History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Ireland Since 1840

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1 Brigham Young University BYU ScholarsArchive All Theses and Dissertations 968 History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Ireland Since 840 Brent A. Barlow Brigham Young University - Provo Follow this and additional works at: Part of the European History Commons, History of Christianity Commons, and the Mormon Studies Commons BYU ScholarsArchive Citation Barlow, Brent A., "History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Ireland Since 840" (968). All Theses and Dissertations This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by BYU ScholarsArchive. It has been accepted for inclusion in All Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of BYU ScholarsArchive. For more information, please contact scholarsarchive@byu.edu.

2 49 UTTERDAY HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTERDAY SAINTS IN IRELANDD SINCE A thesis presented to the department of graduate studies in religious instruction brigham young university provo utah in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree master of arts by brent A aa a& barlow may 968

3 acknowledgments I would like to express my ray rav sincere appreciation to the following their people for their valuable assistance and help comit colit dr richard 0 cofano cowano chairman of the advisory committee tee for ror f his many timely suggestions and genuine interest in this research project dr rodney turner member of the advisory committee for his support and encouragement A william lund and members of the staff at the church his- torians t s office for their help in locating information matlon nation under their care both of whom iom formation in sources mission presidents bernard P brockbank and stephen R covey aon ion quiries for this aiom answered written queries inquiries thib thesis ftiesis F jeffery platt a friend and missionary associate for his suggestions and aid id ald in developing the study ami pmi emil K Hhite whitesides bides for his assistance in proofreading the manuscript 0 janice duckett who vho aho typed the final draft of the thesis ro my vly kly lly parents mr and mrs alvin R barlow who have taught me the value of education pati pali pall and most important octant of aa a3 all ail ali patience encouragement and confidence in me sy my wife susan for her unending 4.4 iii

4 PREFACE personal background most of my iv mission for the church of jesus christ of latterday saints was spent in ireland between on the years 96 and 9630 in january 962 the first presidency of the church announced that ireland v would rould be organized as a separate mission and I had the opportunity of being present july 3 3p vas was 962 when the irish mission vab wab officially organized in belfast ireland after leaving ireland to in 9630 I returned to brigham young university to continue my lay iny studies and also became bee curious about the history monian in ireland prior to 962 of mormoniam mormonian mormonism Mormo 9620 A few days of searching brought fortha only four pages of history contained in the bookp bookap century of mormonism in great britain 9.9 f ew and the fotr mation lon four pages contained only scant information for the years somewhat disappointed I began looking in several early editions of the millennial star the church publication for the british isles and washappy to find reprints of several letters first mo and reports written by the firt normnn missionaries in ireland further research in the early volumes of the millennial star yielded nearly one hundred articles each of which was zeroxed reference after graduating from Brig brighta brighaa brighanz xeroxed for ay my personal use and hanz young university the opportunity arose to teach seminary ror for the church and to begin graduate work in the for field of history of religion since a masters degree required a thesis iv

5 I requested and obtained permission pernn assion to do further fernn farther research and write a thesis on the history of the church of jesus christ of latterday saints in ireland since tt additional data provided sufficient material to write at least the general history of the church in that country what began as a personal hobby has resulted in this thesis and has satisfied much of ny my cariosity of mormon activitiess in the isle emerald islea isleo mormonism motmonism Mot moitnonism monism in ireland since 837 when joseph smith directed that missionaries go to britain the british isles have hare been of major importance in the progress and development of the church of jesus christ of latterday saints many converts have been gathered from england Ergiand scotland and wales and much has been written about missionary achievemeilts chievemefts a in the three countries little lttie I however is publicly known about mormon activities in ireland Irelan ireiandp a country also included in the british mission eles Miss iono furt- thermore few people realize that the irish have also made some significant contributions to the growth and development of the churchy popular opinion shared by many mormons and nonmormons mormons alike has been that few irish men and women joined the mormon church and that the missionaries have experienced little success among the irish it was not until the irish mission was organized in 962 that much attention was given to the church in ireland and because of the recent progress there the question consequently may arise what have the mor mons accomplished in ireland or it may be asked have the irish heretofore accepted mormonism while this thesis may not provide all the answers it is the first v

6 attempt known knorn by toy the author to answer some of them and the results may prove to be interesting to mormons and their nonmormon friends so to find sind the answers 27 annual armual arcual volumes of the millennial star have been examined page by page credit is also given to jensos andrew Jenbonts jensonts jendos collection of articles entitled the irish mission located in the church historian a office lee iee even though jenson wrote very little about ireland he did gather a valuable collection of articles pertaining to mormon activity there them thew other sources of great aid in the church historians office were the manuscript history of the british mission and journal history of the fee latter M saints mee church of jesus christ of latterday but it should be pointed out that the references a made to ireland in these two sources were often reprinted from the millennial staro stare there were however copies of several letters written by irish missionaries contained in formation nation the two sources which provided information matlon otherwise hervil unavailable inf inc othervil the improvement era the deseret mews news and a few private journals also contained valuable infoiation infomatiome it isi s hoped that the thesis may prove to be interesting to others who may desire to know the history of Mormoni mormoniaa mormonian monian in ireland and hi story that perhaps through a study stady of the past some suggestions mw may be provided for possible future growth of the church among the irish for aritte these purposes the thesis has been written n brent ao A barlow brigham young university march vi

7 five fiat fivt wail mile milt mlle rown town tandcragek F E R MWN N W AN G M N D fort2cloy ARNZAGH ENNIKILLN enniskillen l 0 A POWNPA forturlin ror For i arx A R M AG H gelmuller gei 500 sligo MONACHAN MONACHAW sll gil all h L killala A newry V e ballina aallina monag S L MOMAGM I G 0 0 N A c HAH A nj warrenspoi Warrens pol nt crossinolina Crossi z sfwarrensiint wrrcnln v IN lj N v 0 N 7 6 pri dri tuihanbno V A N icknwrwi PINDALK as i foxford i carrickmacross C 0 a C mts mim ei swinrurd aln cln M A Y ballighaderr il ddalk drndalk av aff fff P imoh tmoh i CAVAN Fimis ih tl 0 0 Tsis newport V bpark hpark ballyjamdulf balyjaindujf cir ctr twa two ars iab ers I UAAR laar larr i tir uly caitlera f y M V westport lta irl ihi launis 05com as 0s c 0 MN MO SC N jeswmtlwt m V C lyllaunis tiburl Ti buri strokelitowil strokmtown L N G FORR D c ONGFORI I droxie droxim aa a 4 k 4 j- j criden ciiden 4 9allknrow B A T H foscommon LOSCOMMON ros common W E S T 0 0 rn lal ill lai aee ate ree MULLINCAR allinallinch M rs A T dushl oushl oujiitcmtll D U B ahmscragh a & bea meb gebbe8 m fr ni a2 ra t lone ione G A W IIA lia lla IA Y lexlp f lucan luc2n cir cin ba inasloe DVBLI galway CALWAY oranmotv KLOARY 0 kingstown JULLAMORE K I L s D A CT R E K I N G c v 6A galway CALWAY ray BAY DAY NAM gher sher ghen zzel azel kildare biwlnton vessinpon kinvarra Kin rsonstown arti 0rti all oddi I t e N lck DOWN PATRICK w A IS ik kz gort cort mailyboyugh maryboizough VV j sorr rorr kin U E X N S CV jacj jcj ATHY WICKLOW I W I C 9 L 0 W fnistyrnon ah qh otey ca ri ff mlltownmalba hospital Nnen enajlj jf ballyna ballana kill c L A R E carlo W EN NIS tmplcuhyi clare clane castlecomer Castle castiecomer e boni goni CAMOW C A it L iea kwil 0wil D I N C i n 0 i I let i viv M X 4 mullafcantin maii mail otc2litin tip 0 norr fort rorr 4 inlohowen Inlo itu FLU plu 5 howen ril baill jaill tie tle tic hy jt coleraine Ss C bobesly 7 vcushenaall cashend2l. a tl iia ila lia bobesky 4ballyn as fs p cwtedort C ballymoncy Ballymoney it i Moncy ap kilmscrenan lncrmw e r dondontry 0 A dondo londonderry I templecrone Temp trkenny Tr NtRY trrkennyll L 0 N D lon 0an 0n aq sq N D 0 yv Z R R Y D 0 N E G A L. i V mlymcm machera maghera Ma dhera IAA N h 5 stranorbr stranorlar Stran orar I af qf f killibe willibe ajda ra donegal T 2 E h 4 non DON EGAL 5 illish illysh L eh castlebery casti Castl castledery e T R I M caaricxfeiwv V T y R 0 N BELFAST OMAGH ial ill yat E closer mail ti 9 IT mall jo clr i dubli 0 pi4 lii lil ill i P law LAN D ett fit etl newma ton borrisoleigh ferru kaa V RUA kak corey ocrey nurley nurlex KILKENNY LIMERICK T I P P E R A R Y I L IE N N shanayldcn iden KI adare lycanew 0aiycanev i cailan callan 73 fnniscarthy fnnikerthy cashel auilln2bon W E X F 0 R D E P I c X RD N tipperary list owel N v jv cahir CLONMEL fj ic2rrickonsuir aa a5 WEwoad wexmius7i WORD goad we L TILA EE I butttvant buttevant BUtteVant mitchellstown mitchellstgwn MItchells town f J waterford R Y i W A T I E R E kanturk canturk 0 i fermo Z ra ail put but coa dunprvag KI LLARNEY r4 rath com callirciveen R you ghai thal rhal I kenmare kenmark m2crvom corl CORI ji lur ord 0 lea 03 le3 V ha h t ZN iya aq pq vc I C va v4 li andon kinsald kinsala banary bantry dunmanw2y i & clonakilty Clona ciona ry rosai roswi rv 4.4 dy my IA jl gill hill P k 2

8 TABLE OF OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE acknowledgments acknomledgmts iii PREFACE 6 iv mlp elp MAP OF IEELAMD & 9 9 LIST OF TABLES d I christianity IN IRELAND IRETAND PRIOR TO II saint patrick vill henry VIII VHJ catholic restoration protestarrtism protestanfcism established religious warb wars in ireland catholic penal laws secret organizations rebellion of 798 union of 800 nineteenth century religions summary suin SuiB surnblary Biary l80 80 THE FIRST MORMON CAMPAIGN IN IRELAND louo l8uo 5 previous activities in britain reuben hedlock bedlock john taylor theodore curtis ourti a miscellaneous activities david wilkie james sloan years of famine irish conyerenee conference abt conference arence belcast belfast conference III IH ill ili THE EFFECTS OF THE FAMINE 28 mormon predictions of irish famine what caused the famine fanine irish conversions to mormoniaa Mormonian mormonian outside ireland monnon emigration irish and mormon fall of feudalism viii

9 CHAPTER PAGE IV THE SECOND MCRMON MORMCK CAMPAIGN IN IRELAND 80 IFELAND U4 missionaries returned to belfast first missionaries to dublin james B be ferguson A crucial period religious excitement in ireland few converts jacob G go bigler ireland as patmos irish mission closed Vve IRISH MORMON PIONEERS IN UTAH no irish eonaons mor Mox monn monaons moxmons Mona mons church leaders original pioneers authors and Tf writers VI 7 THE THIRD MORMON CAIMPAIGN CAMPAIGN IN IRELAND belfast conference reopened A winter night baptism A mormon funeral prophecy of an old irishman political disruptions return of charles A callis james E talmage in belfast auxiliaries organized miscellaneous activities VII IRISH opposition TO MORMONISM 90 huge crowds landlord control of tenants stonings Ston stolings cayenne ings pepper smoke and sheep dip foghorn hans Ppo freece government investigation motion pictures and drama meeting hall refusal internal problems inhibiting growth VIII vilie vill TWENTIETH leth CENTORT WRY ISM MORMONISM itel ITGL IN ICELAND 7 dublin branch reopened emigration policies changed substantial stanlial growth the benjamin R birchall era bra ena irish free state conference organized james wallis Hhe Tra travelling TTallis velling patriarch first missionaries from ireland ix

10 CHAPTER PAGE VIII continued mormon international soccer star irish keep fit girls millennial chorus miscellaneous activities effects acts of world war II pura first building purchased ParA parm new branches organized genealogical microfilming coralu conclusions ones onti corrlu si onei ix MBIT nehr ERA FOR IRELAND pre presidents ident david 000 mckay in ireland london temple mormon tabernacle choir in britain visits of church leaders scottishirish irish mission xe I THE IRISH MISSION argali orgali zed mission organized growth and expansion E music V public relations chapels temple work free state reopened auxiliary development admini adamini strational administrational changes 49 XI DESTINY OF VE TOE moe lri IRI irl nne IRISH MISSION crisis an impending crisis wab tas was Mormoni mormoniaa mormonim mormonism comparative growth intended ror ireland forf mormon optimism am toward the irish bibliography appendices appendix AsA appendix B bo0 statistical report of mormon progress in ireland & 204 names of mormon missionaries who have been in ireland e 0 0 & appendix C irish mormon pioneers in utah X

11 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE lo 0 branches of the church in ireland growth of the irish mission ID 3 statistics on ireland populationdecline irelands population decline 7 75 its 40 U number of irish immigrating to america during the nineteenth century A comparison between six countries on married women under five lve rive years of age 0 0 fortyfive f A comparison between six countries on married women of childbearing age 79 membership Membershi s shl 7to combined memberships IP of religious denominations in the irish free state and ulster northern ireland derived from fron the 96 census from 84 8 membership of six religious denominations in northern and southern ireland organized organloed since religious denominations and memberships in the irish free state derived from the 96 census loe loo 00 ioe religious denominations and memberships in ulster irelandp census northern Irelan ireian derived from the 96 census 90 xil

12 why rhile f or 0 0 while walking the roads I felt to bless the people ror for I could see ephraim all through ay my travels tray traveis wiss elss yes brother frankiln frankiin franklin royal blood Ir flows in the veins of elandt ireland a noble sons and daughters ughtersv and when they have the privilege of hearing the gospel they will It vill embrace it well f avour abour the time to favour erin has come cone chomej comej and I rejoice that I have been counted conc erencen erenceo worthy to work in the field known as the belfast conference john D T mcallister 99 collingwood street belfast ireland june

13 CMSTLUITY christianity IM CHAPTER I pum frior IN IRELAND PRIOR pun TO 840 in order to understand the history of the mormon church in ireland it is necessary to have some bome knowledge of other christian religions in that country before berore the mormons arrived fi even though it is difficult to write an adequate summary of the complex religious interaction in ireland the author feels it would be valuable as an introduction to the thesis saint patrick saint patrick a christian missionary went to ireland duringthe fifth century AD however records of that A do period are so meager and the so confusing that there is much mach wach wuch controversy as s to the exact date of his arrival his death and the extent of his influence in converting the irish to christianity there miere is also some evidence ewi evl deneb denew that he was not nece- irst ssarily the firstf arst christian in ireland in hib his own oter otah history patrick 9 told how he was a roman citizen in britain and was sceptered ceptered cptared by the irish fif early in the afifth century and was taken to ireland chile tftiile st vhile still a youth masterfor he tended the flock of his irish master for six years but finally brit escaped from ireland and joined his family in britain later he claimed he saw visions and heard a voice w the voice of the irisha irishw irish crying we naire frederick A praeger inc malre maire and liam de paorv inco ince 98 baor early christianireland ireland new york o

14 2 beseech thee holy youth to come hither and walk valk balk baik aang us waik among the young man responded by becoming a roman catholic priest and about 432 AD returned to ireland to convert the pagan irish to christianity Christianitye in his almost bloodless conquest of the island gaint saint galat patrick and his subse suase s quent followers established the faith so effectively that it has endured more than fifteen hundred years even after many long and bloody fifteen religious wars f seventyfive five lve rive percent of the irish population is now catholic 2 ireland is one country that has never had a successfulpro protestant reformation ormationo ormationo henry hem henzy renzy hew VIII ifor 4for lician for more than one thousand years catholicism Catho oatho was the dominant religion reli rell reil religiono religions then not long after martin luthers lulfaer s controversial break with the church in rome henry VIII of england severed his relationships 9.9 he with the pope and established the church of england acci acclaiminging himself as both political and spiritual leader in henry heary tried to assert styon his leadership on ireland by appointing a strong stronlg advocate of his policies as archbishop of dublin the man george brown was consecrated on march and aad ead end may be considered the first to introduce ir eland03 tointroduce the reformation into ireland eland 03 henrys innovations were largely ignored by the irish as it was a sole test of faith falthf aith alth to deny the supremacy sepre sapre macy of the pope and admit the supremacy of the english king daring boring darlng his reign however henzy won a political victory in ireland when he established a he irelandwheahe reforma efoyaa tion parliament in dublin during daring darlng later managed to have 535 and ged ibid cabido cbido 290 hncyclgedia cyclopedia britannica vol 2 96 thonas thomes diarch mcgee A popular history of ireland 2 volumes new york chomas hhomas thomas hib his yorks excelsior publishing house r 539

15 3 himself proclaimed king over irelandx dx of ireland arst was f first f formally ireland Irelan on june 9 igo the ule royalty armally transferred t toe tor the english dynasty and during daring the ensuing years england exercised great political dominion and intensified its efforts to enforce the reformation thus the 9.9 second christian church in ireland was the established church or the church of ireland the irish counterpart of the church of england henry VIII and his successors gave the reformed church immense political powers over irish catholicism catholic restoration after henryss death in 547 bont sont for acter henry 547. his so edward VI ruled for ror a brief six years hla hia no irish parliament convened duning during hib reign but he pursued his fathers rathers I s policies pelicies and forced the irish to take greater notice of the competing english church after edwardsa early death mary queen e sceto soeto ol reigned and during the following loving f five years attempted bathol c faith fal to reinstate the catholic falth 2 the new queen encouraged attendance at mass and when the irish received word of nary maryb marysa s7 policies and the political approval of their beliefs new hope arose brose in her attempts to suppress the progress of the reformation formation matlon numerous protestants were 9.9 put to death and she thereby became known as bio bloody Bloocty nary mary to many of subj ects her bub subjects protestantism established mary was succeeded by her half sister elizabeth a strong aavo advo bid 360 libld noble nic bic inc edmund curtis A history histoki of ireland 2dmund ine new mew york new barnes and

16 4 cate of the reformationo Reform Reformatationo reformatione iono lono during daring darlng her reign of nearly a half century elizabeth withdrew the concessions previously made to catholics laws were passed requiring the use of the common prayer book in ireland and fines were imposed on those irish who would not attend the anglican church under the queens administration the reformation was forced upon ireland in a manner unprecedented at that time in january she granted a charter for the protestant trial ty university tr now called dabling the university of dublin dablin9 and during daring darlng the year 60& a protestant catechism was printed at the college press which WAS one of the firstf books printed in ireland later the new testament was printed in gaelic div giv the native language of the irish giving the laity access to the scriptures 2 by these means the reformation in ireland made some smalt smatt small gains bal but bat bul the progress was slow and difficult reli rell reil bious 7ious religious wars in ireland beginning in the latter part of elizabeths reign irish catholic opposition to the english protestant reformation increased and resulted in numerous wars in ireland between these two religious powerse tyrone warb tfarso wars the tyrone wars of l9l were the first great resistance movements the english met in ireland red hugh odonnell cdonnell and illg hugh oneill OgNe earl of tyrones the most noted leaders of the irish resistance movement 9.9 successfully retaliated for a short time but were bom soon som soan boan overpowered in 603 by the elizabethan forces red hugh left ireland and hugh oneill submitted all his lands and authority to the english 3 ithe world and its peoples leso united kingdom ireland new hew yorks greystone pressso mcgee me og cito I 462 3the athe world and its peoples opo gee geo cito cite

17 5 an act of oblivion was passed in england in 604pardo pardoning g all past political crimes 9.9 ittle ittie lttie but the irish found little 3 liberty because the alres aires english had divided their country into shires mires counties and placed it under british jurisdictiono jurisdictione jurisdictions 60 iglo ulster plantation of l6l0o the events leading to a major naoom rebellion during the mideentury xaidcentury began with the establishment of a british colony in the ulster province the colonization was a renewed effort to establish protestantism in irelando having subdaed subdued the earls in northern ireland thro gh the english saw an opportunity through u tion to hopefully obtain the loyalty of the irish MI in both church and state affairs beginning as early as 608 large estates were offered otfered in six of the northern counties to british subjects who would assume rents responsibility for their holdings and pay the required rentso rentko nineteen new protestant boroughs were established and many f the old towns were of revived with a protestant population provision was also made for poli- tical support of the church of ireland which had bad previously gained few members in ulster irst the english colonists were the first arst to successfully establish the anglican faith in northern irelando at the same time colonists from scotland introduced their presbyterian faith into the region there were also several small religious sects begun in ireland during the resettlement periods ulster became a province with a protestant Proth majority in regards to both land ownership and church membership hipo0 the35 of the 35 million acres in the six counties the protestants owned 3 millione 2 there was a distinct ithe six counties colonized by britain during l6o8 iglo the same six counties which became ulster were or northern ireland in the division of 922 the former was comprised of donegal tyrone derry ar- 0 magh q cavan and fermanagh Fer while dom down armagh tyrone and fermanagh Fer derry antrim donn the latter is presently comprised of not scurtis 2curtis gurtis opo cito cite

18 6 polarization or geographyical geographical separation of the tw f aiths two aichs faiths during the seventeenth century with the protestants in the northern six counties and the catholics in the southern twentysix six counties even though the protestantcatholic catholic ratio in ulster changed drastically there was still a substantial number of catholics in northern ireland and at the present time they constitute the largest single religious denomination the catholics presently claim onehalf million more than then a third of ulster s population while the two major protestant denominations steris the church of ireland and presbyterian repriseanted a re- population mainder bainder of the populationo populations are equally represented in the reu- 2 one great effect of the ulster colonization was the establishment of the english landlords which reduced the masses mosses of irish to mere lease holders hoi derbo derso the landlords ss who seldom went vent to ireland not only dictated the temporal affairs of their tenants but bat also tho the religious and sootal social sooial life as wello weno weilo this economic system existed for nearly three hundred years in ireland and was then only overthrowna by a devastating f ranine fanine 0 adevastating famine so exacting was the landlord control that tibe the tiwe first mormon missionaries in ireland in 840 found it much to their disadvantage as will be shown latero the uprisingg of 6 64 igli As might be expected the native irish mere were vere 22 risin embittered by toy loy idy the influx of english and scotaiah scot4ish tte scottish colonizers during tle the early seventeenth century 0 irira not long after khe them brira irtsh 9.9 irysh revolted against the british monarchy for the wholesale confiscations of their property the favor shown the colonists and the exclusion of roman catholics from civil ien len irncyclopedia lencyclopedia kirl kiri britannica HI grea e qreat graa gho ghe studi in irish history l8i 2 the areatt F anine studies lai 820 l&2o edited 9.9 desmond williams Wilkiamb iams lamb new york new new by ro R dudley edwards and T sew york university press

19 7 orfice officeo officer the uprising began first in dublin in 64 with an attempt ID tv seize the city and the rebellion spread to ulster which ultimately ended inn the massacre of ower orer 3 over 0000 oooo pooo 0 british colonists 2 avowed to overthrow the british settlers the irish fought to regain their property and rights but their gains were soon relinquished with the r9ats hts withthe bhe arrival of oliver croowello Croo orow croamll the cromwellian settlements after the execution of charles I oliver cromwell became king of england and took actions to punish the irish catholics for the ulster uprising and massacres arriving in dublin darlng during daring augusta with an armr army arny of ooo.000 soldiers he set about to recover ireland for the british commonwealth 0 his anay army anaf attacked and 3500people slaughtered nearly people in drogheda Drog ireland in a single dayo 3 through subsequent conquests the irish were forced to submit to the Gromwell gromwellian aray cromwellian army and to relinquish the degree of religious freedom they obtain had obtainedo obtained& edo cromwell crohw prohibited the catholics to celebrate mass and he enacted many laws causing thousands of irish catholics to flee to france spain and the west indies because many of the irish were killed or deported the population fell from about 3 million billion to less than atil lion lioho ilon licho 4 4 A second colonization followed known as the cromwellian Gromwell lan ian settlement and much landwas confiscate wab confiscatede large estates were given to soldiers in the conquering aray anay army anty anaf and it has been estimated that by this time all of the 20 million productive acres had been seized by the english& englishoe Engl engi 5 isho during alcurtis Lc urtis 00 op 2the athe oo cito cita 2430 the world and its people 0 cit 99 3bid bido scurti 4curti curtis as s opo cito cite 2 op 250 citop see 220 citow arbi 5rbi do 9.9 ibido ebido ao 254 2o 20

20 8 the conquest and settlement of l60 igo 60 landowners landawners o catholic were reduced to a still smaller minority as catholicism ini ireland reached its lowest ebba ebbs a igned ignec in battle of the boyne 6900 since the time mary had reigned britain there had been very few rulers who were vere sympathetic to any of their catholic subjectso So subjects however in 685 james II cro was crowned vined and publicly acknowledged reconciliation to the popeo in order to abolish uie the hie religious franchise the protestants had enjoyed in britain james dismissed many of his associates who would not yield to his scheme missed As he began staffing the army arny with catholic officers 9.9 prominent protestants opposit in england rose in opposition iono lono A coalition of auch such sueh men extended to william III lil prince of orange in holland 9.9 the theinvitation to take the british crowm crown browm william accepted for political as well as religious reasons and was greatly influenced by his hatred for france and louis XIV who was 2 W lam ism aiding james on november king william lan and his army landed in consti conatitu england and three months later after vindicating the english constitution he and his wife mary were declared king and queen of england which consummated the revolution of william next turned his attention to ireland where he met his first military opposition army loyal to his cause 0 it was at this place that james gathered an the two armies metand meland fought near the boyne river and on july as s 690 the prince of orenge orange and his soldiers emerged victoriouso this was a glorious day for the protestants in irelando vii uso William williams s army continued the conquest until october 69 when the city of ogie logle aogle ogle robert gowan orangeism its origin and bistor history Z canada lovell and gibson b toronto 2bidoo hbid abid ido 6869

