your answer. 5. Referring to the exchanges listed above, do you think it was a fair trade? Why or why not?
17 Each of the clues below is a synonym for a word that you can find in the puzzle. Every answer is a word that s used in an article in this Scull Shoals Scholar. First determine the synonym, then find it in the puzzle. The first number in parentheses after each clue tells you the length of the answer and the second number tells you the page it is on. alien (7,3) area (6,2) best (7,10) bravery (7,10) different (6,1) everlasting (9,9) faithful (5,10) go on (8,11) got (8,3) holy (6,1) honesty (9,5) idea (7,3) illness (7,11) intrusion (8,1) lawful (5,6) liberty (7,1) murdered (6,1) promise (9,8) residents (11,7) shopping center (4,1) taken (11,4) thin (7,4) unbelievable (10,1) understand (10,3) unknown (7,4) well known (6,4)
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Chapter 3: Many Flags over Iowa CONTENT OBJECTIVES IOWA PAST TO PRSENT TEACHERS GUIDE Revised 3 rd Edition Following the completion of the readings and activities for this chapter, students will have acquired
by Timothy S. Corbett HOUGHTON MIFFLIN by Timothy S. Corbett PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS: Cover The Granger Collection, New York. Title Page North Wind Picture Archives. 3 The Granger Collection, New York. 4 The
Conflict on the Plains Level 2 Who were the tribes of the Great Plains The Major tribes were: Arapaho Blackfoot Cheyenne Comanche Crow Osage Pawnee Sioux Wichita The Comanche, Sioux, and the Cheyenne are
Lone Star: The Story of Texas Chapter 5 Colonization and the Empresarios (1821-1836) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
13 ENGLISH COLONIES Mr. Betts Trustee Georgia 1730-1761 James Oglethorpe Oglethorpe was a wealthy, intellectual member of England s Parliament. He felt strongly about the terrible conditions of those living
SPANISH TEXAS Spanish land called Tejas bordered the United States territory called Louisiana. This land was rich and desirable. Tejas was a state in the Spanish colony of New Spain but had few Spanish
The Sauk, Fox, and the Black Hawk War of 1832 Sauk Beginning Migration Originally located in Eastern Ontario Driven out of (eastern Ontario) Canada by rival tribes (Iroquois) who want more land to capture
Remember the Alamo! The Making of a Nation Program No. 47 Andrew Jackson Part Two From VOA Learning English, welcome to The Making of a Nation, our weekly program of American history for people learning
Between the early 1830s and the mid 1850s, a new political party called the Whigs ran in opposition against the Democrat party of Andrew Jackson. They believed in congressional supremacy instead of presidential
Chapter 8 From Colony to Territory to State Standard 2 Key Events, Ideas and People: Students analyze how the contributions of key events, ideas, and people influenced the development of modern Louisiana.
Andrew Jackson becomes President Andrew Jackson Presidency Timeline Directions: 1.Read each slide 2.Summarize by answering the questions 3.Write vocabulary words on page 54 Expanded Voting rights to the
Conflicts Over Land Main Idea As more white settlers moved into the Southeast, conflict arose between the Native Americans who lived there and the United States government. Key Terms relocate, guerrilla
12 Reproducible Comic Book-Style Stories That Introduce Kids to the Westward Movement and Motivate All Readers by Sarah Glasscock New York Toronto London Auckland Sydney Mexico City New Delhi Hong Kong
Pocahontas Between Two Worlds By Mary Pat Champeau Characters (in order of appearance) Narrators 1&2 Nantaquaus: Chief Powhatan s son Chief Powhatan: Leader of the Powhatan Indians Werowances 1&2: Holy
Lesson Title: Native American and Pioneer Cultures of the Okefenokee Swamp OSP Educational Programming: Enhance our focus on Native American and early Okefenokee settler cultures. OSP Interactive Educational
Manifest Destiny and Andrew Jackson Study online at quizlet.com/_204f5a 1. 13 colonies 4. Andrew Jackson 2. 1849 The original states : Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, massachusetts, New jersey,
America: The Story of US Chapter 3: sections 1-4 In this Chapter What will we see? Setting: Time & Place Time: 1588 Place: Europe: England & Spain How it all started. Spain and England always fought against
Jamestown Many people explored America before the United States was formed. The area that would become known as Jamestown was colonized by English settlers. This occurred in 1607. King James I of England
Arkansas Historic Preservation Program Civil War Sites and Battlefields in Arkansas PowerPoint Teacher Notes Slide 1: Slide 2: Slide 3: Slide 4: Slide 5: The Arkansas Historic Preservation Program (AHPP)
Washington Monument Written by Julia Hargrove Illustrated by Gary Mohrman Teaching & Learning Company 1204 Buchanan St., P.O. Box 10 Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Table of Contents George Washington as a Child