21 9 limerick the last catholic stronghold was forced to surrender the battle of the boyne was more than a political gain for william and england in his unique army of thirtysix thousand men nearly every protestant church and protestant nation was representedo edo the men had united in holland under william prince of orange and in a strange series of events were taken to fight 9 right for their protestant reli gion in a remote island of the west the conquests of itking inking p2 eing billy were heralded by irish protestants even though the catholics still outnumbered eight aht them eight to one 3 catholic penal laws ire lre soon after williams victory in irelandd additional penal laws were imposed on the irish catholics legislation already in effect by 695 stated that members of the catholic faith falth faithwere required to take a supremacy oath to the british crown to be qualified for public office holy orders or a university degree A fine of one shilling was charged 9.9 to all those absent from sunday worship in the established churcho charcho 4 4 in 695. catholics were further excluded from parliament and were r3aht ght refused the ra right to bear arms 5 they were not permitted to go abroad for education and were forbidden adden to keep schools at home furthermore the 7 university of dublin was closed to them in regard to degrees fellowships and scholarships scholarship s catholics were excluded from the practice of law ex capt cept by taking the oath of allegiance 9.9 thereby denying papal authorityo also many of the church bishops and dignitaries ware were banished from ire libid bibid bido lih 40 2b id 966 p 3mcgee ak 50 2k cit eto eit elt volo voi as 2s ebido ibido II goi aurtis 5curtis scurtis 6029 ourtis Ourtib ap 2p cito cit

22 0 land these restrictions plus numerous mim min erous others were imposed obed on irish catholics for more than a century until finallyf the catholic emancipation for bill was passed in 829 and the laws were repealed because of the penal laws the irish catholics were at a great disadvantage darlng daring dur during the eighteenth centurye secret organizations ehile wills while the attempts were made to legally suppress catholicism in leat ireland many secret organizations izatlons arose not only in that religion lon but ions arose3 arosen rel rei among the protestants as wello weil weli united for selfprotection for protection within the catholic church were the hearts It of steele hearts of oak defenders 9 peep of day boys caravatsp caravans Cara tl threshers Thre and ribbonman ribbonmen Ribbon the pro- testants had the antrim association Enniskillen enniskillenersers 9.9 aldermen of skinners iiley alley foots alley9t fourth foot boyne society 9 prentice boys 9.9 men dervy and the orangemene Orange of derry orangemen Oran orangeman mene menn ff the orange society was first organized in exeter zxeter england on november shortly after william s arrival in that cityo eity elty cilyo the orange men howeverh have most often been associated withireland ireland because it was king william who gave irish protestants a great t military victory in their country toward the end of the eighteenth century many of the secret erotestantorganizations protestant organizations were incorporated into the orange order and on july the first general lodge meeting was held for the newly 0 united orangemen in ireland the annual july 2th parade commemorating this event is still celebrated not onlyin ireland but also in other emigrate countries to which irish orangemen have emigratedo amigrated 02 libid bibid bowan 9.9 bido 280 2gowan qowan ako 2ko citop 820 citow 52 0 cito

23 li 3 3. rebellion of 798 one last rebellion of the eighteenth century occurred in ireland during 798 atrocious murders took place in the now notorious scolla bogue barnt barni where over 200 protestants were either burned or shot to deathe ar Ssimilar deeds occurred on vinegar hill as many other lives were lost during this uprising it was not uncommon for several hundred people either catholic or protestant to be slain in a single daye dayo additional damage was inflicted on catholic houses of worship from 798 to 800 when more than sixtyfive rive lve were destroyed while the irish catholics were contendingg with the british amies armies a political policy was proposed stat devastab in the english parliament which dealt all of ireland a devastate devastating blos bios blowo blomo union of 800 even though ireland had been under british rule for over one hun- an h dred and fifty years f it had been allowed to have its own parliament in dublin the half haich million english subjects in the oomtry cowrtzy oometry gave very few political favors to the facors three million irish they held hold heid in subjectiono aono at the turn of the century the english wheedled coaxed threatened and bribed dt petit the irish into signing petitions f ions lons in JM favor of union with Englmd englando englmd engled 2 the proposals were successful and the necessary legislation passado passedo through such actions ireland lost its parliament and was entirely deprived of home rule a condition which existed until 922 when th lesh declared all but the northern six counties a free states stales stalee the mcgeee mcgees op ticgee 2seumas mae Mac 92 cito cilo else cite naemacmanus Ma elso 779 irish publishing co irl lri iri eh emanus Manas manus the story of the irish race new york the

24 2 reli eeli nineteenth century religions eng d c with the political union of england and ireland there also came a marked changee in religious relationships as well weil weli since the battle of the boyne irish protestants had tended to rely largely on economic pressure to weaken catholicism even though the economic balance shifted to the favor of the protestants who also gained the political dominion in ireland the catholics had emerged victorious inasmuch nuch as aith alth f the population as a whole had aung clung dung eung tenaciously to their faith falth when the catholic emancipation law was passed in 829 they began to emerge from their subdued condition having thereby obtained many of the rights previously denied pon both political pou tical and religious the roman church in ireland underwent dramatic change recovering from their immense material losses they entered into a period of reconstruction of their parishes in addition the parochial clergy increased by fifty rifty percent in less than fifty half a century catholic education began to take advantage of its new rights lights as catholic schools increased under the new religious freedom f three catholic societies were organized in ireland the irish sisters of charity the irish sisters of mercy and the christian christiaa brothers 2 though highly opposed at the time t he catholics still cia claimedd eighty percent of the population 3 it was irish protestantism however that experienced the greatest change the protestant religion had tended to be a sober pious rational faith fraith ralth with emphases emphasis emphass phass on restraint and ethical teachings 4 however at its ithe 3the 3 great famine studies in irish history op cit 70 ida lda 3 2 2lbid abide ibide ide 64 ebido ibido 69 hist ibid q pl

25 3 the beginning of the nineteenth century many protestants especially presbyterians Presbyterians thought their religion to be doctrinallyy deficient and spiritually lifeless this dissatisfaction produced lfviolent lfviolent convulsions which brought great changes in irish protestantism at the beginning of the 800so s momentum in both england eagland and ireland the evangelical movementgained est irel irei and increased concern for the individual soul was hanifebb manifest as protestants in irelaid ireland began to argue the saving necessity of fully understanding christian dogma and encouraging scriptural studies followers of webley wesley tresley trebley gained much sympathy for the methodist doctrine on frequent visits to ireland dar during this time there were praying students at trinity college seeking change in established religions out of these latter groups came a sect known as the walker tes soon torn asunder ty ites teb by insrard anward i dissentiono dissection dibsention bention john lono iono lone thomas kelly the celebrated hymn writer 2 founded the kellites brethren md and at this time hutchinson parnell and darby founded the plymouth brethren byy the protestant dissenters rians including the presbyterians Presbyte accounted for about eight percent of the population of ireland 4 the established church which had been politically favored in ireland for ror nearly three hundred years claimed only eleven percent of for the population and underwent less changee than did other protestant groups at this time it retained its favored political status however until 4 5established 869 when it was di3established and put on a level equal to other religions in ireland libidop othree 2three three of the hymns written by the irish john thomas kelly have appeared in the latterday saint hymnalse alb aisa aiba they are zion stands with hills surrounded git on the mountain tops appearing and arise arise with joy Sur survey veyo veye 3the athe great famine me opo cite 709 bibi hibl ibad 64 ibld d 3

26 4 summary tihen when the mormon missionaries arrived in ireland in they found the folloving following for nearly three hundred years pbysically6rce the english tried unsuccessfully to politically and physically force a protestant reformation on the catholics in ireland such sach efforts accomplished the reverse by binding the catholics even stronger to their raith faith aitho ralth altho 2 the protestant population in ireland cocaprising a cocab c about f twenty percent of the people had been gained mainly through colonisa colonica tion rather than conversion 3 the two religions had geographically polarized with vith the protestants in the six northern counties and the catholics in the remaining twentysix counties vith bith the catholicso catholieso So 4 many religious battles had been fought in ireland with outcomes still in the memories of both protestant and Catholic 5 of the eight million ilon lion population in ireland at that time 80 were catholics church of ireland and 8 protestant dissenters mostly presbyterians Presty terlan 6 early in the nineteenth century drastic changes occurred in both irish catholicism and protestantism which were to affect the success of the first mormon aign aien monnon campaign C jin lin ireland

27 CHAPTER II igo THE FIRST MORMON CAMPAIGN IN IRELAND with the aforementioned religious interaction occurring the time arrived ror for the introduction of mormonism iem lem into ireland previous activities in britain although the mormoni missionaries did not go to ireland until the summer of 840 they had been successfully proselyting in england since 837 in that year in america joseph smith the mormon prophet told heber co ce kimball to go to england and seek converts to the new faith 2 joined by six other missionaries elder kimball sailed for britain and after a four week voyage the party arrived in liverpool on july j for the next two years their efforts were vere mere concentrated in england prestano Pres Pree preg and a large branch of the church was established in prestono preetono midway through 839 joseph smith directed members of the quorum of the twelve apostles to go to britain and take charge of the church in that areao arcao john taylors one of the apostles arrived in great britain on january ll 840 and remained in liverpool where in just a few months he organized a branch of the church the apostles continued aed contin conlin to arrive ithe term mormon is commonly used as a name for members of the church of jesus christ of latterday city utah saints joseph fielding smith essentials in church history salt lake 959witiiqlo 20o utahs deseret book co

28 6 in england for the next three months until all ail ali who had been assignedsigned ignec had arrived f the first council meeting of the church leaders on foreign soil was held in preston on april ih 4. lh 80 followed ly by a general conference for all mormons in englando for 840j f conr confer En by this time there were nearly seventeen hundred members of the church organized into 34 branches during daring darlng the next two months the mormons accomplished much inn britain as a monthly periodical the latterday saints millennial millamial Millamial staj star sbar sway skay stsj was started a patriarch2 patriarche Patriarch 2 was appointed forty british saints sailed s for 9.9 new york the first mormons to emigrate and a latterday 9.9 saint hymnal was published 3 the work had also recently been extended to scotland and it was daring this period of increased activity in britain that the first mormon missionary went to ireland reubenhedlock reuben hedlock bedlock 4 although john taylor generally has been recognized as being the first missionary to preach successfully and aad baptize in ireland helas hewas wab f not the first mormon in that country reuben hedlock bedlock gained the distinction ly by going to ireland in may l8uoo 840 arriving in england on april elder bedlock hedlock was among those who accompanied the mormon apostles to britain after the ihe ahe general conference in preston during april he went to brampton england for about a month and on may 22 8u raonthv 8404 boarded a libid bibid aa 2a bido patriarch A in the mormon church is an office appointed to a man who has the authority to give special blessings to the members of the churcho charcho peter meli meil melling was the first arst and one of the few patriaichs patriarchs archs appointed outside the united states during the nineteenth century 284 also see andrew jenson church chronology salth smith 3smith asmith saith ap opo 2p elte cito eite palt pait 3alt lake ofey city ogey utah deseret news press aalt i s the reason reuben hedlock bedlock may have been overlooked by some historians is that there is a dating error in his letter describing his trip to ireland the date given is may which is since he was not even in britain at that time its an obvious error

29 7 ship going to belfast northern ireland arriving the following morning f he recorded his first impressions this is a fine flourishing town containing here I met as I passed through the streets the ra rich enjoying their abundance aban and f inhabitants the poor in rags begging for a morsel of food to sustain life of buffering suffering and I say in my heart has the gospel of jesus christ lost its pomer power pover among those who proc profess ebs it ebb so part of the human family must mast drag out a miserable existence I had never before witnessed such scenes r 93 that one and die in wretchedness and want pride and plenty all their daysi dayel dayse days i while the other can live in during daring darlng his three days in ireland elder hedlock bedlock made a few acquaintances and then traveled on to paisley scotlando Scot the irl irish had met a normon mormon o Jjohn taylor by april laho 840 lako john taylor Is branch of the church in liver pool numbered nearly 30 members and among the converts in england were tse tso some irish emigrants one of the church leaders wrote to joseph smith during daring darlng the same year stating that many that have been baptized in ca c3 n Englan englandj dj have friends there in ireland w suggesting that ffmanytt of the early converts in england were actually irish 2 this is not unlikely since there was a vast number of irish living in england glands Fm particularly in liverpool and manchester chesters at that timeo by one tenth of manchester s and emtarants aad one seventh of liverpools population were irish emigrants 3 james ja j4 mcguffie and william black4 blacka blaek were two irish converts who accompanied john taylor on his ten day missionary journey to ireland at a conference emial llsmial lmilamial star liverpool andlondon London england II stimes 2times 862 times and seasons nauvoo illinois VI april seasons see asee see chapter hjohn III lii on the effects of the famine page john taylor erroneously recorded the name as william blake 0

30 8 held in manchester on july william black had previously been appointed to go to ireland as a missionary before the three mormons left liverpool john taylor met a gentleman named d thomas tate and stated f ire lre that he would be the first to be baptized in irelandd 2 tate later went to ireland and the prophecy was fulfilled with his edo f or th irish companions john taylor sailed ror for ireland on july l8uoo since elder Ncmcguffie Guffie had some acquaintances in newry county down that small country village became their destination zit arriving ArT gim at iving warren point the following morning the menwent to the 9 tom tow court house and mcguffie ade ode arr rade arrangements cements to preach in the seb ses seek seep sions hall that evening the mormons gave notice of their intended meeting gj and at the appointed houry six to seven hundred curious irish men and women gathered to hear about the new altho falth faith aitho althe f elder taylor told of the doctrines that evening and thus thas whas on july eor Mor 840 mormonian moirmoaisbi monian introduced into Ire lre ireland lande laade was 3 since no one offered to be baptized however a second meeting ollowing allowing evening was announced for the following following f during daring darlng their first faight in ireland john taylor reported he had a vision in which a gentleman ap- proached him and asked the mormon apostle to stay in newry stating that he would be pleased to listen the next morning the same sane bame saue baue man whom john taylor claimed to have seen in vision stopped him and requested them to remain the gentleman was directed to james mcguffie who expected to stay in newdy newry44 day saints co ljoseph smith bo be IV 0 50 iso history storv of the church of jesus christ of latter sait lake city deseret book c hereafter cited as dohoco dehc deac 9.9 hisatorv ho he roberts edw edo ad2d ed rev salt 02 be o H ho roberts the life a lif of john taylor george ao qo Q cannon and sons coe 892 l692jj galt gait salt lake oily city olly salt sait utah 3lbid 3jbid 4 ibid

31 9 their second meeting was attended by so few the two men Tay taylor and bieck bleck blacks9.9 blacky and the thae aforementioned thomas tate who had also arrived in ireland left newry the followingf lowing day july 30 they started for the four towns of Bell bellmacrat where john taylor preached that night in a barn owned by a mr ero f oot ere willie the next morning they proceeded by root foot ool roob to lisburn and during the journey john taylor began to converse with era mra eto ero tate about briceland the gospel approaching lisburn the travelers came upon loch brickland Bric and thomas tate exclaimed nthere othere is water what doth hinder me being baptized7ill john taylor went down into the tie ule die water and baptized him thereby fulfilling his previous prophecy about tate being the first to join in ireland on july 3 80 that thab 840 the first mormon convert was gained in tulat countr7o ry 2 later on that dy day john taylor created considerable interest in lisburn by preaching four times in the market place and before leaving that town ja uffie he learned that jamess mcguffie McQ had commenced baptizing ia in newry 3 after spending ten clays days in ireland john taylor left on august 6 and though his hib visit had been brief irelands first c convert hi s s f j oined had joined coined the church 0 of the experience john taylor recorded in his journal 3bido bide ibido ebido emiliz2lal lilen triennial iriennial star 936p ugo hgo also L evans cantu centuryor rycr of mormonism tormonism in great britain brita3 britann salt lake city utahs deseret deberet news press 937s I u 54o centuryar nial XCVIII see richard la 30n on december in salt lake city jane blackhurst claimed she was the first to be baptized in ireland and the first to emigrate it is possible sibie that she was the first baptized by mcgua mcguffie mcquffie McQ fle rie in she might not have known of tate or newry since burne burno I a conversion and baptism near Lis lib lisburno lisbamo bisbamo she could have been the first convert baptized later that summer at hillsborough the first branch organized in ireland since there are indications that mcguffie McQ black i uffie and tate all soon followed taylor back to englando En

32 20 I visited ireland on the 27th of julys mguff xguffie ie one that had been ordained in company with elder mcguff 840 in the liverpool and a priest from manchester by the name of blake black sic we landed at warren point and went from thence newiy newryj where I preached in the session house in newly blacka black3 to neway first tinet wine the arst f lime ever this gospel was declared in thab that thence I went to a part of the country called the four towns of bellinacrat Bellina ble elc ceil call9 sic and preached and baptized a farmer by the name of taite caie ciie ble elc sic who was the first baptized in ireland from fron thence I proceeded to lisburn where I preached several times in from thence to belfast when I had an oppo- the market place 0 rtunity of preaching if I had had time to stay engagements in scotland I was prevented 9.9 newry being what lande from thit thib land but as I had theodore curtis cortis though there had been two missionaries in ireland stayed only three days and the second had remained but tono tone tena teno the first had both trips were temporary and it wasni wasnt wasat until september lalo ialo that a missionary pek pem periods was assigned to ireland for an extended periodo theodore curtis who mho had formerly been a missionary in new york arrived in britain and on 9.9 that date was assigned to go to irelando ireland arriving in the country he chose the town of hillsborough to begin his labors and within three weeks the few converts in ireland were organized into a branchy branche on october curtis reported at conference that there were five rive lve five members of the church in irelando 02 though successful as a missionary aware of the irish 9 e opposition to mormonism elder curtis gurtis soon became as noted in a letter dated november which vhich chich stated ler lef iert since I left lert manchester I have been laboring most of the hillsborough33 I have baptized several 0 we now number ili 4 I think that there time in this place since conference lii in all ullen lmillenra milennial millennial Milen star nial stpr9 stac II laul l8ul lo 0 50 bidol bidot bidoj I uo 6 o 0

33 2 will be but few more here who will obey the gospel the other places that I have had for ror preaching in the country are all stopped the people in this country are very hard to convince wil wll and I think there will be but a few in ireland that will obey the gospel of our lord jesus christ L in a report at the conclusion of his mission he noted after laboring a few weeks in different places I soon 4.4 soon boon commenced baptizing particularly in hillsborough I met with much opposition by discussion and pamphlets published against me 9.9 as well as from the falsehoods sent forth from the pulpits of the day but we not only suffered these things but from fasting and hunger wanta want22 beggary and want as we found the country unexampled for elder eiderer curtis proselyted proselyter in ireland for nine months and during may 84 he was transferred to england miscellaneous activities in october tobery Oc 840 reuben hedlock hedloek bedlock made a second visit to ireland and commenced to preach in belfast and was the first missionary mibs ionary conary belf abt f to do so tri trl during his trip he visited elder curtis in hillsborough long enough ip to hear him debate for six hours with a gentlemanwho tio ylo 0 rho nho had sixteen things cormons to prove about or against the mormons Mor mons hedlock hedloek bedlock stated that the people in that community were so dependent on lord hillsborough who owned the property that he would turn tarn them out of employment if they associated with the cormons mormons Mor and this was the one great difficulty in Hillsborough hillsborougho hillsborough0 0 elder redlock returned to belfast and preached twice to small smail congrega lele galele iele ltheodore ltheodqre lt letter on rile salele gaible gabele s7afrxw Mhy 6 utah cited in maiuscript maauscript heodore curtis to george Aae smith november c jginal 849 filef at church historignw histortw office ha h7 east south temple sifeet street s histozy of the british mission saints manuscript histog histon unpublished history of the church of jesus christ of latterday in great britain Britainy taing located at the church historians office 47 salt lake city utaho itaho east south temple 2millenial gmillenial starp stars in 3 lal 8423 l8i manuscrl2t manuscript history historrr of the british mission october

34 22 gallons before leaving for glasgow scotland on the 20th of octobero Octobero octobers another incident that aided the mormons in ireland was when a husband and wife wif bifev mr and mrs bell traveled to paisley scotland 9 to inquire about the church early in i n december 840 the investigators 9.9 9acors who claimed they were led by the spirit to travel from ireland and receive the gospel met with the missionaries narles and after a day and a hals halbh haibs discussion I the people were vere baptized 3 the elders in scotland reported that this opens an effectual door to the thickly settled farming country and to three villages vizez vilez linwood vie bangor holinwood hollinwood Ho si C sic beirast2 belf belrasta and belfast as mr bell offered lodgings to any mormon elder who would go to ireland and preachy by the end of there was one branch of the church at hillsborough with about twenty members although there was bat one full othermissionaries time elder theodore curtis a few other missionaries had made temporary visits by february 8 84 the membership had grown to twenty five and just before elder curtis was transferred to england he had reported that there were thirtyfive rive lve of the church of hillsborough five members david wilkie curtis departure tare 9.9 after curtis curtisb david wilkie was sent to ireland where he began proselyting at crawfordsburn3 crawfordaburn3 even though he was the only ireuben 2ibido sibido reuben hedlock snithjl air ghwch mstorlan stormanss office bedlock to george Smith smithjr smithjl adecembh A december 8 original letter rue on fue atr storians uscript histon histoly histoa se belet of the british mission under the sane 3the crawford6burn crawfordsbarn athe spelling of thib crary also cited in man- bane date this branch is inconsistent as it is reported crawford s Craw crauf crawf orar orbr crowfoots oots borne borno burno crawfordsr Craw crany burn crawford burn and crawfoots

35 23 elder in ireland Irelan ireian he reported on july dv 2 ZLI 8 trenty branch consisting of twentytwo 84 that he had organized a two members in that area and end rhen when counted wh en counted with the members of the church at hillsborough the mormons in ireland rifty onee oneo numbered fifty elder wilkie stayed in ireland for over a year 5 and aided by james carigan anothermissionary the membership of the 9.9 two tvo branches rose to seventyone seventy6 onee oneo after the departure of the two tvo mis- sionaries apparently many of the saints emigrated to england and hence to america 9.9 decline as the membership steadily declinedo do renewed interest was t sorely needed in ireland and this time joseph smith the mormon leader in america mis appointed an irish mormon to return to his country as a missionary bion blonnary arye james sloan for a 2 number of years james sloan had been a personal friend of themormon prophet joseph smith mr sloan was one of the few who visited confined joseph who was improperly arrested and confined in prison during &839 83& on may joseph smith appointed him and his wife to go to ireland as missionaries andthey and they arrived in that counley counliy during september theyear l8i3o 843 experiencing little success during the remainder of tr wd sloan reported that he had tried to procure places to preach protestant catholic but that the protestantcatholic controversy troubled the people so much that they ithad ishad little time to attend to the things of the kingdom god0 of godo goda themormon he did all he could to circulate a knowledge of the mormon 3 millennial annial star 9.9 II see asee see biography of jalass j sloanin jaaass sloan sioen in appendix a sloanim co j ran jannary buary puary uso also aiso ziso dateo nuary JX ar 3r rgahanhedlock to josamafajagijg of the twelve ibia original letter on file ake tke quorum t flie lle f att church chiir6h historian HistoiTan idan kdan s cited in the manuscript history of the british mission under same tfficeo lee iee

36 24 belief by v bat in january 8449 jq irelaid rei aad and Irel he reported there were few saints from at a general conference in liverpool on april hs elder sloan stated that even though they had organized a new branch at melusk medusk fifty there were only fiftytwo two members of the church in ireland he also 2 noted the great control the landlords held over their tenants who were mormons3 threatened with eviction if they listened to the mormons cormons Mor at this conference elder sloan was assigned to labor in england and ireland was once again without mormon missionaries years of famine when the irish famine reached its peak during there was little missionary work done by the mormons in ireland it was difficult to preach of spiritual things when many people of the country f staat were starving staxt to death one missionary paul harrison a native of ire- landwho was converted in england worked as a missionary from april 7 to december ll lh 4. ih cre creasedo at 845 but in spite of his efforts the membership de asedo the conclusion of his stay in ireland he noted the qualities a mormon missionary would have to have if he were to convert the irisho allowow me to make a few remarks relative to ireland the irish and what sort of an elder would be most suitable for that country the lri irl irish are much better educated than the english very shrewd and can easily comprehend anything you talk about to them they are in their way more religious libido bido glien ullen amil 2mil milennial millennial Milen janaes 3james janies ajames ja5aes qa star nial IV 8uo 844o om tp q iano harles haries warner anr aar ii lo cited in manuscript history of the british mission un3erti5ieanb dateo

37 25 than the english consequently more priest ridden and it takes a man with a depth of intellect to converse with them about religious matters especially when the views of the parties differ to my own personal knowledge there is not a country in europe wherein I have been where religious controversy prevails so much as in ireland to my mind supports the idea that if an elder older eider with depth of intellect and a fruitful imagination gunation along with a diversity of movement in his operations manyvery and this biow diow could be sent there many very many would ere long be added to our churche during daring darlng the famine of ireland 847 was assigned to the glasgow conference districtp 2 and elder eiderer districts kider peter mccue in scotland wab was waig walg walb assigned to watch over the irish saints acter harrison had left lert 3 after tar lef ler iert a few members were added through the efforts of the local saints so by may elder mccue mcgue who represented ireland at general conference reported that there were fortyfive five coli country collntry 4 members of the church in that irish conrerence conference arence on october lap 8 laa 846 ireland was detached from the glasgow conference and designated as a conference on its own and elder paul jones preside5 presided 5 was appointed to preside the famine still raged however and little was accomplishede accomplishedo ede edo during the peak year of cf ule uie the famine 847 lqh7s it was necessary to combine all ali ail the branches in the belfast area into one central branch in belfast na namely nameiy the nely belfast Crawford Cravford crawford s burn and hills milennial millennial Milen aa 2a A missionary conary mork work missionary discontinued and star millennial stary staz nial IX 88 3marmscr&t manuscript history histozyy ebido may 8460 ibido 848q 286 conference was a specific acif geographical area designated for vork by the mormon churchy the term tem tern tea conference has been def deyinitiono histor bistor 0of the british mission december str 5millennial star ster district now retains that definition f ste VIII ls is

38 26 this borough branchesi brancheso branchese BrancheSo chebo consolidated branch was organized on june and has been the oldest branch in ireland x continuing until 20p january 8 branches Branchebo cheso when it was divided into the east and west vest yest eest belfast the hyde park branch continued for a few years as a separate organizationo organizations belfast conference even though all of ireland had been designated in as the irish conference 9.9 in practice the work had been limited to counties down antrim and other nearly litie nearby localitiess in northern ireland there- f fore in recognition of this fact the name was changed to the belfast fact belfast conference in l8u8o 848 the newly redefined conference consisted of small smail branches in belfast hyde park kilachy and liskam lisbam lisburn& at the meeting where the change was made on february q 848 the church members were exhorted to live the principles of their religion but noting the difficulties the presiding elder admonished preb this thl thibs then being the fact think we that these things can be attended to in the midst of babylon where there the poor saints are scattered and oppressed by the haughty self selfrighteous seif seir gen tiles most certainly they cannoto canhoto hence thenp theap we perceive the necessity utle absolute necessity of the saints of god the uuie leaving their homes and removingr to a place retiere rtiere they can attend to these thingsa mh c 0 thing due to the strong urging most of the church members adhered to the counsel and emigrated within a year leaving the mormon church in ireland somewhat disorganized such circumstances warranted a call for ror for of cog coo ooo coa landrew jenson 9.9 andrew jen bon son encyclopedic gqqycopedc hib history tony of the church of jesus christ latter dw saints salt lake city utah deseret igia 90 igla co9 94q 559 2millennial S 2 millennial star X ft ddseret dseret news publishinging

39 27 kilen milen klien help from mission authorities to missionaries who were apparently reluctant to go to ireland and in september bember 848 the millennial nial star published an appeal f f ly we hope some good faithful elder who has no family will volunteer his services and enter the door of labor that now there are thousands of const honwt honst hearted in ireland who if they could but seems to be opening in newry warmhearted people truth would receive it with vith great joy volunteers ror for erin Ifr for ains rins Is land italics addedo addeso bat hear the shall we not see some four missionaries from scotland Scotlandt by elder cook responded to led n t eff erf errort the plea and made an unsuccessful effort erfort to revive the work upon arriving in ireland they f found aund round the church members making preparations ror for for emieration emigration and little good was accomplished abed as there were no known baptisms and no real desire of the irish xish saints to remain in their country and assist the missionaries by wie the tie end of 849 seven members in kilachy Ki seven in hyde park and thirtythree three in belr beiraft belfast a total of forty seven were all of the mormon converts who were still in ireland at the end of the decade 2 A new campaign was needed and got underway during the summer of ibid bibidid 2860 q pmj 2mj lftnjalstar ster XU millennial W l

40 CHAPTER CHARTER ili III TIM tle THE EFFECTS OF fim fam FAX THE FAMINE shortly before berore the turn tarn of the nineteenth century the population 9 of ireland began and continued to increase at a rate previously unknown in the history of europeo between 779 and 84 there was a 72 increase resulting in a total of 82 million people living in a country about the size of north carolinao carol3mac carolinas Carolinao of those eight million people nearly gos sos million or 666 were dependent on agriculture for a livelihood and half haich of the population was living in windowless one room 9.9 mud cabins and attempting to provide a living on their allotted 0tted eted land of less than five acres per family 2 during daring duning l the 87 conditions grew grow worse as pt at a famine swept the country causing one million to starve to death and another three million to flee their country ion lon in less than ten years irelands ilon lion haic I Irelands population of eight million was cut in half hiring maring darlng f the famine years in rural ireland the average age at death was nineteen and not a fifth of the population lived beyond forty years of agee ageo than five percent reached the age of sixty mob rule econoic economic econonp c 3 less disruption marder pillage sickness and hunger existed throughout the whole whoie marders marderg murder af f F jerrery jeffery jerf exa ex7 mission to the irish unpublished research project at brigham young university the athe platt the great famine op cit world ttilliam 3william awilliam TT forbes adams ireland and irish emigration to the new new havens yale university press j9 377 ration 28

41 29 islando since the mormons arrived just five years before the famine berore reached its peak it is essential to determine rma the effects of the famine mornoniau on the irish and Mormoni mormoniazio mormoniam mormonism arlo mormon predictions of the irish famine believing that many biblical prophecies had or were being ful- filled the mormons in ireland were well aware that in the last days 9.9 places piece se there would be famines and pestilences in divers places 0e a a0 with this teaching and others in mind 2 it was not unusual for the missionaries to believe and even anticipate the latterday iatter daay daiv daw judgmentso So nor were they hesitant to make their beiler beliefs s known during january 839 a tremendous wind blew in ireland and other portions of britain unroofing many houses and turning hundreds out of their homes relost shipping ports were damaged and many lives werelost on both land and sea of the occurrence joseph stadlth th the mormon prophet noted such a wind had not been witnessed by any one living and some began to think that the judgments were about to ollow preachingen3 preaehingo f follow the eiders elders matthew natthew according to lodoso LODS iodoso theology joseph smith staith stated an angel named moroni told him on september that great judgments were coming upon the earth with great desolations of famine swordv sworde and pestilence and that these grievous judgments would occur during that generation pearl of great price salt leke city the church of jesus christ of letter letten latterday gaint 952 saintss 952 smith hereafter cited as po of go po other mormon scriptures state that in the last days god would gather his people of famine f jesus christ of latterday do D y the mouth of ay aw servants and by the voice volce 0 0 emine see doctrine and covenants salt lake city the church of 0 day saints ce & C ill 2 3do 3 ho co III day by ado cog u6o hereafter cited as voice

42 30 r A asimilar statement appeared in the mormon publication millen nial star in 840 under the heading of signs of the times T bee eee tha tho articie ser described some of the recent earthquakes and rumors of war var and then stated in some detail the economic distress of the people of ireland the editor parley po pratt added ghen when 9.9 truthe trutha ffwhen we see prophecy fulfilling we are bound to acknowledge that those who uttered it were directed by the spirit of truth that same year 840 elder heber co kimball wrote to joseph smith describing the economic turmoil the unemployment situation &nd and the thousands who were starving in ireland and he remarked this scene of things is passing before our eyes daily 0 we look upon it with sorrow and regret at the same time ct xt 3t is that which is spoken of by the mouths of prophets feel reel and and we eel f to pray without ceasing that god may roll on his a work and re store that which is lost and establish peace that 0 the 0 knowledge of god may cover the earth as the waters cover the beao sea see bee 2 italics addedo addeso elder kimball then quoted a newspaper article telling in great detail the critical situation in ireland after blind and cannot see it they appear to exult over the saints and when a few fine days come which are indeed scarce thez they thwj cry out oat oab oub to the ahe saints where is ble dle bic sic your famines pebel pestilences and judgments you have predicted edl edi wait a little while and they shall see them arter after which he said these things s are coming upon the inhabitants I then know tjhat we have told the truth 0 3 italics addedo we tell them to and they shall added addeso yet they are t to elder kimball the famine was inevitable stimes ltimes and seasons nauvoo illinois 9.9 IS III lii december 840. iio ito lio heber gheber C eber co kimball to joseah joseph josedh smith jr published in the times tines lines limes and seasons nauvoo illinois VI april jbid 3lbido 8iq

43 3 yam lehat lvhat what caused the yamine famine no when the famine reached its peak in isi lsi parley pratt 845 Ppe claimed P the awaited judgments had begun in irelander his editorial in the millennial star declared 0 0 and why did the potatoe potator crop 0 in ireland perish and rot in a night 0 0 because the angel hath flown midst of heavens flovn jovn in the having the everlasting gospel to preach to them that dwell on earth and to every nation nations kindred tongue and people saying with a loud voice volce fear god and give glory 907 to him ror the hour of his judgment iss comee Re ons s f for voice revelations 4- revelant 0 the following year 847 orson pratt another mormon missionary in britain made a significant 9nificant statement regarding mormonism in irelands if ireland ivill win receive this gospel judgment shall be turned away from their land and the earth shall bring forth in t its strength and plenty shall crown their labors and the lord shali shall bring favour abour unto themo theno ect they rej ruine aa gospel the gospels and the he but if thy reject the fulaess of ahe great message now offered to them the hand awayan awayin of the lord shall be against them until they are wasted away in sorrow and wretchedness A mormon convert from dublinn dubli dubil ireland also expressed similar sentiments ants in rhyme 2 nts when he wrote the poems israel israel grod god Is calling C musico which was later set to music it became a favorite evorite f hymn of british members of the churchy the authors richard smyth 3 undoubtedly had in mind his native country when he wrote the following words emphasizi emphasize greatly emphasizing L ing emigration for church members W milennial lmillemial millennial Milen nial stars VIII VHI 846 loo 00 2millennialstar llsnnial 3kate skate bo carter city olty utah III 9.9 star X 848p 8u rest 2 volumes salt lake kate heart throbs of the west went utaht utacht daughters of the thae utah pioneers publishing company 90 igo 950. also see biography on richard smyth sayth on page W 9.9

44 32 israel israel god is cali cail calling calling thee from lands of woe babylon the great is falling 0 I er alling god shall all her towers or throwo throwe floco floco come to zion come to zion ere his floods of anger flowo come to zion come to zion ere his hib floods of anger flowo riog the irish who joined the mormons and emigrated a 0 daring this period were literally called from a land of woeo noeo while rhile it is not the purpose of this thesis to determine whether the irish famine of f 845 was his 847 divine devilish or natural in origin the author believes the famine had a mom monumental mental mentel effect on the irish and Mormoni mid aid ald mormonismo mormonisnio sno bno irish conversions to mormonism outside ireland when mormon missionaries arrivedd in britain there was already a substantial number of irish scattered throughout the united kingdom ariy as As early 85. many of irelandss farmersf saw there was no future for a a 85 them in their country and during 8688 i 2 reland I I neland ive lve 86 typhus ror for l8l8 fever and agriculture and industrial failure fallure gave an added incentive for the irish Irish to emigratco igratev igratee 3 out af As land rents increased to outlandish diah prices and population iri lri irl sh grew the irish crossed the irish sea and settled in england scotland raees wales rales paleso 4 and waleso it is highly probable that during the formative years of mormonism in britain that some if not many of the converts were native irish people 0 by 840 one seventh of liverpool and one tenth of man jesa jesu church of jesus jebus edition hymn noo 80 jedaa christ of latterday S ts saints hymn aym book 965 adans 2adamss opo cited citoj citeq jbido9 iilo lilo illo bido 0 4bid ilio ibid 3360

45 33 gees cheater was composed of such refusgees refvgeeso geeb and both of the cities were bo th highly proselyted proselyter by mormons during the following decade 0 heber co go kimball wrote to the mormon leader joseph smith that many who had been baptized in england had friends in irelando 2 aire alre As already acly indicated some of john taylors s converts in liverpool were irish I and they accompanied him on his first missionary trip to ireland although there were manyirish living outside outsi hutsi their country by fantastically 840 five years later during the famine they emigrated in infantasticalky large numbers one irish historian noted that between irish emigration across the atlantic haib has hais 845 s hab gripped the imagination of the world but there was another emigration more numerous though less celebrated in which the irish in overwhelming elming masses crossed the irish channel to land at ports in england scotland and wales3 walesa duringthe conversions in liverpool england irish emigration to liverpool began in january 847 when six thousand refugees fled to that city 4 one month later the influx of irish peasants had become so numerous that lord brougham of the house of lords rose in pari parliament on february and reported that three thousand irish paupers from every part of ireland had landed at liverpool during the past fortyeight hourso bourso 5 the emigration continued until by june 847 a total of three hundred thousand irish 9 people lcecil cecii ccecil ceeil woodham smith grea hunger t the great vew new york ia i& harper and row stimes 2times ines and seasons nauvoo illinois viapril VI cecii 3cecjj cecil woodham smith op cit athe 4the nie die great famant famine cecii 5ceci cecil woodham sinith it famint fanine Famint opi cite 320 smitha smithq op cit

46 had descended on liverpool which had a previous population of only tw tvo 34 hundred fifty thousand to properly police the transformed irish colony twenty thousand additional men man mon were sworn in as special constables two thousand regular soldiers wene wane wewe transferred to nearby Everto evertouo everton 2 and so aitizeathat alarmed was one liverpool citiaeaa that he warned the arrival in 847 of tens of thousands of irish paupers dealt this work city pity improvementsj a cily sj a shattering blow 0 0 thepasants 0 the peasants are coming over here by regiments the question arises as to how many of these irish joined the mormon church in liverpool 0 it nas has was nab nes neb been noted elsewhere that thatwhen when an the ties with his emigrant leaves his country withhis hib home church are weakenedo although a refugee does no alwagws ailwwe lose his contact with his previous reli rell reil religion giong he will sometimes easily join another denominations 3 the author is not suggesidng wiggesting mig gesting that after severing their relationships with their old country all irish emigrants joined other churcheso cheso but since there were bothcatholics a and protestants fleeing from a crisis that tulat could have tried the faith of all there would have been a greater tendency to join another religious denomination than if they had remained in ireland and a churchy buch ehurchksuch such as the mormon church 9.9 which was offering both spiritual and temporal reiler relievo reliefo could have easily attracted many of the destitute deabi tute tate irish as brigham young reportedd reporte from england that llbid lloid hid tdldo ibido ebido 2730 taldo Ll 3 Penta movement new sew york human- where were norwegians and nils bloch hoell the pentace pentacostal pentecostal costal stai 9.9 ities press daring darlng during 90 0 dureigl90i&irewere 964 iglo there goo persons of norwegian parents living in the united states only or twentyseven seyen percent of these had joined norwegian american churcheso cheso many norwegian emigrants m4 ranta joined the quakers Qa methodists ma 9.9 baptista baptists mormons cormons Mor and other denominationso alionso So

47 35 3 talmost without exception it is the poor that receive the gospels goapell in 84 there were irish harvesters annually going to 9 britain 2 it is of interest to note that a newspaper the liverpool lib albion kib noted during this period that the bulk balk buik of mormon emigrants were farmers their farmers servants I and ttoeir wives and families f amiliea 3 by actual count county the liverpool branch records of the mormon church for show that there mere were vere nearly twothousand thousand converts during that periods la l8 only four hundred twentyeight eight of the converts gave their places of birth and of those who dida didg nine per cent were bornb irei irel bonn in irelando and0 4 f of anda 4 0 the large number who recorded no birthplace one british historian who vho aho was not a mormon iverpoois iverso ols concluded that some of Lliverpools mormon immigrants were transients 5 which would adequately describe any irish re fugers city fugees in that cityo cilyo one such convert was charles ao A callis who was bom born in dubiang dublin emigrated to liverpool and joined the church when he old oid was eight years oldo with his widowed mother he emigrated to utah and later became an apostle in the monnon momon church 6 choco 2the athe ohoco IV iva iv2 the great famine fanine ilg opo cite cito igo igl citg famineg famines op 60 3henry ahenry american university washington 5 micro- henry casewell the prophet of the nineteenth oen century jgefo JGF and Ffo ro & riverton Mv quoted in H mo me cannoni cannons the gathering of the british Britisla cormons mormons Mor cag cog 90 igo do located at brigham young university Libra libraryg 9.9 film noo noe ugo 49 hgo f londono s thesis rary 4liverpool branch records liverpool conference lao hio hlo IAO 40 church s office beg ceg lake city utaho itaho historians salt utah 840 lib mb 5philli phillip ip ao ae mo tsylov tsylor taylor2 londona oliver and boyd 965 londons 6see asee expectations 965. lego lug 490 iego see biography on page westward edinburgh and

48 36 conversions in glassow glasgow scotland large numbers of irish emigrated to glasgow scotland daring darlng darlne the famine years and reports were that the streets were vere tt literally swarm- III with iid irish ild bhe she bho betwen betveen 5 betheen june and august more than twenty Glasgo six thousand irish arrived in glasgow wo from there they settled into many Scotla scotlaadl adl adi scotia of the industrial areas and spread through other parts of scotland an examination of the glasgow branch records for 808 that there were one thousand indicated saad tw tvo hundred and forty converts and of those who indicated their birthplace two hundred twentyeight eight or eighteen percent were born in ireland thirtyfive during daring darlng five percent of the mormon converts werta werts ia verta glasgow were irish 3 apparently irish conversaeons conversions in scotland increased during lao because on january U george ao qoq cannon of the british stated mission presidency states stateds I understand there are more saints in glasgow and in western scotland who io are irish and of irish extraction than there are of scotch and this proves that they are susceptible susceptive to the truth when circumstances ctrcwaatanoes circumstanoes are favorable for their receiving lwo ito 4 it 4 las ing 850- such sach indications suggest that there are many irish who joined the church in scotland particularly in glasgow icecil ccecil titoodham woodham TiTo odham 22a glasgow mow salt lake city utah 3matt amatt platt piatt 9 opo goodhan smith branch records l8i0 84o 8 micro elero eledo faim fiim lim part P sit sll s cito 70 anith snith op citc op cit 7 lin church historians art lo 0 4 Historia ngs nis nib office klien milennial millennial Milen 4mlllennial nial star MV XXIV

49 37 conversions in wales even though no statistics are available there were undoubtedly irish people who jo3 joa joined the mormon church in waleso paleso during the years f of famine the ports of swansea cardiff and newport received many of the emigrants from ireland and the poorlaw inspector for the welsh coast great reported that reat numbers of irish landed but the number could guessedl not be ascertained or even guessedo bedl bedi the only correlation that can be made with the mormon church in wales at this time is that on october iqhs dan jones conary 9 an early mormon missionary in wales reported there had been one thousand converts gained during the past eighteen months in wales rales raies 2 since it was during c mg this same time that the irish were immigrating to wales in large num bers the author Is merely suggesting the possibility of some irish being among the numerous converts in wales irish ai sh and mormon anig atlon &i bnigration one of the chief responsibilities of the mormon leaders was to provide means whereby the members of the church could emigrate to aner america and join the main bocy booty of saints sainta in reuben hedlock bedlock Hed of the mission received instructions to enlarge the emigration plans into a general shipping company 0 this meant that not only would latterday saints be provided with vith mith transportation to america but others fee reeo who desired to go were also eligible if they paid the required feeo presi- 0 dent because thousands of irishmen were fleeing from their country rob from hedlock bedlock lcecil ccecil ecil woodham smithy 0o cito cit andrew jenson church Chron chronolow chronology 9.9 ohronolow opo 2 cito 3 P 0

50 38 formed a partnership with mra ura uro hiram shew shaw sher shar who had large interests in ireland through the partnership partaership provisions were made to jointly transport both irish refugees and normn mormon normon converts to americao americal Ameri gneri to what extent the mormons and irish were transported together is not knowl known i there are some sow bow bome indications andic actions did duri ng f amine 3 however that it did occur not only during the famine 0 but also during the next decade of the passengers on an a mormon momon emigration ship in it was noted that besides the saints there were a number of irish emigrants on boardsw boarde 20 board2 the irish were aboard a mormon emigration ship ahap p in january 8 and during march of that same year there were hoi loi mormons and america amerl knerl about 0 irilsh aboard a ship sailing for americal americao Ameri 50 irigh3 furthermore mormon missionaries monmlssionaries were active at sea as well as on land as 0 conversions were not unusual while sailing for americal aaaericao americao Ameri for on one emigration ship shl ap p the following was noted the good order cleanliness regularity and moral deportment of the passengers generally seldom failed to produce a good impression upon captain Captainy taino crew and person on board who were not latterday saints the result is they attend the leoine sv religious meeting or exercises and few shl ships IP a now reach new orleans Or without some conversions taking place in the olym- 0 0 pus which sailed in march 85 8 fifty persons were added to the church during the voyage and in the international 83 fortyeight persons including the captain and other officers of the ship were addedo addeso 4 4 which sailed in february 853 f christ ibo ho of latterday H roberts A comprehensive history historv of the church of jesus jesua day saints 6 volso bolso salt lake take city vo6o ao 60 utah deseret 24 hereafter cited as roberts comprehen- news press 930 III sive Hhistoryo Hist istoryo 92journal journal his 9.9 ill history of the church of jesus christ of latterday saints january located in church historians office hereafter rerer referred Ted med to as journal historyo Hist history january g 7 and l8o march lao 80 4frederick cfrederick piercy and james kinforth linforth route from liverpool to great salt 9.9 lake vailey valley londona londons Londont franklin do richards publisher ab b 8 0 WNW 3journal journel hist hi

51 I Iss it not possible poisible that some of the irish joined the mormons iri lri irl sh j coined 39 while crossing asing the atlantic ocean fall of feudalism As will be shown shom later one great factorf 9.9 ractor inhibiting the mormon missionaries in ireland during the first decade was the tight control the landlords held over their ariah iriah tenants even to the point of dictating religious policies 0 investigators of mormonism Mormonian in that country excomunicat ion lon if were held under the double threat of eviction and excoianunication they indicated 4cated interest inthe mormons doctrin or their doctrineo doctrines during daring darlng the years of the fanine ranine famines famineq howver the landlords began to lose their grip on rentpovers fled fied ried their tenants as the rentpiyers f the country and feudalism declined dedinedo dedi uncair in 870 an act was passed protecting tenants from unfair evictions and eleven years later the three F 0 was enacted fair rents fixityf J of 52 Ireland tenure and free sale but at that time half of irelands s productive acres was still owned by only 750 men63 although the loss of control was gradual the mormon missionaries in ireland benefited from the famine in that the irish gradually emerged as their own landholders and were det their thereby able to determine emine own religious preferences admittedly 0 mormonism in ireland did not prosper to the degree that it did elsewhere in britain but one can only guess gaess the result today had feudalism tenant or the landlordtenant relationship continued as it was prior to the fa mineo minco manee bo vo francis lf rancis hackett ireland A studyy in nationalism new N yorks wo huebsch publisher yorld horld and its people ea 2the athe world e2oele ogo 280 cito cato 98 0 olo 080 3hackett shackett og cito 77 q

52 ho 40 in these three wayss wayes then them the famine affected the mormons and the irish the irish were forcedf to emigrate to other parts of britain where some joined the mormon church the author aiso also0 believes that as the genealogies of the british members of the church are traced many maxw marv will be of irish birth or descents 2 mormon emigration agents began shipping irish am &s and ca c3 shipp as well as church members from britain due to the economic disruption caused by the famine in ireland 3 economicdition the landlord domination of tenants lessened thereby allowing mormon missionaries more religious freedom freedon it was the beginning of the end f of feudalism in irelando

53 CHAPTHR CHAPTER IV SECOND mormon MOBMON wa mii mil waa CAMPAIGN GN IN DELAND IRELAND the normon mormons a first attempt to gain converts in ireland had just gotten under way darlng daring during the isltosm f 840 when the famine temporarily inter- joao rupted their work woao little missionary naly nazy work was accomplished after the fanine famine until l80o tn presi in that year franklin do D richards mission preb president in britain was aware of the tha lack of progress in ireland and he commented in the millennial star this auntry country has lng ing ang been bow bom a few years has been bhe bem an oppressed nation acene of appalling judg and for ments mentz c for thescene lung judgments nentz such as famine unto starvation an entire depopulation lx starvatim and pestilence that has threatened in alx certain portions of irelando these being the welcome messengers of relief to thousands who were lingering out a hopeless existence as to any thing better in this life bound vip vap Vuip authority and subject in mamy teir tenatedhomes opinions the greater part in papal papai p many ways to immediate expulsion from homes if they ventured to change their religious it has hitherto been very difficult to establish the doctrines of present revelation among ume mue the part people toe peopleo peopled at several different times efforts have been made in the vicinity of belfast and a few have been added to the church a part of whom idiom whon were turned out of employment because of their faith raith ralth and aid ald mid were obliged to flee to england giand toy roc fogland ftgland for toc ror subsistence 0 ID 0 0 while signal displays of godr godf a power has been frequently manifested among his people in other portions of great britain many of the saints have looked upon ireland with pity and wishfully wondered when her noble sons and daughters would be aroused from their slumber of ages and come up to the help of the lord against the mighty ilfe life receive again that lif which has been hid with christ in LIgod days and engage in the establishment of zion in the last deyso deyse with this introduction president presidenb Pre richards announced that mission-aries had returned to ireland for a new campaign and the church leader milennial millennial Milen millennialnial star ste XII XTI hi 4