HIST-VS Pemberton_Malecky_VS6Test_Test Exam not valid for Paper Pencil Test Sessions [Exam ID:0LY71F 1 In what order were these documents written? A 2,1,3 B 3,2,1 C 1,2,3 D 3,1,2 2 Whose name completes
Box 1 -- Folder 5 Tennessee State Library and Archives LETTERS OF THE TENNESSEE GOVERNORS JOHN SEVIER 1796-1801 ( Part 2 ) NAME YEAR PLACE NA Adams, John (President of the US) Adams, John (President) Anderson,
384. Jacobus Van Westervelt, born September 07, 1712 in Hackensack, Bergen County, New Jersey; died Abt. December 1743 in Tappan, Bergen County, New Jersey. He was the son of 768. Jan Lubbert Van Westervelt
Chapter 3 Colonial America 1587-1776 Section 1: Early English Settlements This colony became the first successfully established English colony in North America. Jamestown Comparison Foldable Directions
Non-fiction: Slavery, the Civil War & Reconstruction - The Generals of the Civil War Slavery, the Civil War & Reconstruction The Generals of the Civil War These are the four main Civil War Generals. Robert
Benedict Alford August 26, 1716 After 1790 By: Bob Alford 2010 Benedict Alford was the oldest child of Benedict Alford and Abigail Wilson. He was born August 27, 1716 in Windsor, CT, according to Windsor
Battle of Lexington Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: What happened at the Battle of Lexington? Materials: Copies of Document A Copies of Document B Battle of Lexington PowerPoint Copies of Battle
Bell Ringer: The Declaration of Independence states people have the right to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. What does this mean to you? Declaring Independence Road to Revolution One American
Jacksonian Jeopardy Early years States Rights Economic Issues Native Americans Political Rivals Pot Luck Early years 100 States Rights 100 Economic Issues100 Native Americans 100 Political Rivals 100 Pot
Captain Samuel Brady s Daring Rescue of the Stoops Family Near Lowellville, Ohio Researched By Roslyn Torella January 2014 Introduction One of the earliest tales that I could find documented that occurred
Trail Tree Newsletter January 2016 This is the Volume 31 of the Quarterly Trail Tree Project Newsletter. We hope the topics in this newsletter will be of interest to you. If you want us to report on other
Jacksonian Era: 1824-1840 The Age of the Common Man A Time of Great Change The age of Jackson was marked by an increase in political participation, an increase in the power of the president and a distrust
President Andrew Jackson and Jacksonian Democracy President for the Common Man During his campaign for president Andrew Jackson claimed that he represented the common man. He promised to look out for the
A Quick Overview of Colonial America Causes of England s slow start in North America: 1. Religious conflict (Anglican v. Catholic) 2. Conflict over Ireland 3. Rivalry with an Catholic Spain Queen Elizabeth
Chapter 11, Section 1 Trails to the West Pages 345-349 Many Americans during the Jacksonian Era were restless, curious, and eager to be on the move. The American West drew a variety of settlers. Some looked
Name: Class: Excerpt from Trail of Tears Diary By Jobe Alexander & Mary Hill 1938 The Trail of Tears is the name given to the forced relocation of Native American nations following the Indian Removal Act
Current Events Article Assignment Due Oct 20 (next week) Follow directions on worksheet NOTE: Write ALL answers in complete sentences! Topic should be about a current event that happened in Tennessee and
Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Class Notes The Lost Colony of Roanoke - England wanted colonies in North America because they hoped America was rich in gold or other resources. - Establish a colony is very difficult
The legendary COL. GEORGE ARMSTRONG CUSTER led his 7 th Cavalry into battle against the Lakota at Little Big Horn Valley, but did not survive to tell the tale. Custer was born in Ohio, the second of four
Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain? U.S. History 8: DBQ #1 Introduction Recent historical interpretations of Christopher Columbus' voyages to the New World have created controversy surrounding the national
Name!! Date Spanish Settlement in Texas! Spaniards began exploring what is now the United States in the 1500s. Cabeza de Vaca and three other members from his expedition arrived near the Galveston coast
HIST-VS VS.3 Jamestown Colony Unit Test 2017-18 Exam not valid for Paper Pencil Test Sessions [Exam ID:139D07 1 When was Jamestown founded? A 1619 B 1620 C 1607 D 1606 2 Which was NOT a reason for England
13 BRITISH COLONIES P E R I O D 2 : 1 6 0 7 1754 KEY CONCEPT 2.1 II. In the 17 th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental,
Supplement to Chapter 17 Conflict and Change in the West 1865-1902 The Native American Though the Native American is portrayed as being a singular stereotype, they were diverse in culture and in lifestyles
Anna Comnena Anna, born in 1083, was the princess of the Byzantine Empire. When the Crusaders arrived in Constantinople, she had mixed feelings about them. She respected them but at the same time feared