54 42 added it w s 0 is earnestly hoped the present may prove the dawning vining islej of a better day to the seed of promise in the emerald Isle ibie imlej isle tii iii missionaries return to belfast on june mers lers 850 elders eiders herb gilbert clements and john lindsay arrived in belfast to revive the mormon work they found the church me- bers mbers in ita ila tta very dead lukewarm lukewmbaim balm stalke LL in llin ina lna inaanuch inasamich eamich as the branch had been completely disorganized during the previous six monthso montoso so clements stated that the saints were wandering about like sheep without a shepherd life2p having no guide to lead themin chemin the way of eternal lifeo difeo ea A month later the two belfast missionaries reported to president richards that they had one great disadvantage 5 the belfast branch had no public place for borshi worship lp elder clements stated they had rechifled rectified the problem as nally naily they had obtained a commodious chapel on king street formally fox occupied by the Bapti baptists ats the missionary also detected something else which had been detrimental to the mormon efforts in ireland he noted there is one grandcause why the gospel has not taken firm hold in this country namely many who have been sent to preach the gospel have done many things so incompatible with our most re holy religion ion lon that their conduct has had the most baneful influence upon manywho were examining our doctrines33 doctrines although didnot didiot clements did nob not mention exactly what had been done to inhibit the progress an elder a few years earlier reuben hedlock bedlock Hed had reported the unwise teachings s of some of our inexperienced neeper 3 elders keeps lab me iab continually employed to prevent the wrath and indignation of bido ibid millennial star XII HI 80 3jbido id 850s

55 43 the government from being let loose upon us usl asl ubl ubi it is possible that this was the grand cause the mormons had had difficulty in establishing the church prior to850 l80 80 in Irel irei irelando irelcind ednd kind within a month the two missionaries in the belfast area toured their area and clements remarked I have visited a small branch of the church at hyde park a village six miles from belfast there are seven members including two priests all ail I in good standing and rejoicing there is another branch at kilachey Ki ten belcast abt consisting miles from belfast 9.9 one priest all in good standings belfast branch numbers about thirtythree three members including rour four elders three priests and one teacher checa chera chere we can scarcely find out onethird of belfast branchy it lt O0 has become so scattered and disorganlzeda disorgarnzed in the work of god 0 0 em of six members including third the 2 at the conclusion of the report however elder demerits indicated that he had succeeded in bringing the saints together and after much preaching and teaching the members were beginning to feel and enjoy the inthe ifthe sweet influence of the spirit of god first missionaries to dublin f contemporary with vith the departure of clements and lindsay for belfast was that of elders sutherland and bowering bawerd bawer3 0 to dublino elder edward sutherland was a native of dublin who had emigrated to london 9.9 joined the mormon church and later was assigned to preach the gospel in the dublin region regiouo regious arriving in the city the middle of june sutherland stated he was surprised to find ind how little ittle was knowl f c it known ty by the citizens of dublin about the mormon church he adopted a plan to remedy tare the situation and posted notices in the city announcing a public lecture lee iee Mormoni on mormonismo sno the word soon got around that the mormons had arrived in manuscript luanusce history of the british mission 842 iet let millennial star XII e2

56 hh 44 dublin and the lecture wasattended wab was attended by toy boy several hundred irate iridi irish aridi according to sutherland many thought I should have been killed the disturbance was so great at the close of the meetings but bat however the god of heaven in whose work I was engaged protected ay life 0 my life ilfe siti biti ill ttl 0 on september sutherland managed to organize a branch in dublin verts consisting of six onverts inverts most of whom were relatives 2 the first reception the mormon elders encountered in dublin was typical of cf those which followed during the next two years As might not be supposed however much of the opposition came not from the many catholics in that vicinity but rather from the protestant college3 minority located at trinity collegea 3 of the latter group sutherland related the difficulties with which I have had to contend have been considerable I tl have beena 0 0 beenj tossed about with bigotry and prejudice on every hand4 handtt4 handa he then commuted cobbasnteds commnted we have had the attendance of several divinity students lyt from trinity college occasionally but we should be surprised if they were to keep quiet gentlemen from the college waited on me last week a deputation of six and were met at ny my lodgings by myself and brother Bove bowering ringe we had an interview with them for three hours we treated them as gentlemen on the one hand and as boys bays on the other not knowing their right hand from their wheir left they soon found there is more truth in Iformonism mormonism ibm than they were aware of they were anxious to have a public discussion acu scuassion ssion at firat first but they went vent away without making any arrangements to that effect for several weeks past they attended our weeknight neet meetingsa for no other object but to prevent us worshipping in peace last night a large number of the students came andbefore the meeting had been long commenced you would have thought that the powers of hell had been let loose to continue the meeting was impossible and the libid lljbd bibid 320 candrew 2andrew jenson church chronos chronology ope 9 3church achurch news september 4 96 str 4millennial star ste XIV igo opo cit boo loo

57 45 u to all appearances aces fury appearsaceb could only be appeased by tearing me to pieces but te however the lord preserved me and the brethren that were with me till at length through the aid elear clear of the police the hall was cleared characterized our weeknight ede edw meetings the commencement of our persecition persecution hand hendo similar for several weeks past proceedings have and we try to console ourselves by expecting we are only have to meet it on every hando on3v in for I believe we shall sutherlands successor in dublin gilbert gubert clements I continued to encounter utle uuie atie the ttie students from trinity college on march the report latter elder reported edt on sunday evening last our meeting was completely broken up devlia we used every gentle by a mob full of the spirit of the devils means possible to keep them quiet but all in vain the greatest excitement prevailed the police at length arrived and we charged the principal ringleader who said he was a gentleman tt a BA boai boan boli beai of trinity college 0 I regret to say the mob was so large and the excitement so great that the officers did not take 9.9 himo hino all attempts to proceed with the meeting were fruitless for the greatest confusion prevailed one young man not thae a member of the church got his mouth severely cut because he spoke out against the conduct of these ruffians the police at length cleared the hall the mob leaving playing the kentish firen2 firenz at the conclusion of this particular disturbance the gentie genk gentle- gentle man from trinity college informed inforiaad inforned inc clements clenents ttee that a committee atee had been organized in dublin expressly for the purpose of driving the mormons out of the city and that they were in correspondence with groups with similar goals in JM england and wales anti of all the antimormons mormons I ever ihave saw ft clements concluded and I have seen a great many those of dublin jtb jt3 ott 03 oii seem to be preeminently eminently wicked they would almost a shame the devil himself o3 mission president S we richards expressed the same sentiments 0 llo lio millennial star XV 83 l o bido

58 46 during daring darlng this period in correspondence to brigham young when he declared If ireland ifireland in the region of dublin like the gaddiantons Gaddi 0.0 antons of old have turnedout sworn eternal immunity to the progress of the work those who have received it have been turned out of cf doors ty IV their theyx husbands and fathers tbreatenedl and their lives threatened mormon difficulties in dublin were not limited to opponents from trinity college the missionaries obtained a small office orrice orf off building at 42 no U aungier street to establish a bookstore for selling their pamphlets and other church publications this they reported to their rai ral mis- i s sion president during march but in august five months later a bok second letter pertaining to the bookstore followed a sad misfortune 0 0 e mia mls happened to our book depot 0 A f fire rire lre broke out in the paperh paperap anger s next I door and burned the establishment to the grounds the crowd as they are always officious on such an occasion rushed in and threw out books tractsv stationery etc&q etc into the streete many booksh books2 were unfit for use the loss was considerable after three years proselyting in southern ireland the mormons had established five small branches with a combined membership of fifty six there was the traveling branch at athlone kings county fifty- si xo it King I s consisting of a number of soldiers belonging to the 62nd regiment stationed in soul southern ireland in gurteen qurteen garteen near tullamore bullamore Tullamore kings county elder sutherland had converted cbnverted his parents to mormonism and gilen at rathkeale Rath in the vicinity of Llimerick riek another soldier elder alien zilen allen of the luth regiment helped convert a few of the irish to mormonismo Mormoni an smo elder sutherland had also spent some time in carrickmacross garrickmacross t 9.9 ireland and had gained five converts in that area most of the church members nem sem berb journal history of thechurch july millennial star XV cl

59 47 however q in southern ireland wer vere mere irelaad in the city of dublin in most of the normon ier ler left for ror mormon missionaries in ireland lert left america limed timed contimed contin and the work continued continmed under the direction of a local member patrick lynch A year later on june he attended conference in england and gave the following remarks ireland I cannot give a very flattering account of the church in moien toien molen I went number fiftyseven some sow sol have emigrated 9.9 rcrimean then vent to the dublin conference it was said to members hom hew now there are but twenty seven some have gone to the eastern war lcrmean3 and others have removed to other places I have applied f for leave leare to preach in the open air but have been refused the privilege the conference is in debt and the religious ministers use AH & ail all their influence against us z at the same conference elder eider kider lynch reported that in all of ireland there braae brame ifaere were six branches bremehogs bramehots gt 67 fl.67 members and that sixteen had emigrated since the firstf arst of theyear aftvft 4 3 luw IVW unknown to the irish leader ive f at that time however rive five 9.9 to go to ireland on a missione lve elders in salt lake city had been appointed james B bo ferguson on april at general conference in utah elders john D do to T Allister mcallister Me james bond matthias cowley and john croston were vere assigned as missionaries to ireland in addition james B ferguson 4 a native of ireland was appointed to accompany them as the presiding 5 be 4 elder arriving in britain during the latter part of july elder milennial Milen millennial nial star XIV q 270 and IV 7 83 l83 ili ihl ibi lul 4 lubo lu2o o 2millennial star XVI 9.9 l8ul laul 854s 467 3marsei2t manuscript history of thae the whe british mission jume jute juns 30 30s louo l8uo 854a 46ee see biography on page skate B carter heart throbs of the west estq III I loi ill 0000 loo lolo 0 9.9

60 us 48 ferguson met patrick lynch who mho was still presiding in ireland on july the new missionary from utahs jaaes james janes jaees ferguson 2 wrote 0 0 e I received my appointment yesterday as pastor of ire lreland a whole hearted irish man as president of one of the the church in ireland to assist me I have brother patrick lynch conferences fifteen years the work the reports from ireland are enough to discourage stouter hearts than minee ninee has been advocated ini ireland and yet there we are not saints enough eng4glythere to redeem brother patli patzi patnick patrick ekls ekle watch jand aua dand aum jum jingwhich xing rizjgvh ich ieh lah he pawned for aboul about three pounds to pay the rint inta int to give you an idea of his views of the prospect of the work he says that I will not be long iong ling there beaore before I will be it so thin I can sit on a cloudo cloudo the newly arrived mormon moreon missionaries wasted little time in ireland as they gained ten new converts in the first two months f and on september 23 s 854ferguson 854 ferguson reported that prospects are future2 still more encouraging for the future02 futures 2 02 indicated three weeks later that the church was increasing in faith and numbers in that he augusta kugust seventeen had joined since the first part of augusto adding that they had obtained a new meeting hall elder ferguson fergason asked for more laborers in ireland 3 with the native irishman ferguson e leading the church in his ae old country the mormon church reached a plateau in ireland during la 886 l the total membership grew to over two hundred members 855 as during the seventeen months that elder ferguson presided nearly one hundred converts were vere added to the church even though the members in letter from james janes be ferguson to ho he bo be clawson reported in the deseret news ii s 20 october p 2 tsp wms 2 millennial rn Lstar skar XVI 8549 l8u golo 3bidop ido 683

61 ireland only accounted for 3 of the mormons in britain at that time 49 ent huslastic indicative of his enthusiastic leadership was the belfast branch vehill excursion to cavehill caverhill Ca overlooking the city of belfast of the occasion missionary mcallister recorded in his journal on monday the f a mountain called cane hill sic 0 0 day following our conc conference arence we went up to 9 and when we readied ve reached the summit brother ferguson led off three times three cheers for the advancement adwan and sisters joined of mormonism and we made it echo again and again mormonism in ireland the brethren 2 during this time new hope seemed to abound throughout the eor whole whoie british mission for the establishment of Mormoni mormoniaa mormonian monian as indicated in a millennial star editorials aa in irei ireland we receive cheering accounts of the progress of the gospel from various places the laboure labours of the elders in ireland repeated efforts have been made to give the work strength and permanency the lord is greatly blessing in that land but with very limited success buc cesso a brighter day is now dawning upon erin 0 0 a0 ehg thg we 3 5 feel that two months later in august 8 the same positive attitude was indicated in a similar editorials the work in ireland moves steadily and firmly irmlyj have mch much ve and we ach faith that the elders now there will be the means of bringing many marq nany neny merv of her sons and daughters into the light and liberty of the truth and plant the seeds of eternal life there so what that future the devil will win wib not have eve pomer powerp to root that in the uture f out r the tender plants 4 g f t r with vith the upsurge of optimism and increase of manpower in ireland reabe lletter aletter from erasts history histoe Histor hiscoe r march As of december enber tbritain 5 2journal of john do to T provo utah also giso mile milde erastas snow towo flagg IT co C reported in McAllist 50 see millennial star IVII jn journal eaber 855. there were in great Dec ritain conferences 702 branches 29uul members and of those members england had wales vales ll log 4. lk ik scotland and ireland 3o ao 30 mcallisters erv BUJ special collections Tevil millennial 4manuscri t manuscript ap p star XVII history hib his of the british mission july

62 50 the mormon missionaries in the north began investigating other areas outside belfast for proselytingo proselytdngo during daring darlng the middle of 8 eiders eldersers 855 erb ferguson and bond were laboring in belfast while elder mcallister went on tour anong among gainte the scattered saints tee teo wee elder reid arrived and labored in londonderry Londonde londonde Fer and elder croston was proselyting in counties fermanagh and monaghan after samuel samel kerr arrived he began his work in counties domn down and armagho armagno As the missionaries occasionally visited dublin they found organized opposition with pamphlets from the london tract society anti an organization that published much antimormon literature literatureo literatures tureo elder james bond reported from dublin that the mormons had counteracted by organizing a mormon tract society in the city but that opportunities for spreading out very fask fast rask atare faabare re very ted here dabling dablinj dublin at the velt veit limited present yet we feel assured that the lord will direct us in gathering out the honest in heart and bring many noble sons and daughters of erin from the thraldom thralldom of priestcraft priesticraftand and bigotry to the light of the gospels qospelo 0 gospelo na n2 As a recommitment to the gospel and to mormonism all the saints in dublin and belfast were vere rebaptized during the summer of l8o 855 lao 80 3 A new branch was organized in lisburn commoney commonly commony called the word of tfisdo wisdom Tf ireland and the mormon health laws were emphasized reemphasized as tobacco smokers have resolved to qua qu3 quitt P E and put their savings there in the po ee perpetual emigration fund and those who have quit teadrinking will samee4 also put their savings in the same4 bame sameea tio tto 4 interest in emigration renewed to utah grew among the irish saints as it was reported the priesthood millennial starxvii XVII ua u4 444o 3bid 622 2ibid bibid 3490 bido 4millennial starx7iii XVIII star ha h7 470 gos 630 goo

63 5 and me members sabers sibers nabers feel alive in mormonism mormonism and from the oldest to the youngest all feel zionward and are at the present time rejoicing in the anticipation of pulling or pushing a handcart to their home in the westo westli on december 8 8 elder james Bbo ferguson was released from 855eider dbr 9.9 westoi his mission to ireland and upon his departure was presented with a silver sword from the belfast branch members branchmembers was tearfully overcome at the presentation the highly esteemed leader due largely to the efforts of elder fergason ferguson and hib hiss colleagues mormonism in irelaid irelaad ireland had passed through ss alb season flb of its most productive seasons so la l A crucial period the mormons had attained considerable success in ireland during yearb 855 and desired to maintain the momentum during the ensuing yearse this was attained the following lewing f yeaw year as nearly one hundred more converts were gained as menberah membership ap p grew to two hundred ten I a new record for the mormons in ireland reports were that prospects look brighter ame 2 Ferguson re- for ireland than they have don in years past and Fergusons fergusonss I s ss placement 9.9 john scotts gave an interesting report of mormon activities in ireland at conc conference arence held at birmingham england on july 2 86 when brothers jaaes janes those who worked with them leftt jmaes ferguson and J do D T mcalister mcauister lert ireland they left things in a flourishing condition th rui ful rul things are moving nicely along there has been added to the church in the north of ireland Irel irei armm airi arki about 30 persons since our last report the spirits drit arit pa andfeelings of the saints are good those of the clergy about as we expect them against alnst uss the jacjbive rae rac tiv saints in irelands in the conferences ances ences number about iso 0 sica to mcalllster ister and 8560 and I am thankful to be able to say that pretty severe whe belfastand wid aid and wad dublin 50 or 60 sic3 things are going libid bibid bid 2bidp mao id john ajohn scott reported only 0 50 iso to 60 members which is probably an estimation of the active membership as there were a number excommunicated during this same time the records indicate there were 20 members in 8560

64 52 Tra elder an american mis- well in the north of ireland there are not so many catholics therej therea and aad consequently we get along better there than about dublin we have only one elder in the mission who may with propriety be called a traveil travelling can sionary rather than an irish members and od he is under elder james jamss jansss mcghee president of the tile euie belf belr beir ast abl conference arence eele belfast asl I know there has been and is a spirit abroad respecting the irish something akin to that entertained by the apostle pelej peter petej before he had the vision of the net when he thought that there was nothing good enough for him to eat but trust I that myself and the brethren who tio laboring with me some good stuff in ireland 0 are will yet be able to show that there is I can say that I never saw manicessted consi a spirit of willingness more strongly manifested th deidn& cer the bhe circumstances and situations of the saints neither in the valleys V ays of the mountains iemer that I see in my mission Fergus and mcallister did a good work in ire- brothers ferguson Dn land and also the brethren mho nor anywhere else who were with them and all those who are there now are doing their best among a people who are poor afflicted and oppressed where the clergy and the owners of them gness doing the soil are doing their best to keep then under but the shackles are bursting and they are embracing the gospel ve have not accompt accompliied shed as much in money matters as I should like to have done but I have not had to call upon brothei brother franklin for any assistance best that thet we could oar sisters have pawned their shawls the brethren their watches md and the chairs and furniture out of the houses to keep usalong upalong ae e and ald browher brother mcghee is president I feel that I should like some one from zion to see and give us a lif t we have done the very we have a tract society boci ty lift now and then john scott also reported to president orson pratt of the british mission on october that the law of tithing had been introduced through all the mission and remarked troduced it would do your heart tit toseethem ethen them bringing in their mites and only wishing with tears good to bee that they had more to give glye p giveou2 the mormon tract society organized also in northern ireland was hundred prospering and tt spreading the written word to hundredso So in the latter part of the year mission authorities thought the work should be extended millennial star XVIII al 6l o bid sibido 699

65 53 3 on a more permanent basis outside belfast on december elder 9.9 ee T E to benson visited ireland and recommended ft n 0 0 it was deemed wisdom for brother scott to lessen his expenses in belfast and to send the elders out among the towns and villages to hunt hont out the honest in hearte such plans were halted however by a crisis that had developed in the salt lake valley in western america where the mormons had located for the previous ten years yeara yearb due doe to some misunderstandings between the mormons in the utah territory and federally ederaly appointed officials ais sent to govern them f an aray anay army andy of twentyfive hundred officers and soldiers was dispatched to utah during daring darlng the summer of 857 clestion Cuestion cuestion Questi 87 to settle the mormon questionon this began what was later referred to as the utah war As the mormons made pre- parations to meet the army a call went forth to scattered leaders to return to utah to help meet the impending crisis 0 many mormon mis- sionaries serving in the american states also began the trek towards great V ey the great salt lake valley vailey samei samuel samel we W richards was dispatched to eng land to carry instructions to orson pratt and ezra to benson of the apostles apostles quorum and all the american eldersw eiders to return homeo homee 0 himeo 2 thus the work in ireland abruptly halted as mormons in that country turned their interest and attention to the ifutah war missionary work once again declined ending the recent surge burgee burge to make matters matter6 mattera worse apostasy found its way into the dublin branch as the branch president became indifferent and a want of confidence cconf in each onf dence other grew up engendering a want of union in the whole wholoo whoie leo ieo 3 in addi lmillennialstar J millennial star XIX e roberts c2mrehensive coiqprehensive history IV 965 edo millennial star XX

66 54u tion through the intensified efforts of the mibs missionaries narles outside the 0 greater belfast area beg ame the saints in the belfast conference became nomic aily ally scattered over the ulster province and were also reported to be eco- nomically very pooro booro ler lef iert missionaries from utah lert left ireland once again in leaving the country vacated of mormon missionaries none returned until 86 leaving the irish mormons governed ty by local leadership 0 relig ous religious excitement in ireland while the mormon missionar missional les ies monnon missionaries lonar wer ionar weree absent an unusual series of events occurred in ireland beginning in 859 l89e A religious revival began which eventually attracted ministers from england scotland and as far away as america 0 the peculiar part of the excitement however was not only the large meetings held but also the unusual physical manifestations that accompanied the conversions as they were calledo reli rell reil ap I ous 9p called the liverpool daily mirror reported that n there can be few readers of newspapers unaware of the fact that the towns torns and villages in the north of ireland have for several weeks past been the scene of religious ex cit citement extraordinary in its degree and in some respects peculiar in manifestati its manifestationso manifestati0 So onsolt2 the revival extended over the larger portion of the te counties of down antrim derry tyrone and fermanagh Fer managh but was most active in the towns of belfast and londonderry it began among the presbyterians but more or less affected all protestant sects and ministers as evidenced fasts in a huge assembly of ten thousand people which gathered at belfasts belfast9s Bel bei libid bibid bido 6a6it2o ghi gilen wilen 2millenni milennial millennial Milen r star ster nial S l89 XXI see whole article on pages

67 55 botanic gardens to engage in a public devotional the church houses were crowded not only on sundays but also on weekdays days and in the rural areas gigantic prayer meetings were held buty according to butt reports ixed f that which more than anything else fixed axed attention of this religious excitement is doubtless the physical manifestations by which it has been in many places accompaniedtt accompaniedi i at a meeting lda zae eting ida at portrush Por the people were sitting close together thick as bees to the aber zber naaaber of with their bibles bibie s in their hands H and at a similar service the hundreds who had to remain outside the church were addressed by both ministers and laymen in very earnest language in the church and amongst those in the street the number brought under conviction was extraordinary and the cries of those penitents could be heard at considerable distance those who became completely exhausted and there were beveral severalwere carried home ty by friends who were present parties of men would be seen passing in almost every street conveying their fellowmen fellommen fei lowmen lommen in a state of utter physical prostration to their residencesa indivi- residence duals who were not so much weakened were taken a short distance from the church and on the footpath in the adjacent streets prayer was engaged in with and for them and many of them returned to their houses rejoicing 2 another minister wrote that f exhaustedand f or our meetings sometimes present a scene of great confu- so people think that they know nothing about the sion movemento movements mento you can easily imagine what a noise it makes when fifty or a hundred men women and children begin to cry out in the most heartrending accents for mercye the physical phenomena are very startling they lose all bodily strength said snid anid attentione attentions lone lono fail fall fali down and end require much kind attention 3 the manchester weekly times said of the phenomena ltanother remarkable thing e0 a0 is the physical manifestation produced ty by this religious excitements mento excite there manifest are great varieties in these manifestation at manifestantlons manifestationso ionso 4 ibid 3bid bid 2jbid id 4ibid9 ibid

68 566 describing incidents in the town of ballymena Ballymena the same newspaper commented verty verts connerty converty verti great A number of convicts reconverts Econ and neighborhood are tt smitten ttswitten down 0 0 from in this town as suddenly and they fall nerveless and paralyzed and powerless as if killed instantly by a gunshot they fall fail fali with a deep groan some with a wild cry of horror the greater number with the intensely earnest plea lord jesus have mercy on my soul t the whole frane trembles like an aspen leaf and an intolerable weight is felt upon the chest a sudden choking sensation is experienced and aad relief from this is found only inn the loud urgent prayer for deliverance the perspira tion rolls off the anguished victims their hair is moistened there is no appetite for food man will win eat nothing for a number of days they do not sleep though they may lie with their eyes shuto bhut shut so the engi english newspaper also reported that they itthey itchey tg the converth convertg converts were relygions include of all religions calvinists arians roman catholics includedo do f ar prayer meetings were held during the night and far into the early morning it all through the year persons continued to be struck even aboard steamboats at railway stations in the streets and even in the parl ittaproom parlours it as re the revival va v val vai spread to nearly the whole of ulster these scenes reflected a religions religious climate of the time in which many truth lruth people were very earnestly seeking the trothe troths truthe the old testament prophet amos had described such a state of affairs when he prophesied behold the days come saith the lord god that I will send not a renine famine ranine lne of bread nor a thirst for but of hearing thewords whe of the lordo from fron sea to sea and from ron north even a famine in the land water and arid arld they shall wander fro from to the east they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the lord and shall not find it in that dw day thirst 2 f am dav shall the fair virgins and young men faintf raint for in contrast to the general religious excitement in ireland progress of monnon church was discouraging in l89o the mormon in lipide libide abid 8 tbid bamos 2amos

69 57 7 few converts thomas ward a local member representing the church in ireland 9.9 gave a rather dismal report of the church in ireland at conference at birmingham england in said he I will do my best to give you a true representation of the irish mission it has its own peculiarities the saints there very well be visited are very much scattered and cant very vely in consequence of some part pact of the families being out of the church this is the case in a great many instances they cant attend meetings there is no real organization of the church in that mission with the exception of one or tro places e t there are two conferences in the dublin conference there are only 3 members altogether the saints in the belfast conference are more scattered than in the dublin many of them are unable to be visited except now and then when some opposed to us are out of the way som sol who are in this conference they have not done so much as it would seem the church has a right to expect englana englandj Englan englanc that is done in this country in the mission there are some good saints according to what yet men who are really doing the best they can some of our brethren in the lurgan burgan district have only been earning six or seven shillings at the best of times and of course out of this they have had to exist they are chiefly weavers and they get their work out by the web they have to make up their tithing aid aad ald and when it is done this of course does not leave much for the penny fund their position isi s very vely hard and can scarcely be realized except by an eyewitness this is about a fair representation of the work in ireland since there were no missionaries in ireland during curing the years there were vely few converts in either the belfast or dublin conferences during august 860 two elders from england visited ireland and conaaented ed that they felt to sympathize with the saints in ireland on account of the many unfavorable circumstances by which they were surrounded 2 one year later the belfast branch president claimed that while he had served in that capacity from january to april lmillennial imillenn star XXI XXE imil lenn lann iann ial lal lai l millennial star syer un 860 tho the XXH 860 buo 574 7uo

70 that ftocay ocly 30 had been baptized and that another 20 had been excom- municated bated during the same period the bie ble church membership in ireland de dined to seventy seven mission and except for occasional visits from missionaries in england with the irish mormons had very little contact nith with the church jac ob G jacob go bigler B on july leider lelder jacob Qgo bigler from nephi utah was transferred from england to asb abbist ta ireland to assist the local leadership shl ap p leadershi and to do as much missionary work as possible being the only missionary he visited the branches in londonderry and dublin and but few faithful members in those localities after appraising the progress of mormonism in ireland he reported during october that the work of the lord does not appear to flourish so much yet we are increasing in scult in this country as in many others numbers slowly hear us 5I it is a difficulticult matter to get people to they all seem to be on guard day daf and night each one partyspirit guarding his party or creed there is a powerful religious party here between the different religious denominations and many battles have been fought and much mach blood shed and the spirits of those who have been slain in these religious struggles are prompting and binding their parties 0 whenever we can get the password and get by their is all well truths s but d bial when doetri our doctrines neis are arne trlneib fhy thy are scriptural P scriitural en they find that it is momon doctrine they hordof wordof watch word mordis vordis do not believe a word of it a new watchword again2 hands are on guard a gain 2 arle good kheir guards is it given and all ail ali the irish missionary reg reported arted similar conditions four months later in conference when he stated the saints are few in number in the whole mission containing but about 00 who are scattered over the ullen blien milennial millennial Milen star millennial nial XXIII l86l millennial star 3 XXIU 86 l86l 69

71 59 londonderryi ttli country from cork to londonderry iti iii he also said there were strong desires among the irish saints to emigrate but that their economic status prevented them at that time elder bigler nemai remainedin nemalnedin remained ireland less than a year and returned to england in may 862 before sailing for home he made a return visit to belfast lurgan burgan and dublin the religious bigotry he said was as tias dense as a london fog and later recorded in his hib bis bib journals am pwtealy really sorry for IT the few saints in irelando truly to be pitied they are in the depthe depths of poverty the suf euf eurfering they are majority of them are suffering from want cf food and clothing clotiilng and ate are ra r6 surrounded with religious superstition and hypocr- bcri bigotry and pridea prided itical religion athe f 0od after shortly arter after bigler s return visit membership I merib ershi arshi mesbership in ireland feli fell eil fif to a scant afif fifty fiveasthe lve mormons undoubtedly became discouraged with their progress in that country ireland as patmos As the mormon church began once again to wane in ireland there arose some skeptician ian among mormon missionaries about ireland and the irish receiving the gospel after jacob G bigler had given a report of his labors in ireland daring airing 862 president george ao qo Q cannon of elss mission the british mission lon presidency chastised the missionaries ssionaries attending the conferences and on that day january the church leader gave an optimistic sermon on the mormons and the irish when he said baldt baid I will say a few words about the fields fields that dlfferent different elders have to labour in I was very pleased to hear the report glien lmillennial milennial Milen nial star XXIV jacob G B er jacob go bigler diary and life sketch of jacob go billero biglero located at utah state historical society 603 & east south temple salt lake city utah microfilm goy 505

72 60 agier ler of brother bigler B3g and to see the spirit that animated him concerning field of labour somebody asked after he Dbigler was sent to orelind irelaid irelind Ire lre what he had done to be exiled there the question was raised in consequence of a false notion that has taken possession of the elders eidersers erb that some nations are to receive the gospel and others to reject it ireland has been supposed to be a hard field and the irish to possess very vezy little of the blood of ephraim iri lri sh and if an elder has been sent there he has been looked upon as having received some kind of cf sentence of transportation e I would like to see this narrow contracted notion dispelled from the minds of the elderse eider president elderee so it is true that president br ham 854that 9 brigham young said in IS that those nations where the apostles in early times laboured east indies this dispensation gospel then labour and were slain kil kii kli such as the would be the last to receive the gospel in in consequence of their rejection of the and their killingg the saviour and his apostles the descendants of the inhabitants of these lands where they suffered and were persecuted will ceive lve vill be the last men to re ceide the truth in this age but we have no reason to suppose that the countries of western europe are included among those to whom this has reference and if they were nhat what right have we ve to say that thewelsh and scotch will receive salvation and the irish be condemned to damnation ethno etheo legists all agree in saying that they are all descendants of one common stock the old celtic raceo maceo 9.9 we learn that wales was peopled by the cymry a branch of the old celtic stock having a common origin with the and the inhabitants of the highlands of scotland have undoubled undoubtedly sprung ike irish 7 from that stock as the irish what is the reason then that they have not received the gospel in ireland as they have in wales and scotland the reason is obvious because they have not been surrounded by as favourable able abie circumstances I jmdterstand understand there are more saints in glasgow and in western scotland who are ar6 irish ish f and im of irish extraction than there are of scotch and this proves that they are susceptible of the truth when then circumstances are favourable able for their receiving ito it is not for us to charge pree e existent state as the cause why they anything done in a preexistent have not embraced en the gospel as readily as some other nations and it is folly for us to try and account for it in this manner 0 I do not want any such notions cast around me I look at the people here and see that england and scotland have been favoured avoures f by circumstances and if I could see ireland in the same position that wales is in JM would receive the gospel the f I have every thae same sambs evely confidence that the irish as the welsh or any other portions of the celtic race have done though not exactly the same in ireland as in france still ciroumstances cireumstances peopleis plets having a chance to receive the circumstances militate strongly against the peoples trutho orangemen and ribboniaen ribbonman Ribbon ribbonmen nen have rent the people asunder in two great rival factions and with bitter animosity against each actions f other watch with jealous eye any attempts to make proselytes from the ranks of either and in thousands of instances where the people would receive the truth they have the alternative of

73 6 if they em- remaining as they are or in houseless poverty brace the gospel for they would be turned out of doors and out of employment if they dared to exercise free thought and openly receive the truths my ity lee leb object in making these remarks undersund undersound bund sund that wherever an elder may be called is that we may understand to labour consolations ill vawil he will enjoy the spirit of god and becalled beballed aad its cheering bef beaore if he walks humbly and uprightly before him and I am satisfied that jacob bigler can enjoy in his labours laboure among the downtrodden domn oppressed precions and be the recipient of as precious t irish as much of that spirit blessings as any greater claim to the blessings of god 0 0 I do not wish vish to hear any such sach bach buch talk about the irish or french being under the ban and view the I irish ra r existent state 0 of heaven for something they have done in a preexistent it is all nonsense for us in our present condition to talk of this matter they seem to ta be cherished as pet views by some and I do not wish us to hug any such little narrow views to our bosoms let us as discard them tfaem then french english Amer aner zmer americans leans ieans etc as gods children made in the image of our father and god and the recipients of his bounteous blessings 0 it is a miserable contracted view to tie a man down to a little spot of earth and measure his born worth by the place where he was bom unworthy of servants and sons of god of men who have been sent forth to preach de liverance to the captive and bear salvation to the nations that they may emerge from the gloom of ignorance which now enshrouds them to bask in the sunlight of eternal trutho I care not what a mans marl mari mani manb Is origin may be so long as he keeps the commandments of god for are we not sent to preach the gospel to every nation but when a man entertains the idea that certain nations are fated to receive and certain nations are fated rated to reject the gospel should he be sent to one of f the latter all his efforts would be paralyzed and his faith killed by the views he entertains brethren pure and holy in all things my desire is to see my ever gaining extended views of our relationship to god whole oie f whole whoie family amily of man to each other and to the irish mission closed in spite of president cannons camons remarks mormon progress in ireland gradually came caro calo to a halt between 863 and branch presidents dubiin tbeīr robert brown of dublin and john reid of belfast put forth their belr oheir best efforts in vain to keep their small groups organa orgara organized i and functioning 0 the millennial star XXIV millennial XHV

74 62 few saints in dublin less than twelve held their meetings for a ln meet gs short time until the members either emigrated or lost interest in the in church that sane same saue year 863 john reid beid beld reported from belfast this season has been vezy severe on the brethren here for work without exception I had to bring the saints to meet in ny not being able to pay hall rent we have not had work half the time my house on account of but they are feeling well and intend by the help of god to do their duty 0 he here iriesteraft we have had priestcraft in all its horrors te contend with on october elder george halliday visited ireland for thirteen days and met with each member of the churcho charcho thereafter he reported the total number of latterday latker latler saints in ireland does not exceed forty and they are very wry much scatteredoft aft oft ant 2 he also relayed the desire of the irish saints to have a It missionary itmissionary from zion in their midst however mission leaders felt otherwise and ty by december the irish mission had been geographically reorganized and was in i n trict eluded in the bristol england district dle die brict which ant meant that affairs I for ror affa rs for istered ireland would be administered bistered from bristol 3 two years later in 86 editorial lal lai an editorial in the milennial millennial Milennial star declared ireland is a dead beat 865 those who desire persecution have only to declare themselves latterday day saints and the multitudes are more relentless in their pursuit than if they were chasing mad dogs4 thomas alien allen ailen from belfast ireland claimed on august that the work there was at a standstill distill and that there were only about at tianuscript history of the british mission lmanuscei isto miss de 2t H millennial star XXVII manusclipt ion lon december manuscript history of the british mission august 26 l86o

75 63 thirty members one month later mission president charles W penrose sailed for ireland reland areland and on october 25 held a conference with the belc belfast abt saints apparently he thought it best for the saints to emigrate irl lri iri sh and close the irish mission as by the end of both the dublin and belfabt belfast conferences were di scon beontiled timed scont scant seon mlued aed 2 few the few remaining church members were placed under the immediate mediate jurisdiction of the british mission presidency sionaries brit and except for occasional visits from church leaders and missionaries in britain there was little contact with the irish members in 8673 the second mormon campaign in ireland formally ended and for twenty years the emerald isle had no mormon missionaries from utah lmanuscript historyof of the british mission august candrew 2andrew jenson encyclopedic quesa history 0f of the church of jebus jesus day saints ophite 368 latterd christ of latterday dard ditoh ditox

76 CHAFTER CHAPTER V IRISH MORMON PIONEERS IN UTAH there were several nonmormons mormons during daring darlng the nineteenth century who claimed there was one nation immune to mormonism one race of people nho who moman faith raith ralth f would not embrace the momon that nation and race was boastfully irish declared to be the irisho after salt lake city had been established and the influx of immigrants began nonmormons non declared there were no irish latterday saints in utah hugh quigley western american historian stated the irish race wab was the only european people who contributed no recruits to towas twas coined the mormon community he also noted there were very few of the irishmen who joined the mormons utq uta in 3 n utah womanill maniti manili and not a single irish woman john taylor who had baptized the firstf finst convert in ireland moved to new york in 8 and started a newspaper titled e mormono mormino Mormono 855 the on august he wrote news- ve paper congratulating we noticed a week or two ago the irish american congratulate his countrymen that not one genuine congratulatl hibernian irishmanit had ever arrived in castle garden with the mormon emigrants sometime tine before that we saw a small paragraph in different exchange paperin paperi6 paperifllesut j only seven mor ireland it would seem there is something aw- mons in all irelando fully terriblen riblen for utaho itaho 2 expected aot abot if the land of peat bogs was vacated hugh quigley the C coast san francisco ao A roman and company 878 au 5u atee atme theirish irish race in california andon the pacific 2the athe mormon II noo 25s august john taylor edo on file at the church historians office salt lake city utaho itaho 5u6 64 6

77 65 after his comment elder taylor published the following article wiich which had appeared in a contemporary newspaper tnt9 oad lad among the many thousands of mormons who come to this coun- UAW try we do not bei believe belleve leve there has been anyone who belonged to irl lri iri sh their ireland the elders do not obtain any converts among the irish nor do their doctrines find favor A well known irish gentleman in new york has in vain tried to detect an irishman or woman among the many mormons who have entered castle garden au on saturday last 70 sic 6u mormons were landed at S3 c 764 the depot from the ship thornton most of them having been sent out at the expense of the mormon emigrant fund them english scotch welsh jerseymen jerseyman Jer danes this he saw among and swedes in great numbers and at last thought he detected a solitary paddy walking up to him he inquired his name john daley sir he repliede repliedi repile ft are you an irishmanlt lt troth I am the sana sasa sane sanb your honor ti he continued assuming a tone of rebuke are you mormon mormons too louis with an air of exquisite drollery he whisper faith it have havo you any money I dvir mvir 4ivir a hapnyo haptnytf falth I am not but 9.9 I bl then itthen itchen and leave them there therco cherco indade andade In sir bir si rs I I oll ve lave im think ill lii oii whispered eds bat you see I wanted ny my passage lve ive been wid I cm loong tem cm and be off at wanst lem bests wests you had better go with them to the west aire alre em too loong already acly waasttf to sto ste and of the article cogent it edp is a good story well told but taylor coment commented apity amity it isnt trueo2 truen2 truend similar charges were made in britain on taesdayseptember tuesday september 885 the london daily chronicle contained an editorial claiming that prior to that date no Ititnative innative of the green isle ireland had made his appearance in salt lake city as a believer in momnonismo mosaonisffio two days later an article headed irish in salt lake city appeared in the same newspaper signed by mr peter oleary affirming the editorial of the previous tuesday mr oleary claimed to have been in salt lake city at the time tib tin of brighaa brighta youngs s I funeral j and found many irish in 9 mormon the mormo loo 00 loa ioa cito cite cibo 2bido ebido ibido I

78 66 utah ut not one was a member of the mormon church but gay by the end of the century centary many way gny meny people outside utah were still convinced there were no arlah latter irish irlah latterday saints day in utah in 90 igo 905 the dephia philadelphia Phila north publia an article explaining american publiaed publillhed ifwhy there are no irish mormons cormons Mor the article claimed theaprior tbt thea prior to brigham youngs youngb s death he was interviewed by a newspaper reporter named n d bucky itbuclqr Neill cneill kelii Ot among the questions he was reported to have asked the mormon leader was cormons why were there no irish among the mormonst mormonist Mor monst brigham youngs purported reply was reported as follows after the church was organized a number of mormon missionaries were sent to ireland to select a man who could be counted upon to exercise converting influence upon his countrymen the man picked was named branigan who joined the church and returned with the missionaries to 9.9 america but upon arriving in new york he refused to go any further unless he was made a deacon brigham young was telegraphed about the matter and aad gave his permission for the ordination ationo at omaha onaha 9.9 branigan wanted to be made an eider eldera this also was conceded after arriving in salt lake city olty he demanded to be made a bishop to which the chimich chwch chimch leaders reluctantly agreed shortly thereafter one of the apostles died and branigan announced himself as a candidate for the vacant apostleship hipo he stated that unless he was ordained there would be no converts among the irish he was therefore ordained as one of the elven chosen twelven thelven eiven bucky rrted cneill reported arted that president young said not long after this incident that Braa branigan announced his candidacy for the office of church president as soon as the position was available he was therefore 9.9 ullen milennial millennial Milen star nial 3 ZLVII millennial slae ILVII

79 67 sent to california so the story stated to collect the tithes from church members and to convert the california irish to mormonism after being there a year and forwarding no tithes the church leaders wrote to him pertaining to the money he replied Ass for the tithes I have anagene been collecting them as anagent agent of the lord I have only this to say the lord can have them any time he calls upon me roe moe for them til ill tii irl iri ahmen shmen the article claimed that branigan died a wealthy man in california ornie and d from that time according to brigham young no irishmen 7.7 s fornia it were admitted to the church nor asked to enter ito 2 f rom the story was supposedly passed from bucky oneill to the secretary of the navy mr eorma morua who after arter oxe one after cneajjjss death released phila lia lla a the firstf newspaper the information to the philadelphia north amerl imeri american articie article artl to print the articleo articles other cleo newspapers reproduced the account and and after it had been widely circulated the mormon deseret news replied there was just one defect in it there is not a line or word of truth in the whole narrative 06 n the mormon newspaper further stated in 90 igo that there are quite a number of irish people in the mormon church the fervant faithful narrative06 ne aper 905 aithful irish members mobers wembers f ir sh of nobers some f vooz idiom vhoz are in utah and others in ireland scotland and various parts of europe are living witnesses f to the falsity of the gist of the article review g ist which is the assertion that ythere are n no irish momonstt4 mcmaonso4 to substantiate the claim that luthere ltthere theclaim people in the mormon churchw there are quite a number of irish people deop churche the following nameba comp led nanes have been compiled of over 2 25 irish men and aad Vwewee mosk most of whom whon immigrated to utah between ideseret news igo e hews salt lake city february bido 3bido ebido 4bido ibid

80 and 867 as irish mormon pioneers while the compilation is by scans neans ubans meens complete no means it does indicate that there were irish converts in the church who made valuable contributions to the establishment of mormonism furthermore many of their descendants are latterday saints t at the present time some of the more prominent ones are mentioned in this chapter and md the rest will be included in appendix C church leaders charles adams charles adams was born bora in hillsborough county down ireland on september his plenus william and mary leech adams accepted iert lef ler f or the gospel and lert left for america ia in december 843 they arrived in nauvoo and remained there until the general exodus in 846 l8u6e in 849 they crossed the plains to the great salt lake Vvalley vailey aliey and one year later they started with vith president george A smitht snith s pioneer company for parowan carowan Pa iron county tuy ountyj where they arrived in january 850 charles grew to manhood in parowan carowan and led lived there the remainder of his difeo lifeo in and 866 he returned heretarned east to mormon settlements as a lif e church teamster to help bring immigrating saints to the valleyo vailey vallebo he was also president of the 69th 69tb quorum of seventies bishops s counselor bishop for seventeen years lere and a councilor iero ioro in community affairs he served as a county assessor eounty eowrty bounty commissioner conm coim ssioner loner sstoner parowan carowan city council- civ man and mayor later during 892 he was a member of the house of re- presentatives stockral stockdal stockraiser krar kral stoc asere osere charles adans adams was also a successful farmer merchant aid aad ald landrew andrew jenson bon blogrmh biographical encyclopedia ic zcl2pedia salt lake city utah al enc deseret news 90 I 534 Is

81 69 charles A callis gallis charles A callis was born bora borm may in dublin ireland son of john callis calus caius and susannah charlotte quilliamo quilliams Quilllano iamo iano his father died rhen when he was a boy and his widowed mother moved to liverpool england where charles was baptized a member of the mormon church when he was eight years old his family came camb eam caw to utah in october and resided in bountiful for about two yearb yearse then they moved naved noved to centerville Centerville theynaved utah and later to Co coalville coalvuleo during daring darlng the winter of charles 893 devoted all his miss ion lon time to a five month mission in wyoming which at that time was part of summit stake in 893elder eider gallis callis was called on a mission to britain irii irli iril where he acted as president of the iriah ariah conferenceo conferences on his return to utah he was appointed stalm state superintendent of the YMMIA YMA yeull of the summit capacity stake and he acted in that capacity for nine years in september 902 he married grace eo ea pack and from this union there were eight children borna bonu borno bodno in 906 elder gallis milb lilb and his wife were called on a mi niss sion to the southern states they labored in florida over which conference elder caius callis calus presidedo la in august 908 while he was president calub presidedo over the south carolina conference he was appointed to succeed succedd presi dent benjamin eo rich as president of the southern states mission Miss ione iono lone although he had no time to practice law a degree which he had previously earned he was admitted to tte florida fio tto the bar in south carolina and floridao floridan Flo president callis cailis presided over orer the southern states mission for twenty six years from august 908 until february 934 on october elder callis was chosen as one of the twelve apostles and was ordained to that office on october ll darlng daring 4p 933 by president heber jo granto during duning office orfice his residence in summit county he occupied the following officesg con

82 70 stable alville member of the city council of coalville Co representative to the utah legislature city attorney of goalville coalville Go Co and county attorney of summit county 0t fer james janes ferguson james ferguson was boni bom in belfast ireland on february and was the son of francis and ad mary patrick ferguson lef ler iert ireland he left lert for when he was thirteen and sailed fr liverpool englando En england there he heard the gospel and on my may eay eav he was baptized by elder john lindsay in the river mersey at newton england 0 he met jane jmmie robison also from ireland whom he later married he and his wife emigrated in january 846 and arrived in nauvoo illinois on april l8u6e he left nauvoo with the general exodus in the company of wilford woodruff and reached coonci counc ath council bluffs on july 9th A week later james ferguson enrolled in the mormon battalion company A with the rank of sergeant major under captain jefferson hunt he made up the muster rolls and after being rampa ign appointed historian of the nampa campaign caispaign rampaign sergeant ferguson kept a vivid jacif coasto account of the famous infantry march to the pacificic in 848 he returned to salt lake city and was elected sheriff of salt lake county gountyo countr legion lon Utah 9.9 he also had been a member of the nauvoo legion and later in utah he twy served as a legislator and territory Terri attorney general generate mr ferguson self was a selftaught taught lawyer and was known as a splendid orator As a me- 0 mber of the local dramatic association plwed elwed eyed he pi eved aved many roles among which were many of the works of shakespeare and at the opening of the old oid ad social hall hali hails hail he spoke in behalf of the dramatic organizationo organizations iqk in iak 854 libid bibid bido IV

83 7 he served as a missionary to ireland he returned to utah and took up veils eells eelis the practice of law and died later on august daniel ho weils wells welis a prominent mormon once said I never loved any man more than I loved ni el H uses james fergusen ferguses ferguson Ferg n original pioneers robert erwing baird robert ea e9 E baird byard was bom may in londonderry ireland a son of james baird and aad elizabeth erwing ewring Iri lri irl he had the distinction of being one of three irishmen ahmen to enber enter the salt lake valley in the original brigam brigham brigan young party on an july during the trip 24. he served as campc tailor he located in weber veber county and served as a justice of the peace and city councilman in ogden he was president of the 33rd quorum of seventies and acted as presiding elder of the lynn district weber family emily emliy f 2 veber county he died at lym august leaving a large james craig james craig was born bom in 82 in ireland son of david and elizabeth craig was he tras iras trab wab one of the original pioneers who arrived in utah on july in the brigham young company during the trek he was camp bugler and known as the ff bagier ffbagler bugler of the pioneer s bit pioneers8 after his arrival in salt lake valleys he located for a while in mill creek and aad was a member carter 0arter garter ogo 220 gle ele elf cite cito s III IH ill 002 lor 02 f 2jenson jensn biographical encyclopedia ae 2e op cito IV 693 0

84 72 of the company called to assist in exterminating reptiles birds and dangerous animals in 854 he was called on a mission to great britain t and served for a ime tilae filae as president of the preston conference later he labored in ireland his native lc land undo he was called to assist in establishing settlements in southern utah in 860 for a time he located in santa clara where he raised cotton with considerable success he died in that community on march mj major howard egan owala owalr d E howard egan was born june 5 85 in kings county ireland son of howard egan and arm ann aim lim meade when tihen tihan he was about eight years old amily f ari anily left t ireland and sailed salied for montreal canada howard became the family a sailor in his early manhood and at age twentythree three he married tamson parshley in 842 he and his wife were converted to the mormon church illino where by elder erastus snow and the family moved to nauvoo illinoisis howard became a member of the nauvoo police and a major in the nauvoo legion since that time he was known as itmajor egan he and his family were exiles from nauvoo in 846 and later located with the saints at winter quarters there major egan was selected to accompany john 6 D lee to fort leavenworth to collect contributions from the mormon battalion to assist the destitute exiles camped on the missouri river in the spring of 847. he was selected to be a member of president youngs company of pioneers and therefore had the honor of entering the salt lake valley on july chy 2hy in the original company A diary kept by hiring f amous major howard egan during the famous fanous ranous journey is of great value and has ibide IV 697 IT

85 73 tpioneer been published in a volume entitled pioneering the west after IXter ten the saints had established their homes major egan sgan accompanied president brigham young yoong back to unter quarters to take his wife and family back to their mountain home he was an agent for the pony express and overland mail he also served successfully as a missionary and intermediary among the indians major egan died in salt lake city on march survived by a family trained as pioneers and colonizers zerse authors and writers james dwyer jamess dwyer was born in ireland in 83 and as a young man had decided to become a catholic priest however he emigrated to canada and then to rochester new york where he joined the mormons and went to utah in 866 with kith vith just five dollars capital he started in the book business on the southwest corner of west temple and first south at a building known as the townsend Hou houssell houseell bouse seelt rouse his bookstore became the first unofficial bureau bareau of information in salt lake city hundreds of mormon church pamphlets were distributed in addition to his regular papers and magazines after 870ts inese business expansion in the 870 his store became the literary and educational center in utah for many mormons and nonmormons who sought good literature brigham young once said to the irishman james janes youa you youre a natural born bookmantt p bookmanvf2 hugh ireland hugh ireland was bom born in ireland joined the church and emi jenson biographical encyclopedia op cit IV I 2improvement mproveiasnt era xiva xivt XIV ziv

86 74 grated to utaho itaho after berva serving berving a mission to great britain he was editor of the llah lithonia for lithonia liahonia illiahonialt Liah onla twenty years the liahonia Liah was bi a bimonthly publication of fourteen latterday saint missions in the united states 9l canada and hawaii he held this position from william A morton morion william A morton was born january at banbridge ireland a son of solomon morton and sarah mcgille mcgillo in 888 he heard the gospel through a fellow workman in a printing establishment and emigrated to utah with his hib hlib hiyi family in he filledf ilied a mission to great britain 909 acted as assistant editor of the millennial staro stare in and he filled a second mission to great britain in and again acted in that same position upon his return in 923 he was appointed secretary of the genealogical society and editor of the ubah itutah genealogical and historical magazine Magaz inee ll he has written several books and among the most popular are mother stories of the book of mormon from ploughboy Plough to prophet life of christ forf cor little children and also the widely used missionary tract why I believe the book of mormon to be the word of gode godo ll the tract distributed by mormon ma m missionaries 9.9 mionaries arles has been given to thousands of cf people around the world brother morton died in salt lake Lake Ccity on june richard ho smyth mth richard ho sayth was born on december in dublin ire lre millennial star XGIV XCIV AIQD XGVIII tit jenson f aa biographical encyclopedia Encyclop ope opo cit IV edla edia 2a

87 757 land ja the son of jainess arth jarnes smyth anth a silk slik ak k weaver and ann margaret saaytho smyth student As a sto dent of the bible in his early youth he heard of the gospel in 854 and was boon soon afterwards baptized after serving as apprentice inn the hat business he came to utah in great britain in 870 As a poet and writer smyth 86 he was a missionary to 9.9 sayth had a number of his articles appear in the millennial star juvenile instructor st and the deseret news he was the author of the hyan hymn israel israel god is calling britia a favorite hymn of the beitia britidi saints in the early days see appendix 0 for nameb names of other irish mormon pioneers ploneems Pio neear marter carter ero gew op bee cito ili ill III iiii iiiq

88 ptv pel VI oba vaa waa csur fit csuy 7 uvo CHAPTER ltv ZVO THIRD THIBD MORMON CAMPAIGN IN IRELAND inasmuch as mormon missionaries had been taken from ireland in 862 and the two conferences belfast and dublin were closed in little was accomplished by the mormons in that country for a number of yearsin in fact on september an article in the millennial star noted the lack of progress in irelando vales in england scotland and wales the seeds of the gospel for many years have been sown by men mho who have not hesitated in treading in the fields where the elements of social moral and political disintegration abounded and where wickedness unbelief intolerance and such kindred spirits grew spontaneous but bat while these countries have 0 0 been fumidiing rniahing rahing a bounteous harvest the sister isle Eireland eikeland jreland3 eireland has been lending her strength to the bringing forth of briars weeds and brambles however there has been an agent at work endeavoring to utilize her strength in another direction and the efforts of that agent are now becoming patient ente might not one suppose that fair erin would hail with joy the knowledge that her nearest f friends fiends possessed the truths of heaven and knowing that they are gods laws would stretch forth her hands and t G I S tch f uproot those briars of ignorance weeds of error and brambles of bigotry which thys thus far in this land have choked out the plants of trutho the article also stated 9.9 for several years ireland has been without representatives of the kingdom of god and what efforts that have been put forth to introduce the revealed gospel have been fruitless 6 it must be a matter of regret to all who have landa land3 received the gospel of jesus that in so fair a land con- taining as it does so many generous and noble spirits there shouldbe so few to step forward and accept the latter day gospel committed to man by formerday f day beings se so near millennial lmillenni star XLIV al 76

89 77 to ireland are these kindred lands windj one would think that lne ing every little zephyr winda would waft the falling seeds and rind f spread them on her boxom bloxom so that the growing trees would send their growing roots across the narrow sea to become embedded in the sister isle and bring forth life and life fruits not long after this report john henry smith president of the british mission saw the necessity to launch a third and what vhat ahat proved to be a permanent campaign in ireland this he did in l88t 884 belfast conference corf cors arence reopened prior to mormon leaders had often called c upon native irish members of the church to return to their country as missionaries the ire lre third campaign in irelandd was no exception as elder robert marshall and elder george wilson received the important assignment and attained considerable success in its execution during may the two irishmen arrived in belfast to try and establish reestablish monian in ireland most of the irish members of the mormonian Mor church had emigrated so by the time the two men arrived there were no known mormons in belfast the missionaries commenced by holding open air meetings at the custom house steps in belfast and by so doing established a meeting place associated with mormonisnio mormonism since the two men f entered belfast unnoticed they met no immediate opposition 2 however by the end of june elder marshall stated that old babylontf tf is even now beginning to awake from her slumbers and woy wod I tyny toy name as a mormon missionary missionaryl is missionaryl on every tongue and many chide my icy friends for harboring libid tjbid lebid 2millennial star XLVI

90 78 me the same missionary proceeded to doagh doach a town twelve miles from belfast where he had some forner former acquaintances whom he hoped to convert to the mormon church on june 23rd he held a lively meeting in the center of the country town and many gathered to hear their friend previously 9.9 a paid protestant minister in england but who was now a member of the mormon churcho charcho As the meeting progressed the missionary denounced various religious doctrines and quoted the new testament saying that servants of god should baptize cast out devils apeak speak in new tongues handle dangerous serpents posons ham harno and drink deadly poisons without harmo bons the quote evoked a challenge from a prominent methodist who called for someone to get some arsenicc arsenii the mormon elder rebuked the heckler for commenteds commentedt eds satisf demanding a sign and said no good would come from satish satisfying ya ying the man curiosityc curlo sitye after exhorting and preaching until past midnight marshall comment edt mangs many mary of my old friends were in the crowd and recognized me while I was addressing them this was very favourable able 00 0 to me and was very much to the contrary to ny my adversaries who were greatly blamed by very many for their interruptions 0 and may the seed sown take deep rooto noot footo bless the people root god by Aangust august 269 the tm two missionaries had converted six of their countrymen to the new faith but not without much persistence 0 tone jone ione of the greatest difficulties in the way said missionary wilson is in getting access to their houses but once in we are like a severe cold outo hard to get outo auto with such concentrated efforts the two men converted thirteen more people during the following three weeks and by september libid bibid J ibid W 475v 2bid bido 479 3bideq bido o

91 79 7 there were a total of nineteen mormons in belfast the unusual success of the two morans moriaons mormns Moriaons was undoubtedly due not only to their persistence but also to the positive Po stive attitude they held toward their work said wilson we are only the first installment of the force sent to establish the standard of zion in this benighted land and hundreds who now lie in 3n darkness will yet get gathered out to swell the ranks of the faithful in the land of zion the gospel is then ahen why phy not include ireland for all the nations of the earth I for one am an interested in having the gospel preached in my native country there are many in ireland who are just as honest and virtuous as are to be fround found in any other part of the worldon and why ay not give an equal show with other parts of the empirei empire empires iy give lve irei irel the same sane elder also declared just ebur fbur four months arter after his arrival ireian irelan in irelandd w it cannot be asserted in truth any more that we cannot get this a foothold in this thib country we have demonstrated beyond a shadow of a doubt that the gospel can be preached in this eibe else elbe chere rthe and al- country as well as elsewhere very impulsive but at L the same time a generous deop people though they would jostle you about they muld would muid li it ohere is true they arthe irish are a quid the next hour take you in their domiciles and administer to your wants proving that if the exterior is a little uncouth the heart is kind and we must nature mast forgive the little faults of a warm wam 2 warn and generous the two irish mormons proved that the gospel could be successfully preached in ireland as in other parts of the wrid world monid because by loy october 20th just five months after arriving they had established reestablished a branch in belfast with twentynine nine members with the help of two more missionaries the work continued to prosper until by the end of the year 884. saints 3 the belfast branch had a membership of fifty irish saint ls january 885 proved to be another highlight of mormonism in ireland as the four missionaries gained thirteen converts in just one month 0 ibideo bida 667 bido ibide abide 2 millennial star XLVII kvil

92 80 al so aiso also alao in eight months robert marshall had converted thirty to the church an unheard of accomplishment prior to that time tune tine new hope arose A winter nin nim nlnaht night tht might baptism the faith aad and courage of those who 60 telo became mormon converts were manifest one cold winter night in belfast shortly after the mormon ci missionaries had arrived in the city they had met and taught mormonism to bome some 8 people living in nearby white hhite well toward the latter part of november the two elders strongly urged baltian baptiaa baptian as soon as possible and the candidates said it would be done in the veny very yery near future on december 9.9 elder robert marshall wroto wrote from Bbelfast abt on sunday evening while holding a meeting at fortingale Fortin street judge my surprise when mrs garlick came in accompanied ty by her two sisters bis bibterbo terso terse and judge still more of ny my astonish ment and amazement to find that mra mrs ellen eav Mavbin mabbin maybin mavbin the sick lady mho who had been nearly at the point of death a few days ago had walked the entire distance to white well 632 weli 62 weil nearly twenty miles and landed therm there themm adien atien ten otclock cclock oclock celock on onsattirday saturday night without a soul with her surely thl s noble nobie e mormon lay lady I ladr IR butt of thib this lav abu ibu ay my surprise burp rise didd nott rest at here for ror her sister of white well proposed to go out to the p fourth river through the storm and snow the snow being four inches deep and that at the hour of night be baptized by me but wasahis wes web this thib all no indeed for ror young mr berry garlicky soninlaw also proposed to go into the water at mrs this inclement hour and be baptized grit to propose to baptize him nhy with his sick chest cheat and throat greenwell 9.9 surety the spirit of god was in the heart intothe and who 60 do you think had the why none other than elder throats well while the meeting was being held I sat and wept like a child with happiness and gratitude to gode2 godec 2 such an experience was undoubtedly impressive dessive and inspiring as eider elder bider narsh marsh marshall all ail concluded that many are getting reacy readey the work rolls iio ijo liournal journal hib history his febra february ll 884 P 4 glien milennial 2minennial millennial Milen nial syar saar star nn XLH

93 8 A mormon funeral Marshallt marshalls marshallt elit eilt s proselyting was in edenvale Eden much of narsh marshalla just outside belfast eonrented rerted af cremntioned erso and it was there he converted the aforementioned an acquaintance he had made beravre berone before ovre akre leaving ireland the elderly daughterislaw lady was living with vith mith her son and daughterinlaw is both of whom later joined loined the mormon church six months after her conversion the old irish woman died and had previously asked that the mormon elders preach at at her funeral an unusual request since no one in edenvale Eden had ever serv icee iceo witnessed a mormon funeral bervice service elders marshall and francis went imedlately imedla 3 bely wely medlatelv to vale edenvale Eden at the request of the family and during that february night in 8859 held a wake by sitting up with the deceaseds remainss deme dere many eany curious mourners attended and argued the docu doeu doctrines wines vines mines of mormonism until nine oclock the next morning the elders later remarked thet thai that thei the dear old lady who mho thae siept slept a in ln death had preached a greater greater mbenen semen on benon in her departure than many had done daring a long life time for she had ay by yy her death brought 9.9 many together to listen to the truth mho otter any other otmer oid old nid who woold would never have heard it in erbo ellen maybin wayl ommer waythe day following allowing the following waked theefin erlb funeral wakep W therin efinneral was held under the direction of the thae two mormon elders eiders that afternoon a long train of vehicles accompanied the two missionaries and the body of mrs maybin to antry the cemetery seven miles into the coun cown eown coiantry col eol the elders wrote the following of the thae occasion the country was in a fever and those attending the funeral felt a smothered excitement all the way raged rtged reged in their hearts and smiled many of her friends sailed with their faces and some ides deseret news april 0 88 also see journal history bistor feb- 3 bs 25I ppo ap 45. U4 5 and millennial killennial star LVU XLVIX ibbl WF X abbl ja j9 ruary U4 and ldeseret ldeseret 885 v and 4.4 ls apo 45

94 82 rind two mormon elders and a company of con- fumed aid and ald frowned without disguise while all ail mortia mortifled mortified to f find verts excourting courting ali were deeply their aged sisters remains to their last resting place and this sister was a near relative to all present ilace not long after the funeral a rumor was started that the deceased mormon convert mrs ers erb maybin had drowned while being baptized in a lint ti dam tn in reality she had been baptized six months prior to her death and had been baptized in a clear stream of water rather thaer than in a stale linb lint dam everywhere I go stated marshall this lie about her baptism being the cause of her death meets me ne it has passed from mouth to mouth like lightning a 9 02 it seemed as though mormons in ireland were the object of persecution even after deaths deathe prophecy of an old irishman the elders who went vent to ireland after af arter marshall and wilson contino ued aed to have interesting experiences among the irish during 885 elder acting tr edward clyde was tracting tracking in edenvale Eden and upon knocking at the door of a country cottage 9.9 he was invited in ty by mrs margaret mcilvane mcllvaneo after hearing the gospel the irish lady soon joined the mormons and later re lated some unusual experiences which led to her conversion according to her account in 850 while she was still a young lady margaret and her father in law robert mcilvane were sitting in a room when a neighbor lady lacty facty came to the cottage the neighbor addressed the old gentleman saying robert can you answer me this question which aseret ideseret news april 0 88 ebido 2bido 885

95 83 of all the churches will the lord come to rhen when he comes to the earth again again the old man knocked his stick against the chair in which he was sitting and said baid balds W he will not come to any of them none of them are right none of them are accepted of god but there will be a church arise and come forward which will be accepted of him returnsito earthe I will never live to see that church which jesus will come when he retom&to the earth and to you and aad margaret mcilvane said the old man maji maja mala spoke very emphatically and seemed certain of which he was predicting he and the lady to whom he spoke died not long after his remarkable prophecy 0 after the death of her father in law said baid bald margaret could not forget what he had saido baido baldo she began searching and soon proved that none of the churches she knew of was preaching the same gospel that she read of in her bibleo bibie bibler Bibleo0 stated that she often pondered over the statement of the ol 0 oij oid alj olj she man and prayed to god to bring her the true gospel as she felt the true church theearth theearta was upon the earth if necessary she claimed she was willing tilling to wander over the whole world to find rind 3 it in 860 she said she had a dream inwhich she saw the book of mormon and later in 880 another dream disclosed the race face 860 bce L zace of a young man which made such an impression upon her she never forgot its ito five years later elder edward clyde cyde knocked on her door and she recognized him at once as the person seen in her previous dream she recognized gosp. in his message ssaae the gob gospel ea e for which she had been searching me isaae and when the book of mormon was presented de die aie witing as ale immediately recognized the writing tventy that seen in the dream twentyfive sventy rive years previous it was an unusual experience for both the mormon missionary and the old irish woman nho rho who millennial star LXVI millennial LM 0 igou 90u 904s ssie 550 gyle

96 84 according to her testimony rulf ruif baw saw the fulfillment of a prophecyp prophecy of an old irishman Politi political cai eal disruption maries even though the mormon missionaries in ireland experienced considerable success during the two years after their return siderable whe tile the duie udie intense political disturbance in belfast abt dur duc daring the bummer summer sumer belf belr beir ast buler buaer of 886 put a stop to their progress elder joseph Ddo stealth presided over the church in ireland during the summer and later wrote that hib whis his this sumer has been quite un favorable revor reyoralae to Irelan ireiandj so the work in ireland uck ack mack mach wack uch political strife and bloodshed that but little outdoor speaking could be done 0 the turmoil l began early in the summer sammer as the annual annuel july 2thtf approach 2w celebration approachedo the same missionary appraised the situation and concluded I consider it will be wise just now to be very quiet or rather not heard too much in public and conspicuous places ror far for our friends who should be would no doubt like to take Aition advantage of the excited condition cor coz of the people it would be an easy time to create prejudice against usv so 0 I am impressedi ebbed to move cautiously for ror some SOBB bome bomb time to come corner he then stated why he had decided to refrain from preaching ft our outdoor preaching will be very much interferred mith with vith this summer for almost all the business men consider things will be quite unsettled until arter after the 2th of july thich is the day the protestants march in memory of the battle of the boyne sic if it passes quietly it may becude secure peace again for a short time but I see in the near rulure future another uler election uture f this is well 3 calculated to inflame the minds of the rough element mho seem to know nothing but what their ministers and priests tell themo eight bight bodies were buried tod4ar todfity I them believe our street was millennial star millennial ILVIII XLVIII 886 ubo 748 u8o 2bid bido ul3o 43t ulco 3the rhe athe battle of the boyne was won on july 690 and the orange men were formally organized july 2 796n a ireland it is possible that the celebration is in recognition of both events see page 0

97 8 85 protected across the ends by soldiers to prevent any trouble the eight were all au ail ali killedk within 300 yards of this address and and many were wounded the missionary also reported that he and his companions had to stay inside their house at nights to avoid the disturbance even though the city was well protected with soldiers who were guarding the police against irate citizens apparently such riots only heightened the desire of the new mormon converts to leave their country as it was noted olloving month august that ttthe hithe bithe atthe the following folloving belfast abt branch willw be some what weakened when the boat sails ror ion lon for Zzion tta tt2 t outbreaks of violence continued to occur during daring darlng the summer of 886 and the presiding elder rin finallyy reported from belfast that church over meetings had temporarily been cancelled until the crisis was overo avero said he beencancelled we life have now had eight days of the most intensive excitement this morning paper records about 7 killed and wounded daring saturday night and sunday claim to be able abla abie abia these abis to arrive at anything like a correct estimate Is k ed and it does not thebe are known to have been wounded and killed and it refers to fifty some more thathad had been taken into private houses which would not be reported at public hospitals and surgeries burge rieso the most intense excitement prevails3 3 all porarily this only meant that the mormons in ireland had been temporarily forced to cease proselyting until the fighting irish could be calmed return of charles A aa a4 callis cauls canis another highlight of mormon activity in lieland ireland during the third campaign was the return of charles gallis A on november is ls 894. he millennial star XLVIII bide bid ibide

98 86 Conformce was appointed to be president over the irish conference a welcome as- dublin bom signment to the dublinborn born mormon after jasdbrating Brating to liverpool england and joining the mormon church am he and his widowed mother immigrated to utah during daring darlng his administration in his native land landy lendt landt mormonism prospered as the membership in the belr beirabt belfast branch grew from rifty fifty to seventy seven callis was beleas released releas from his position on june and returned to utah where he ho was later called to be an apostle the highest office attained by any aay irish mormon converts while in belfast elder callis stated there were some members of the church still residing thae there who were wereconverted wede converted while rhile john taylor was in ireland they revere his memory and shey shev sad snd with moistened eyes relate incidents which transpired in connection with the laborers of Apost that devoted and inspired apostles lei lel iel apostlei jaaes janes james Ere Ttalmage image inage in belfast prior to the turn of the century centary mry cent dr james janes EZ talmage noted maxmon moimon moxmon writer and speaker toured britain and gave several lectures on utah and its peopleo peopled on august he arrived in belfast and spoke that evening to a capacity crowd of the occasion a mormon or momon nornon nomon normon elder older eider wrote it was a grand and complete success they cheered from begin 9 ning to endo ende 2 it was also noted that the nonmormon irish who attended even cheered at the name of our beloved beloyed prophet brigham lounge younge ydung 9.9 the saidt baid bald same elder baldt it would be impossible for a better feeling or a better day were spirit to be in a house where so few rew latterday saints cumstancee that we had great honor f ew we tie consider under the ca c3 circumstances X ast shown to us by the people of belr beirabt belfast for we had a nice class millennial milennial Milen millennial star nial LVI 894 2millennial star LI stars sog LZ

99 87 of people pre sento there was not one disrespectful person present bento one of the nonmembers in attend robert attendance mee Jjo aitcheson widely know among religious societies in belfast and a noted speaker himself stated that dr talmage Ttaimage ge Is lecture was vas the best he had ever heard it wab vas was indeed a refreshing ehing evening for the mormons in ireland auxiliaries organized zed eed while the mormons were absent from ireland betweenen 867 and lations 884 several organizations had been developed in the church so when nhen aad the missionaries finally returned they tried to establish the auxi liaries arles diaries o on october 4 88 jaes beirabt belf belr ast bran h 885 elder jaeb awes ales sloan proposed that an im- provement association be organized in the belfast branch since it was in every conference inference and there was me soe boe good in them co a them on the 9th of that bame same bam month irst mutual the arst firstf matual improvement organization was estate bestab dished and continued ror for foc roc about one yew year mooting with vith very vexy wery lished far dexy limited success several attempts were later made to make aake nake bach such organizatio sach buch an organization mome more mois morm permanent and in 894 another major attempt was made which largely failed on november a sunday A s nnw schoal schoel hoei was organized in the belfast branch but bat bub nent bab like the mutual Improve improvement association there was little accomplifibed med aed through it during the next ten years rat 3 tendent superintendent with different elders acting as sunday school superintendent intendant various attempts office libid bibid id 2kinutes minutes of priesthood meeting meetings mil milennial millennial Milen amil lenrdal 885 l88 book noe now ON 088 p gis sij church Historia historians nta nia 884 library star starp nial skarp slarp XLVIII irish conferences priesthood

100 88 were madee in 897 the sunday school &hool was temporarily discontinued it was not until arter after the turn of the century that such an organization was successfully begun in ireland other activities in 888 included weekly cottage meetings in the various homes of the church members followed on saturday evening by combining bible stucy socia ls study classes and socials sociats both of which added to the unity of the brancha branche miscellaneous activities from 884 until 900 there were two hundred fourteen baptized into the mormon momon church in northern ireland Irelan ireiandw however more than onethird of them eighty eight emigrated to america deaths and excommunica tions eions accounted for another twentyeight eight so that emigrations rations excommani excommuni canions cat cations and deaths accounted for onehalf h half of all the converts it was fac indeed difficult to build a strong or substantial branch with such factors volking woricing voxking wod icing against the missionaries in th the sixteen year period the highest membership at one time in belcabt belfast WAS one hundred thirtynine in even though there was just one branch in northern ireland located in belfast belfabt the work extended to ballymoney Bally londonderry londonderz7 afelt magherafelt Magher vale edenvale Eden white veil weil well weli ballychare Bally chare burgan lurgan ards newtonards Newton and Portado portadown portadovn during this same period in that latter eity city elty considerable interest was 890 a series of shown in through af debates on mormonism Mormon isaa which were published in the portadown Port and lurgaanews burgan lurgan ol 3 0 vers verv however Howe no branch of the cits lminutes of priesthood meeting 3 cita 92 ullen milennial 2millennial Milen milennial 3minemial millennial Milen citj P 8 nial star lii see appendix A lx nial star LII I

101 89 church was organized in any of the above mentioned towns ortant octant another important event occurred on august when the first semiannual bemi conference of the irish mission was held in dicksons hall independence street belfast from that time until 962 except during two world wars a conference was held every sa s3 bixx six monthss for mormon members and missionaries MI ireland in addition to U their regular weekly meetings these semiannual bemi annualconf conferences erencen helped establish to some degree the permanence of mormonism in ireland Irel idelaad by the turn of the centary century the belfast branch had experienced comparatively little lithe growth and activity since its establishment reestablishment in there were several reasons why the mormon church in ireland thi s had failed to expand in that country not only during this period but bat since the missionaries arrived alved in 840 the author reels feelsf reeis that an procitable examination of these reasons would be profitable bitable at this point millennial stars start LI l

102 CHAPTER VII IRISH opposition TO MORMONISM MCRMONISM Irel irei little has been said thus far of the opposition mormons encountered during their endeavors in ireland aad it is 8 appropriate appropaate at this point to evaluate those factors which both opposed and inhibited mormon progress in ireland the term It itopposition is preferred to persecution tt because the latter often implies physical violence or harm harn which has seldom been enacted by any irishman on any mormon missionary or church member in i ireland while researching this history the author found few inci- aci dents involving physical violence between mormons and their irish opponents one minor incident did occur in 908 when a missionary was Iri lri irl struck on the shoulder and neck by an iridiaan diman ehman siman gave who unmistakable signs of having imbibed freely in irish whiskeys i whiskeyi except for a few occurrences sue suchh buch as this the mormons in ireland have been physically persecuted very little which is remarkable in noting the many lives lost rel rei in that country because of religious 39 3 ious lous differences commenting on the violence experienced by mormon elders in different parts of europe president george Q camon cannon of the british mis- sionpresidency stated in 862 & 9 germany gerany has up till now rejected the gospel as much as france or ireland elders have had to run for their lives there germar3 germany Germar 3 which they have not had to do in ire millennial star LXX millennial 90

103 9 land landi landa this is not sogge suggesting sting however that mormons have been unopposed in ireland on the contrary those desiring that mormonism not be taught in ireland have employed a variety of ways to assist them in their objective huge crowds one of the remarkable occurrences the mormons witnessed in ireland was the large crowds or groups of irish attracted by no more than cariosity rosity three or four missionaries possibly out of cur cariosity or maybe to harass air the irish often orten attended mormon openair opensair meetings and formal church services in force this was sio so bio blo from the beginnings on july 29 islo 840 elder john Taylor taylor and his two companions arrived in newry ireland to introduce the gospel to those people after ror obtaining the use of the court house for gor a meeting ine lae rne that eting evening a man was sent throughout the town tom to give notice of the proposed gathering 0 A congregation of six or seven hundred people from newry and surrounding areas turned out to hear the first lecture in ireland on mormonismo Mormoni 2 elder edward sutherland reported a similar though more lively incident when mormonism was preached for the first time in dubline on september he wrote I lost no time in adopting a plan I thought likely to spread a knowledge of the principles of eternal truth pla bounced nounced a public meeting by placarding the I an city which lecture was attended by many hundreds 0 many thought I should have been killed the meeting3 meetings 3 the disturbance was so great at the close of millennial star XXEV LUV f 2roberts eroberts tayor tavor op roberts the life of john taylor lit 8485 eit alt cit 8 ao 8o 3millennial 3miueruu star XH al l80 850s

104 92 during dazing the following three years in dublin such mobs attended and often dl disrupted srupted erupted the mormon meetings elder fider eider gilbert clements reported such an experience eqperience in dublin on march when a huge crowd of irishmen completely disrupted his sunday servicea serviced such excitement prevailed f or that the elder sent for the police but the mob was so large that their ringleader was not arrested the police did clear the meeting hall however and dispersed the crowd leaving the few mormons to continue their services acter after the evening was over clements stated that the anti comons momons from dublin were so wicked that they would almost shame the devil himselfw. not all mob action was confined to dublin president john henry smiths president oc of the british mission missim visited belfast on october and advertised to preach that evening in a rented hallo hali haile haiie in spite of inclement weather the hall wasf nasf wes web filled to its utmost capa city and many were turned away disappointed at not being able to gain entrance however not everyone who attended anticipated being converted to the mormon church and it was noted many doubtless cane from curiosity and possibly some were there with the express intention of creating a disturbance to say the least the rowdy element was well represented and the interruptions caused thereby were so frequent throughout the evening that the services leeb lees were not very satishactory satisfactory actori 0 ID there was a rollicking good humor however about the distur dastur bers and an evident desire for frolic air the openair meetings attracted even larger and more unruly crowds on the evening of august 88 apostle charles Vwo penrose millennial star starr XV millennial star XLVI 88q 884s 6650

105 93 visited ireland and with the aid of three other missionaries he at- 2 air tempted to conduct an openair meeting tingo the fluent mormon speaker addressed between two and three thousand irishmen on the principles of mormonism amidst derisive cries and interruptions from the assembled muititude multitude mul mal titule the crowd finallyf bee became becane atlent allent impatient and rushed the speaker thereby forcing him off the custom house steps staps such sach action brought the belfast city police to the scene who cautioned the mormons not to proceed with their meeting penrose and his associates sought refuge in a tram car amid the jeers and taunts that eor ilmormons cormons Mor nons made a great mistake if they imagine they could convert the people of belfast to their objectionable form rom of religionh religions the mormon openair meeting was cancelled for the evening air A public challenge to debate mormonism in an openair aa a3x meeting nar attracted a similars crowd in belfast on may A mr marshall had challenged elder stephen W ross to debate mormonism Mormonian past present and futures futurew future several hundred irishmen were waiting for the elders that evening and before long the listeners numbered two thousand during the controversial debated debatet one of the irate irish shouted lets shift them eor the mormons Mormon cormons silt mormonsilt itt ift the crowd rushed forward and soon had the mormon missionaries on the move through the aid of two police officers the elders escaped without injury but were followed down the street by nearly one thousand jeering irishmen air the vast numbers of irish not only disrupted mormon church services and openair meetings but tried to interfere with the elders eiders acting trading tr as well weli weil near the tarn of the century two mormon missionaries millennial star LVIII h 379

106 94 went to Ddundalk dundale Dundalk daik a strong catholic city of eleven thousand catholics and two thousand protestants not too much happened until the day the two mormons were accused of slander and arrested A group named the hibernian society met and decided to drive the two tvo tuo missionaries from the town though they agreed the young yoang men mere were not to be harmed physically upon being released from two days confinement in jail the two elders were advised to proceed to newry this they did but much to their surprise as they left dundalk Dun dundale dalk the eor ons were vere accompanied mormons by three hundred irishmen elder to T J bennett commented that it was certainly laughable to see the elders leading a bunch of men all through the town and out into the country for two days the missionaries walked them almost to death visiting friends out in the country they thae the hibernian society a tract was given would go up to the doors with the elders and when hands and tear it up they would have from two them there fron the elders eiders the men would grab it from ron elders every time the elders would go out oat tvo to three hundred people following wento mento every man it was certainly great advertiseaent advertisemento advertisements woman and child in that section knew there were mormons cormons Mor 9.9 As late as 90 mormon missionaries in the south of ireland attracted huge crowds on february 20th of that year elders ellis and f or powelson scheduled a meeting for that evening in cork ireland at the appointed hour the two elders were the only ones in attendance but at 8 lg ig.5 two hundred men entered without without removing their hats or caps and showing ty by their looks that they were evil mindedt ell eilis the missionaries sang a hymn and offered an opening prayer after which elder ellis ari light sang cardinal newmans Nemmanb hymn lead kindly Ligh lightolt lighfolt tolt toit As one of the mor monss began to explain their purpose of being in cork the intruders jumped up and started shouting began kicking over chairs and tables milennial millennial Milen millennial nial star LXX 908 u4845 ahu 8hu al 8l

107 95 and then threatened the missionaries with violence if they didnt get out of the city canes were brandished and hands uplifted ut the mob bers confined their operations to burning horning tracts millennial stars but and other books it f arr arn two policemen finally arrived quelled the disturbance courted es the two missionaries fonaries to their house in spite of the and escourted threats the two elders remained in cork for ror for some time longer landlord control of tenants perhaps the most significant opposition to mormons in ireland came from the landowners irishi who often non crishi io were renting farms and homes to the irishmen not mot only did the landlords regulate the temporal affairs of their tenants the r I but bat often dictated aspects in their religious lives as well the landowners teamed up with the religious leaders in ireland to present the double threat of evie eviction llon clon and excommunication to anyone who listened to or in any ww way waf assisted the mormon missionaries the following statements corroborates this factf just four months after the ihe ahe work had commenced in ireland in elder reuben redlock visited the hillsborough Hille branch and later wrote here is one difficulty iculty mculty in hillsborough ffthere ah the people are all ali ail dependent on lord hillsborough who belongs to the establishment and if the people employmento2 profess the truth openly they will be turned out of employmentn employments 9 in 844 elder james janes sloan who had been a mormon missionary in ireland expressed his feelings on this matter when uhen he said I got little opportunity to preach in ireland for it is pretty generally the case there that the tenants have not any leases and the nobles etc in many places havel notified ullen lilen milennial lmillennial Milen star nial LXXII manuscript anqscript history of the british mission october

108 96 them that in any case they received entertained or heard me preach they might rise up and leave the place or they would be dispossessed and the clergy of the day have traveled assiduously to places where they had not been for months and thieatening threatening excommunication if they received or years before heard me A year later 845. elder reuben hedlock bedlock again expressed his views on mormonism in ireland and stated there has not been much done in ireland the people are so bound by poverty and so dependent upon their landlords that they dare not admita any one to preach in la their neighborhoods ney ghborhoods ai &i L to keep them overnight if the reader of the parish forbids them if they disobeyed his orders he would inform the bishops and overseers of the parish and they the landlords and the people would forget their homes and employment and this is the great reason q re lando 4 by l80 reaso reabon italics addedn addeen creaso why the gospel does not spread more in ire the belfast branch had become disorganized resulting in a temporary lull president franklin D richards of the british mission commented on the irish and said baid bald t sa ld bound up the greater part in papal auti ority arity and 0 0G subject in many parts to immediate expulsion from their tenanted homes if they ventured to change their religious zelig ious loub opinions it has hitherto been very veit velt difficult to establish the doctrines of present revelation among that people at several timess different efforts have been made in the vicinity of belcabt belfast and a few have been added to the church a part of whom were turned out of employment because of their faith and were obliged to flee to england for subsistence 0 0 e 7 3 mormon historian andrew jenson also noted this occurrence in his statement of the first decade of the irish Miss mibs mission lono iono lone said he lonarles considerable demable difficulty dlf deff i was experienced by the mibsionar missionaries leb ies in ireland on account of the great poverty vhich which prevailedo edo most of the farmers occupied their land and depended for their letten lletter aletter from ron james sloan to charles wamer in 3n nauvoo illinois written on april original on file at church historians office ames times and seasons VI may 8 9ul imes killemial killemial millennial star III ili 80 yll yil XTI s X 080

109 97 livelihood upon the good will of their landlords mostly catholics Catholic st who being disapproved of the introduction of a new sp religion into their midst and intimidated their tenants by withholding coal and other free distributions and threatened loss of employment and eviction from their homes and farms if they disobeyed the local catholic priests by attending meetings of the latterday saints saintsl Saints saintal latter sl A similar report was made by a missionary from ireland in when he said all ali ail feli feil fall those who are there now naw are doing their best among a people who are poor afflicted tedy tedt and oppressed where the clergy and owners of the soil are doing their best beat to keep them under otta ott2 by 862 the missionary work in ireland had again come to a standstill real izing and realizing that the mormons had made little progress in that country parison in comparison cow george con to other parts of britain president george Q cannon stated why on january li4 862 he asked and then answered what nhat is the reasons reasono neason then that they have not received the gospel in ireland as they have in vales wales and scotland the answer is s obvious because they have not been surrounded by as favourable able circumstances I understand there are more saints in glasgow and in western schotl scotland who are irish or of irish extraction than there are of scotchi scotchy and this proves that they are susceptible to the truth when circumstances are favourable able for ito3 itoe their receiving it3 in the sane same bame bane address the mormon leader also noted they have had the alternative of remain- in thousands of instances where the people would receive the truth ing as they are or in houseless pavertyif poverty if they embrace the gospel for they would be turned out of doors and out of employment if they dared to exercise free thought and openly receive the trutho trutha truth4 we are only left to guess where mormonism in ireland would be at the present had those sands bands thousands oasands been allowed to choose their own awn jens jenson ons encyclopedic history his j op 2p ap cite citow citop ami 2millennial glennial lien ilennial star XVIII 6 86 milennial millennial Milen 3mu wilen star al l annial ennial XXIV bidp ibid 35 nial 35

110 98 rel religious beliefs and follow them reiivious igious Ston stonir stonar stolings stonings on several occasions stones were used to harass monnon mormon mission- bon ion xon arle ariess in ireland but as previously mentioned as far as known no injury or damage ever occurred elder william butler an irishman converted to mormonism Monnon ism in utah returned to his native country as a missionary in upon arriving in gary ireland he proceeded to hold an open air meeting on one of the town corners nere and a large crowd soon gathered while he was preaching a few hurly burly huriy irishmen pushed him into the street andbegan throwing rocks and stoneb stoness there tithere was a constant shower of rocksmtt rockom he reported nbut abut none hit me As the stones were falling about him elder butler saw a woan woman standing by the gate in front of her cottage and he walked toward her seeking refuge from the he mobs mobb As he walked toward the woman ehe dhe ebe started to close the gate as if she detected his intentions and ia in so doing she was hit by a stone meant for butler and was knocked to the ground for A small boy took the mormon missionary to his home just as the police arrived to disperse the crowd neither the young boy nor elder butler were harmed by the stones neb in igou 904 the elders Jin newtown hamilton county armagh were holding meetings in the loft of a flax barn the only available place in the vicinity R elder george tolley reported that while one of the meetings was in progress son some bome bomb boys threw stones in through the door lif A life e iting laf sketch of my father william butler taken fromf his own handwriting biting w unpublished biography by wilford henzy butler son of stated written in 3n ogden utah july 932 obtained from and used by permission of mrs clifford ethyl butler orem oran utah

111 99 but bat no one was hurt since then we have not been molested save by words ttl with such treatment evers evert however hov mormon missionaries were not always content to just turn the other cheekn cheeka especially if they were irish during december 885. elders edward clyde and james sloan both irish- 9.9 men returned to their native country as missionaries for the monnon mormon church tarning one evening as they were returning re to their home they were assaulted by four irishmen who threw a volley vollay of stones and began to cormons chase the two mormons Mormons while the attackers were gathering more stones the two elders decided to defend themselves erous numerous and elder edward clyde recorded the rather humerous incident rol fol roi as follows lawser they cane so neara near3 we ve found it necessary necesis fight or be pelted with the stones to stand and be either to run beaten with stones seemed altogether out of reason to run would have hurt our feelings worse than the stones possibly could have done so being both of irish descent we concluded to share the pleasure of stone throwing the conflict was kept up for about twenty minutes each party conf conc lict lica loading and reloading to his best advantage we had no desire of gaining a victory but were very earnest in our efforts for self defense being experts at the stone throwing we were able to keep our assailants at a good distance from us and by great exertion we reached our place of destination without 3injury from the threats and actions of our christian friends healthy and agreeable forus torus to payour days e vis ts earlier in the day t we have concluded it would be more gayour visits a little er cayenne pepper smoked smoke3 and sheep dip mormon mabb missionaries fonaries ion lonaries arles experienced other obnoxious forms of o- pposition besides rocks and stones toward the latter part of february five lve five elders proceeded to omagh to hold the first meeting con ilen lien glennial millennial star nial LXVI 904v igou 90u igol ullen milennial 2mulemial millennial Milen star nial XLVIII

112 00 ducted by mormons in that city they rented a hall and announced the service for as 300 3s 30 pm then a large crowd gathered at three oclock and advised people not to go to the meting the elders sought police protection which was refused the missionaries proceeded with their meeting at the appointed hour with about forty people in attendance during the second hymn thirty men man and boys entered the building and sat down in the rear of the hall within a few minutes everyone in the meeting started coughing and sneezing which temporarily disrupted the meetings doth the elders soon discovered burning rolls of cioth cloth moth containing cayenne pepper which had been conveniently placed throughout odb odt the hall by one Itguests of the itguests gaests tihen when the room was sufficiently aired out 9.9 a few visitors returned to the meeting ris nis nib but a few minutes later the missionaries discovered smoke rising through the cracks in the floor because their opponents had gone underneath the building and were n smoking out the cormons mormons Mor mons everyone elders included lert interruption left the hall during the second ehen when the smoke cleared 0 the elders went back in the building sime since bince bime they felt safer inside than out the meeting continued as the missionaries rendered hymns and testimonies in the midst of constant confusion not mot satisfied with the burning pepper nor the smoke the upi ruffians poured sheepdip api all over the floor shich which shiah brought the applause of hundreds of onlookers in the street the putrid odor caused the disappointed missionaries to terminate the meeting but only after avowing to return to omagh in the near futures2 lsheep sheep dips sheep are plunged A liquid preparation of toxic chemicals into which especially to destroy parasitic anthropods arthropods anthro ullen millennial milennial Milen 2 millennial star 909s nial 3x la l

113 0 cayenne pepper had been an effective way to disrupt previous meetings lonaries arles miss ionaries fonaries mormon meetings in february 886 mormon mrss missionaries advertised a meeting in ballyclare Bally for 730 in the evening and arrived to find a congregation of three hundred awaiting the service after the usual hymn and prayer elder edward clyde addressed the group but hadnt hacin8 hacins spoken five minutes when everyone began coughing most violently the elders thought it to be a prearranged plan to interrupt their mee meet ing but then the smell of cayenne pepper reached their part of the room some conscienceless cur had sprinkled this disagreeable pungent pepper on the floor t wrote one elder nand for about twenty minutes the people were running to the windows for a breath of fresh air holding their handkerchiefs over their mouths and noses and coughing as though they muld would mould muid mouid quid tear their lungs asundern undern dovnj when the audience had quieted donn down the same missionary tried to continue his remarks and again some playful irishman performed the same deed the house went into an uproar for the second time but not wanting to gratify the perpetrators the elders tried not to coughs fi finallyly one of the monnon mormon missionaries could not restrain from coughing any longer and ty by so doing received a rousing cheer from the audience itnot nigh ihnot withstanding it was sunday nightoll teit toll twit most of the crowd soon left fully convinced that the mormons would hesitate before again attempting to hold another one of their meetings in sweet ballyclare bal3yclare baily Bally ciare elare foghorn another effective means employed to inhibit the mormons in wilen lmillennial milennial Milen star nial XLVIII

114 02 ireland was the foghorn yoghorna orno elder charles A callis gallis reported that the device was used in belfast during december 894 while he was president of the irish conference he related our openair meetings although well attended have not been noted for the courtesy our listeners have shown us shile while we were addressing one of these gatherings recently we were interrupted in a provoking but effectual manner individual armed with an unappreciated instrument known as a foghorn came close to where we were speaking and blew a blast so long and loud that it was impossible for us to be heard others encouraged and added to the hideous noise which continued until they succeeded in abruptly terminating our meeting intil another mormon meeting was forced to close an hans po freece anti an antimormon from america mr lip hip hans po freece arrived in belfast during december 90 to warn the people of lat what iat bat he called callbd calle calie rgers igers the dangers of mormonismft ft he was also soliciting their cooperation to place the Itmormon itmormon question before the home secretary of britain 9.9 winston churchillo freece proposed that mormons be prohibited from distributing preaching or distributing bating literature in the united kingdom which att ait that time included all of irelando sters eighteen hundred ministers and other interested parties attended a meeting in belfast conducted ty by the anti mormon mr fleece who claimed to have been born a member of the mormon church and a child of polygamous parents he reported that his investigation of mormonism in ireland disclosed that a number of girls but not one man had been shipped to utah by the mormon church at lit the conclusion of the lecture mr freece called for a vote to decide for millennial star XLVI

115 03 petition whether or not a petition should be placed before the honorable mr churchill thereby requesting a government investigation the vote 9.9 turned out to be nearly eighteen hundred in favor of the petition and only seven against such action of the seven four were mormons cormons Mor mons having gained the support of belfastfs religious leaders mr freece continued his campaign in other parts of britain to such an extent that the following year 9 the british government investigated to some degree the mormons moons in the country had the government taken the action advocated ly mr freece and his followers missionaries would have been prohibited from proselyting in ireland as well as in england wales and scotland government investigation partly due to the fact that one hundred forty mormon mission aries had recently been expelled from germany 2 and undoubtedly influenced by mr freece proposal the british parliament discussed on fluenced Is seven occasions between 90 and 9 the presence of mormons in bri- tainn reviewing claims such as induced emigration of british girls forced polygamy in utah bribes for converts and riots in england caused by mormon missionaries mr mir elc churchill stated on may 8 9 that lit ttl iti III tii tit have mattera matter33 not so far any ground for legislative action on the matter eay may on may igi inquir a mormon inquiryy inquiry at the british home office asked limprovementera era XIV igil igli james ajames janes B illen alien ilien klien kilen allen and richard 00 cowan mormonism in the twentieth century provo utah brigham young universe university Univerbi university verba mprovement 3lnprovement era MII IVIII mil

116 the result of the investigation since it had not been before parliament iou lou 04 loh since may 8 9 A response was received stating ietter with cefere reference to the mor- Aa am directed in replyr to your letter ater mon propaganda in this country and in africa aaerica awrica by the secretary of state to say that no official report has but that the extensive inquiries which were made did not reveal any grounds for legislative action been published mormons in ireland and other parts of britain had faced a critical I mo r period but emerged victorious as mormonian monnonian Monno Mor monian could legally continue in britain and ireland motion pictures and drama As the mormons progressed in ireland and employed more efficient proselyting too tools toos als the opposition alb also aib becala becaaa more skilled during august 93 there mere vere tie use yiere several antimormon anti plays in belfast theatres theartres 2 these productions were probably the sane ones previously used in england during igli depicting what nhat was thought to happen to mormon converts tso teo teb in england a motion picture A victim of the cormons mormons Mor stirred up latent opposition to Mormoni mormoniaa mormonian monian and a play through death valley tl or the itthe atthe mormon peril was produced depicting the life of a british girl who mho supposedly joined the mormons and was vas wab vab carried away a captive to a life of slavery in salt lake city3 these productions were undoubtedly morrions lons welcomed by opponents of the mormons Mora moma in ireland meeting hall hail hali all ail ali rental since mormons in ireland dadalt didalt didnt own a meeting hall until 948 ibid t 2mprovemen improvement era XVII 9u t millennial star LXXIII 9 I

117 they were at the mercy of others for a place to meet which was often a great disadvantage missionaries held meetings in barns flax lofts hll hil hit I sides bides and on hillsides in addition to being shifted from nom non building to building ly by indignant building owners ios 05 los when the missionaries returned to belfast in they reported there was no central meeting place during the following decade they moved in and out of buildings almost yearly shifted from on february the elders in dublin stated the itthe atthe is much embittered against us so much so that every place we me public mind have hitherto occupied has been taken from us through the influence of our enemies this has been a great drawback to the work of god in this city 0 2 it was noted on january that there was no regular place of meeting in belfast and md two years later the elders stated that yor for ffor some three years past there has been no public hall occupied by the saints but even when a hall was found there was rent to pay patrick inch lynch reported in 854 that there were not saints enough in ireland to redeem his watch which he had pawned pavmd pavad for three pounds to pay the rinto rinta rint44 rint4 two years later it was also noted that the lady members had pawned their shawls and the men their watches aid md ald rings and they had even pawned the furniture out of their homes to help pay the expenses of the belfast umme mume branch 5 millennial star XII XH cl nen 2millennial dennial hennial Hennial star l83l XV ihi 4 3millennial star XXIII deseret news october malennial stara millennial star XVIII

118 06 aign aien when the third campaign began in 884 the mormons still faced the problem of finding a meeting hall francis greenwell conference presidentp wrote from belfast on november 92 6 reb elder wilson and I tried to get a hall yesterday to hold our sunday meetings ino ine lne tomp near the center of town toun cani I said salue sald well I iw3lsh wish you no success and cant he we succeeded an in finding a nice one the rent of which was three pounds per half year so we agreed to take ito we were vere standing in the hall with the gentleman looking at the room then he asked the arrangements for the rent he said we ve looked like and so he was not particular whether we paid him hinh quarterly or in advance or at the end of the half year so honest men it was all settled when he asked us what kind of meetings we were going to hold I replied religious meetings what kind he asked I said on the Goapel goabel gospels goapel the church of jesus chrls christy Chris tm church what we all belong to that he said what body of people are you the latter day saints sir oh the cormons mormons Mor have the hall hali hail commonly so called let you I would be committing a great sin if I were to let you have it to preach such abominable doctrines in he wished us all the bad luck that a christian could wish and thought we ve ought to be run out of the town after three months the problem had not been solved as J lo 0 L mcmurrin reported the following on february lu 885 from the same city h 3 not only have the elders met with the most determined opposition in outdoor meetings but every effort to secure a hall has been bitterly opposed and resulted in failure ahi vhi those whom we have applied to0 for places in which to preach have denied us the privileges so freely extended to other religious organizations because forsooth we me are mormonse cormons monse nons Mor 2 by 887 mormons in belfast still had no regular place of meeting the missionaries wrote we are now placed at a disadvantage through the want of a suitable hall in a respectable locality to which we might invite many of the respectable people who congregate at the custom house steps to hear the peculiarities of the millennial star XLVI u 8840 millennial 2journal hi 884o journal history february ll ih 4. lh 885

119 07 mormon doctrines trinese the meetings meetings of the saints have been held in private houses daring the winter been untiring tiling in our endeavors to get a hall but bat invariably we have been asked the name of the sect we represented and our answer evokes a refusal refusals we have meeting hall refusal occurred as late as 908 in belfast when the mormons applied for the use of the ulster minor hall well a wellknown known building in the city it was scheduled for a semiannual conference tember 908 the elders made a down payment toward the hallh hail hali on sehember seltember schember Se kember Sel sei 28 kember 9.9 and by september 27th saturday all ail ali arrangements had been made with clerk the final payment and a receipt for such from the town clerko cherko however by midday day on saturday the presiding elder received the following notice tie tlee with reference to your taking of the ulster minor hall for the purpose of religious services I have subsequently ascertained that the subject of the meetings is to be mor- oni and I am directed by uie ule the 80 sm d acted subimprovement committee atee in charge of the hall hali hail to intimate to you that such a subject monism m lre inch arge h is not one for which they can let the hall and as they are of the opinion that if the services in question are held they are likely to lead to a breach of the peace and general dis- turbance they are compelled lied llad to cancelthe agreement for the cancelthe eithe letting and return the money paid by way of rent shilling which I have herewith enclosed please acknow- ten shillingss wh ich enclosed2please ledge receipt or return the ones given to you signed sir sanuel tom samuel black belfast town tou clerk three pounds the hall refusal was a disappointment to the mormons in belfast who had several large posters placed around the city ci and tinge tinga had distributed thousands of circulars advertising their meeting on sunday sept ember september 28 stigators more than three hundred anve investigators of the mormon church millennial star XLIX 887l o millennial star LXX

120 08 gathered for the meeting at the ulster minor hall only to be told by two missionaries that the meeting had been cancelled 0 meeting hall refusal thereby restricted mormon growth religious prejudice and bigotry at the beginning of this chapter the author stated that very little physical violence was ever encountered by mormon missionaries or members in ireland mormons have however have had many unpleasant and discouraging experiences with rel3 rela religious gious leaders in the country 80 during most fron don the 850 of the opposition encountered was from dom combined landlord and clergy threat of excommunication and eviction as 9.9 f rom aire alre already acty mentioned f ollowing the following allowing decade as the work began in dublin opposition from religious leaders grew elder edward sutherland wrote from dublin in that the difficulties which I have had to contend have been considerable tossed about with bigotry and prejudice on every evexy hand evely and overshadowed as it were with the clouds of priestcraft 2 and superstition and of ireland in general it was noted by the mormons that protestantism and catholicism both have strong footings fand anda and3 religious party spirit runs very highn3 elder bigler remarked in 862 on the religious sentiment and stated the people generally are so much under the influence of priestly power they dare not leave their congregations to con- come out and hear us while the ribbonman ribbonmen Ribbon tend and oran Gran orangemen for their respective parties with fierceness and bitter abid kbid ibid see whole article on pages millennial amil 2mil lenna iennaal lenra star XIV mille emille millennial nm star IV XV l83l

121 09 ness and use every meane means to prevent any from deserting the seccio sectional staadards standards the bame sa same elder said that in ireland t priesthood and religious bigotry are as dense as london rog fogt fogy rogy it and that the majority of vith the saints were surrounded mith wl religious superstition and hypocritic reli rell reil 9ions cal religion prides lons bigotry and pridedja j2 at this same time the branch president john reid wrote that we have priestcraft with all its horrors to contend with here belfast3 pin tin 3 in belfast before the mormons returned in 884 HW H king surveyed momon mormon progress in that country and summed samed bummed up in part ty IV sayings baying for several years the voice of bodis godis servants has been caused by the tee mee spirit of intolerance 0 0 silent here at the time mormonism was declared in this land liberty found bat bul but religious bal little sympathy in the hearts of people truth was met by error seated upon the throne of false traditions crowned with public lle lie opinion and armed with prejudice P hatred bigotry and a fierce spirit of intolerances 4 tolerances after the mormons finally gained a few more converts one mis signary sionaxy sionary in belfast wrote in 885 that some of our new members are meeting with the most bitter hitter titter and tyrannical persecution since their reception of the restored gospel and al so that there thene is so much unreasonable opposition and prejudice hurled against the despised and universally ma m misunderstood bunder stood mormons that many good honest lovers of truth awayj aways5 and right are frightened awaya As late as 96 the clergy in belfast were openly threatening millennial star XXIV glien 2millennial milennial Milen star nial XXV bidej 620 ido 6200 niv882jl 4millennial star XLIV v millennial star alvn xl7h P xlvn s 7980

122 the mormon missionaries ariese arlese arlesa while llo lio 0 tracting tracking in the city one mormon elder met a minister f taik talk cormons and upon finding out that he was talking g to two mormons Mormons the minister exclaimed mormons MormonsJJ we wet not have you here at all and if you value your life you will get out of here there were mere some of your that if you put any value of your life you will get out of this district men here once before and we chased them out and if you do not go out well put you out I want to be frank and forewarn you sionaries such forces workingagainst the mormons likely caused many missionaries to be discouraged but to others it served as a good sign as typically stated ly by elder george wilson in 884 it is plain to my mind that the lord has a great and mighty work to perform in this land or else the devil would mould as he doese when he sets up a howl mouid not rage it is a sure sign that there are fish to be caught he is just beginning to have his eyes opened but just as he always is a little too late the seed has taken root and a few have taken hold that cannot scare out of the fold 2 perhaps the missionaries were comforted by the words of the master who said blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness sake for theirs is the kingdom of heaven blessed are ye when men shall revile you and persecute you and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for my ray may sake rejoice and be exceeding glad for great is your reward in for so persecuted they the prophets which were be- youd heaven fore youg internal problems most of the factors previously mentioned have been external 9.9 or lmillennial star LXXVIII millennial 2millenra star XLVI 880 al tio matthew

123 ill outside of the church organization there were vere ver however two 9.9 internal problems scattered saints one problem was the scattered condition of cf the church members for over one hundred years the mormon activities in ireland mere were vere bere centered in belfast and dublin 4.4 but bat brt for some unknown reasons there were several conversions in other areas pertl perhaps penni Perti in hope of establishing branches in new areas or maybe to escape the persecution in the two major cities the mormons sought and gained converts elsewhere in ireland however hovever holever it was much to their disadvantage as no real church organization could be established among a scattered people As early as james fenguson fergason ferguson wrote that he and his colleagues were trying to open new proselyting areas other than belfast and dublin in the irish conference by the end of 3M mission leaders advised that it was deemed wisdom for brother scott to lessen his expenses inn belfast and send the elders out among the towns and villages and hunt out the honest in heartt heart this was apparently in abed ated done as reports later indicated on july elder john scott said that the belfast conference was scattered over the province of ulster and that the saints are very pood poore six months later a similar report appeared in the millennial star on the saints thereviktted cant veru veay very velu mell poor2 lag lagge an january ireland are very much such scattered well meli be visited in consequence of some part of this is the case their families being out of the church in a great many instances they cant attend meetings 0 and cant 0 a0 milennial millennial Milen star millennialnial stara star2 XIX 857l millennial star XX l88 85Bt bt

124 2 mre are than the saints in the belfast conference are scattered more many of them are unable to be visited except in dublin now and then when some who are opposed to us are out of the way branch president john reid in ireland reported one year later that itsume itsome bome of the saints do not enjoy so much of the spirit of the holy ghost as is their privilege on account of their scattered position 0 position02 02 on january elder james go bigler G stated that fthe fethe saints hjn hajn 3n an ireland are few in number the whole mission containing but about 00 who are scattered over the country from cork to londonderry0 0 later another missionary han george halladay hai HaU laday ladan stated that the total number of latterday saints in ireland does not exceed forty and they are very much scattered4 scatteredf4 4 apparently this trend continued during the twentieth century as indicated in conference reports of 926 and 927 f in the first it was reported that forty towns and villages were canvassed in ireland since ages the previous conference and in 927 in dublin fourteen villages near dublin were bracted tractede 5 in the author authors opinion the failure to concentrate missionax missionaryy missional efforts in a given area has been detrimental to mormon progress in ireland due to the efforts of one man benjamin R bircall Bir birchall the scattered saints in ireland were kept together during a twenty year period in the twentieth century centary 0 6 millennial lmillemial star XXI millennial 2miuennial star XXII i t au7u millennial star XXIVV millennial millennial star XXV ibidb d seee page

125 3 mormon missionary Missionaez aex skepticism another factor inhibiting the growth of mormon progress in ireland was undoubtedly an outgrowth of all arl ail ali it is evident that many mormon irish receiving the gospel f ari others previously mentioned momon missionaries became skeptical about the one of the first instances this was indicated was in 848 after the famine had passed through two of its most ravaging years in ireland the mormon periodical the millennial star contained an editorial asking for some elder to volunteer his services in ireland this was unusual when there were elders enough for one to be asb abbigned assigned ignec to work in that country in elder john scott attended conference in birmingham england and mentioned the attitude atkitude tade about mormonism in ireland atti attl that prev seemed to prevail at that time the apostle fpeteyp before had had the vision of the net waa good enough for him when he thought that az z there wab to eat but I trust that asself ing withme withee e labouring was nothing ayself mrself and the brethren who are me will yet be able to show that there is some good stuff in ireland 0 Irel irei 2 and is a spirit abroad re- I know there has been specting the irish something akin to that entertained by pete elder james janes P low also wrote that before he arrived in ireland he had an unfavorable opinion of the irish mission and people 3 president george Q qe ae cannon of the british mission presidency severely rebuked the elders in britain during 862 for entertaining ullen lmillennial milennial Milen milennial millennial ap Milen starx sparx X nial 8u8 848s 2860 stariviii StarI slid stix skid VIII XUII starxlii r nial p millennial 6 cl88l nix millenmal amillennial annial sbar

126 nu 4 lih lar asimilar sentiments dent benk antso he then gaid gald sald said on I was very pleased to heat the irish mission heal the report of brother bigler ted and to see the spirit that animated conaerni him corxierntng conaerni hib his field of labor somebody asked after he biglen biglerj Bigle glei was sent to ireland what he biglei had done to be exiled there ireland has been supposed to be a very hard field and the irish to possess very little of the blood of ephraim and if an elder has been sent there he has been sortation portation looked upon as having received a kind of sentence of transportations but even church leaders later displayed some bias for instance a president of the european mission wrote in of his prejudices in regard to the iridi aridi people4 aal an tarn turn axt by the burn bern barn of the century there ariese were still elders who resented going to ireland as missionaries one missionary joseph Wwv smith wrote that when he received his assignment to work in the irish mission he felt ascending sc below all things to go there it was pretty nearly ade lde 3.3 without question this attitude was held by many mormon missionaries who arrived in ireland and the pessimism am only added to all other factors inhibiting their work an irishman visits utah irish skepticism of eor Mor monnoniaa mormonienmonien during the nineteenth century was illustrated in no better way than the incident between an irishman timothy quirk from belfast and the cormons mormons Mor however the incident occurred not in ireland but in utah where mr quirk ventured to visit his brother an the account was related by anthony thony IT ivins who later lmillennial lmiliennial star XXIV s 34 journal of discourses Discourse 77 i XXVIP 770 o 3deseret evening news october 27s 9000

127 liy 5 lly became a counselor in the first presidency of the mormon church when he was a young man mr lwe ide irw ivins and his wir wife rifea rire had driven a wagon full of peaches to the salt lake market returning to their homes in southern utah they stopped in cedar city to spend the evening he related the day we reached cedar city on our return a heavy snow had begun and coid o aad the weather was bitterly coldo we drove to the hotel conducted by bishop henry lunt and secured accommodations for the night the bishop was also the postmaster and kept the stage station the coach was late because of the storm and we waited dinner for its arrival when it rolled in a single passenger alighted and walked into the sitting room smail snall snail man wore a derby hat a doeskin jacket which he was a small fit fit tightly doeskin trousers and heavy english shoes in his hand he carried an old fashioned carpet bag he set down on the ioor floor f and drew up a chair in frontf of the fire lre mrs lunt came in and said twe otwe have been waiting supper for you would you like a wash before you eat no he replied repiied tilt if thit s a warm I want not a wash it af ter and told us his name was timothy quirk college at belyast belfast abt and was on his hib way to silver reef to see after he had warmed himself he came into the dining room that he was just from his brother mike he had experienced many adventures since leaving virg home hone he said lea iea when ifften I reached salt lake city I had not a cintc and I just went into a place where it said deseret I im I m here and have no noney moneys moneyi and begorra it waait Imormon mormon seebt seeft mormone they told me they lived there but divil a see a one could I bee he then whispered to me they had them all shut slut siut up in the palace I ttl found out afterwards that when your brother mike wrote you did he tell you any- mormon bishops I asked sure he did he replied wandhe didnt tell me thing about anything good about them either yeli yeii for waldhe ffwell fawell I said the gentleman to whom you are talking the proprietor of the hotel is a mormon bishop the young lady the telegraph operator is his daughter she is a marmon mormonoll Mormo neit noll neti he stared at me for a moment then slapping his hand on his knees laughed as though his sides would split ildo you think you can come that over me knewt knowt he said you think im fado ftdo as aisy as that do you think id schlape in the house of a mormon bishop schlape in the snow firstft ft int in me pocket telegraph over the door and wrote on a piece of paper mike waadt two hours till the money was there from silver reef they did it I cant tell his and how the divil and during those two hours I walked the streets of salt lake about in hope that I might ff o wasa it id rather go out and how did you get along with the stage driver I asked foine driver driven boine Fo he replied heb heis hes heib a roine fellow is the stage

128 momon too he is a mormon I said he shook his head and said divil a bit of it I wouldnt vouldnt ride a step wid a mormon stage driver id walk iviry step of the way to silver reef firsto vd rather he left on the stage the following morning wiy why nhy they have pifs lifs pigs and coos and aid mid ald ttl at home still looking for a mormon as unconverted as he came cane A few weeks later I met him at silver reef and bald baid said efell ffell amwell tim have you seen ary any arv yett mormons noh go away he replied as he gave me a push the woods are full of them and thre divilish divilsh devilish ilishsh I fine people opie end chickens just as we have nti 0 timothy quirkts discovery might well symbolize the gradual transition of irish skepticism lan ian toward nian Mor mormonian monaoniam monto Monao monian niam in ireland which occurred during the twentieth centuiy centuxy century lmillenni millennial star sta 887 XCIV

129 CHAPM chapa CHAPTER VIII vill TWENTIETH CENTURY CENTURA MORMONISM IN IRELAND D at the conclusion of the preceding chapter the author suggested that the image of Mormonian mormonismin Mormonism niam in ireland changed during the twentieth century and that it is much more acceptable as a christian religion at the present time furthermore joseph smith recorded that a heavenly folio folloving messenger moroni informed him on september of the following ring ft n 0 god had a work for me to do and that my name should be had for good and evil among all nations ss kindreds and tongues or that it should be both good and evil spoken of among all people lt italics added the change has occurred in ireland but it hasnt until the recent past that joseph smith or the church has been known for good in that country to account for the change it is essential to determine the factors which launched the church into a progressive era among the irish foremost among the factors is that the image of the mormon church all over the world changed dramatically during the twentieth century in america for example the mormon beliefs had differed so greatly from those of the popular religious sects that from the beginning in the early 8308 soc soe al conalicts acts the converts of the new church were greatly persecuted social order conflicts political pressures hatred and bigotry ap po of Ggo P ope opo cite cito cita smith 233-7

130 8 were among the motives causing the mormons to be driven one thousand miles westward to the great salt lake valley the public announcement of plural marriage in did little to win public favor misunderstanding between united states government officials and mormon church leaders also added to the negative attitude that many U S citizens already held toward the mormon people officlais favor at the tum turn tunn of the century and during the years that followed nany a favorable image resulted from marv many narv things o according to recent mormon historians the the innovation and strenguhe strengthening of many church auxiliaries such as the sunday school the young peoples ls people program known as the mutual improvement association the woments women moments s relief society the childrens Childrents primary and the adoption of scouting all helped to turn int ant on the tide of public opinion also the ing priest lap roved utilization of cf the two priesthoods melchizedek and aaronic gave added strength from within 9.9 worldwide wide tours by church officials and extended tours of the famed mormon tabernacle choir brought much praise and recognition to the previously unpopular church the church welfare program begun in 936 won the respect of many people as mormons planned to care for their own economically distraught members the scientific advancements in the field of mass communications aided the church in projecting its newly acquired image before the world through the means of radio tele vision 2 and the motion picture it has therefore been noted elsewhere by a prominent nonmormons the story of the changing image of the mor mons is one of the literal triumphs of education over prejudice 0 0 yet they have survived a library of abuse and are today not zilen zilen allen alien and cowan mo op cito 2ibide cite t

131 9 only accepted bat an admired and respected people it is only logical therefore as the mormon church won more favor not only nationally but worldwide that a similar change would eventually occur occar in ireland A second reason the mormon church in ireland has recently become more popular is because of the change in proselyting tactics according to another mormon historian there is a growing tendency to derron demon delnon deson denon strate mor eormonism rather than to preach itaf the exemplary life lived ty he continued mormonism ita2 0 by the missionary has always been a vital force in conversions now the tendency is to organize church auxiliaries the relief society sunday school pri- force mary MIA and to ainvite nonmormons to see the church in action where formerly fon ronnerly these activities followed the organization of a branch now many even precede such sach bach buch organization sunday schools and primaries r for example exanie are being set t up with vi the nucleus of a single singie mom eom mormonon family to these organizations non mormons who may never have heard a latterday invited thus activity in the church nay may mav pre n3 become a most vital factor toward conversio slo saint day sermon are 9.9 nav precedeede membership conversiona other factors aiding the monnon mornon dornon church during the twentieth century not only in ireland but in many other nations are according to the same mormon writers first it mormonismj is a religion of certainty the the resur- existence of god the father as a personal being rection of his son jesus christ the certainty of revelation the program of the church nations the power of the priesthood are realities in the minds of lat ter day saints second mormonism is a religion with a goal churchto carry the gospel to every kindred nation tongue and people to establish zion and to do ordinance work for the living and the dead is i specific and real this program transcends that of any other church in the history of religions cause of there is no danger that the ause the church will stagnate for want of a goal 4 and libid bibid bid 67 2v03am william E berrett the restored church salt lake city utah the deseret news press ibid 3lbid 3bid 4bido ibxd

132 20 Ssince ance the mormon missionaries lonarea first nent went lnce naasionar vent to ireland in 840 the basic goals of the mormon church have not been altered however as new circumstances have arisen am ben aen attained var vazi ed the goals have been attained ly varied means resulting in the new found prominence the means used to attain IC this status will become evident as an investigation is made of twentieth 0 century mormonism in ireland dublin branch Ae reopened As previously mentioned the belfast branch was reopened in 884 when then missionaries returned to ireland after twenty years absenceo absences however the dublin branch organized in 850 had continued little littie more than a decade and had soon ceased to function as an organization even though a few members continued living in the city it was not until april 29j 900 that the dublin branch was reopened when several momon families of german descent settled in the city as pork butchers f typical of the families who formed the branch of the church in dublin lers dialers were the dimlers Dim horlachers Horlac horlaehershers herb and nog erlys Mog mogerlys mogeriys A few years prior to the turn of the century fredrick aa a4 A dimler and babette henrich separately emigrated fromf fron wurtenberg germany to england eagland giand Fa they both obtained employmentwith meat merchants and eve- m ntually married and settled in hullt huil dialers huilt yorkshire england o the dimlers had two daughters one of whom later married christian steele who was also of german parentage and a mormon converts eventually christian steele converted his wife to the mormon church who in turn tarn converted rary book ai irish histo boo no 5087 church histor bistorian lan rl ish conference history may 8 903march 28 95s igi lib- hunch Historian s office v the branch was apparently reorganized on march

133 2 her parents pork butchers and they all moved to dublin to carry on the trade as similarly left about 900 herman horlacher left ley wurtenberg wortenberg germany and moved to dublin where he became engaged in the meat industry left lena brenner left germany about the same time and moved to dublin where she met and later married mr horlacher his brother had also emigrated from germany but had joined the mormon momon church and was influential in faith alth converting both herman and lena horlacher to the new faith falth 20 henry Mogerly eogerly also born in germany moved to england where he married mary pratt in england they both joined the mormon church and in 95 moved to dublin and there became members of the dublin branch 3 these three families were just a few of the pork butchers comprising the dublin congregation so rapid was the growth that the firstf semiannual conference rference arence in dublin was held december 4 igou 904 at igo U lower sackville street dublin 4 4 by 90 mormon church leaders noted that most members in dublin were gemans germans rather than irish on may igo heber J grant president of the british mission visited in dublin and reported there is a thriving branch of the church in dublin most of the members not being irish but germans A number of en- terprising german saints to busi busl having found it profitable business nebis nesis sell pork in all its varied forms and grindings to the inhabitants of dublin have invited others of their fellow countrymen to come over and partake of their good fortune and opportunities and so there is quite a colony of german pork millennial star XCVIII ZCVIII l0 la millennial 4850 igo bid abid bid 3bid bid 4millennial star LXVI

134 22 butchers in the capital of the emerald isle i act the impact of the german emigration on mormonism Monnon lm ism in dublin was noted several years later by a mormon church leader who observed in that in dublin TO we have a branch of about sixty members nearly all people2 descendants of german peopled 20 the branch had previously risen to a membership of seventyseven seven between reen and maintained a similar number until 937 when a gradual decrease began for many marq mann nann marv years the dublin rather than the belfast branch served as headquarters for the mormon church in ireland from 99 through 937 benjamin R birchall presided over the church in that country and because he resided in dublin the headquarters of the church was located there for nearly twenty years by 9577 there were only twentysix six members of the church in southern ireland centered in dublin but as wa w will be shown membership in that area has again recently risen emigration policies changed emi eni ration emigration has previously been designated by the author as one factor inhibiting the growth of the mormon church in ireland often as high as onethird of the converts left their native country to gather with other church members in western america by 907 a policy change was noted in emigration which had hitherto been advocated by church leaders in that year charles Wwo penrose of the european mission pre ithe instructor XIV cl conference 935 conference report october 93 63

135 isidency silency tsi isi wrote in the millennial star that the church is not using WW the ibe 23 any othersto influence to persuade its members or others to emigrate that many of them shall stay and build the work abroadn but desires president aident joseph ro F smith also declared to church members outside utah we do not desire my brethren and sisters that you trouble yourselves too much about emigration at the present we do not advise you to emigrate until e stabl i ched ehed we would rather that you remain until you have been well establidied in the faith raith ralth in the gospel and until each one of you has been the instrument through the help of the lord in bringing one or more of our fellowmen into0 about the temple ordinances in the truths int the church churcho charcho but live in faith and concidence confidence be not troubled idenie and wait patiently and if death should call you before the ordinances are attended to your children will see to it that the worl woric woik will be done opportunity in this life to receive those ordinances f and even if you have no the lord will open the way so that it will vill be done in the future in 935mission f 935 mission leaders in britain noted that over seventy percent of cf their converts made their first interested contact through local members all members of the church in britain therefore thereforep ep 9.9 were advised that they could greatly aid the missionaries in proselyting by bringing nonmembers to members church meetings 3 at this time the role of the members was redefined as they were asked to remain in their native countries and assist the missionaries noting the change in emigration policy recent mormon historians have noted the gradual change in emigration policy however was inevitable tabie ineri and no matter what the impetus for its inauguration the growth of the church in later decades was achieved 3 partly because of the hard core who remained to build up the church in their respective lands what appeared to be a millennial mii millemial Millemial star LXIXX cowan and kilen alien ailen mcowan 2cowan lilen illen ilien opo ci jmj elj jtj sew cit au 2u 249 ullen 3millennial milennial Milen star SLEs nial XCVII lolo loio loh logo loge

136 24 temporary policy of discouraging emigration eventually became the pex permanent program toward stoward world wrid of the church through thich it continued striving toward its worldwide wide objectives century in the twentieth and anda andp recognition is certainly due to those stalwart irish mormons who vho aho have remained in their country and have so ably assisted in promoting mormonism among their countrymen 9 substantial growth the years preceding world war I proved to be a period of substantial growth for the church in ireland partly due to the increase of for in missionaries assigned to that area between 909 cand 90 there mere were twentysix six mormon elders proselyting im in ireland resulting in the conversion of ninetyseven seven people durl during that same period sixtysix of them in the year 909 alones church membership grew to three hundred fiftythree in fifty three 95 igi and again in 97 the highest number either elther bea before or igo after 9500 after that time until 90 the momentum tam vever however was temporary as most of the missionaries were withdrawn toward the latter part of thewar as there were only two missionaries in ireland at the end of the year 98 2 conversion of john moore during the summer of 90 mormon missionaries tracted bracted in the county of tyrone northern ireland and were turned away from a doorstep by a mrs scott that evening she related the incident to her young farm laborer john moore and aroused his bariosi cariosialty curiosity about the lcowan mcowan g cowan and lilen alien allen kilen 2see asee klien op cit aon zon see appendix A on statistics on the church in ireland

137 25 mormon churche A week later the same missionaries fonaries came and were again miss onaries but refused entrance bal bat bwl managed to ta leave a pamphlet which related some of the doctrines of their church that night after work joan moore took the literature and ty by the aid of lamp light read the material in utle uuie the attic his interests grew and he tried unsuccessfully to locate the monnon mormon missionaries finally finaly he wrote to the address on the back of the booklet and asked for additionala dional information which he received from from the church headquarters in liverpool acter reading each cf after read of the books several times 9.9 he again wrote to liverpool requesting baptism and aad membership in the monnon moxmon mondon maxmon churchy two tvo elders were notified in belfast and traveled the rifty fifty fifty miles to meet mr ero moore in tyrone where on december 0 90 john moore was baptized in a cold country creeks creeke P at the time this thesis is being written 968 he is the oldest living convert of the church in ireland and has done much during his lifetime to preach and aid the missionaries in their endeavorsa a the benjamin Rrv birchall era bra no account of twentieth century mormonism in ireland would be benj complete without mention of benjamin R birchall who from 99 through raid rald 937 provided the leadership of the church in the erasrald etas Eras rias ibie isle ible born in eagland ragland england benjamin Rs birchall experienced a desire as a young man to enter the ministry and did so at the age of fifteen m in stry for six years he was a licensed methodist preacher in 890 reverend birchall heard of the cormons barbarous mormons Mormons in utah and sailed for america to take salvation to the misguided misguidedfl fl people upon his arrival in utah Milen milennial millennial nial star XCVIII

138 26 he was appointed circuit preacher in carbon county and traveled by horseback through many of the coal mining tovms towns because the mormon people with whom he was living were so devout in their faith birchall ail ali developed a new kind of interest in mor bonim moniano monim doniano on one occasion he visited the salt lake tabernacle during a monnon mormon conference and met president sident wilf tbilford tailford TB woodruff and several other xchall general authorities one of whom told mr ba b3 birchall mchall that he birchall would join the mormon church and someday preach the princl principles ip ies of mons nons mr birchall replied that it would be a cold day rin cin heli heii hellj hella monnons mormons monnone Mon Mor cormons when he joined the mormons Mor not mons long after a january day in 893 quite prophetically turned out to be cold vhen utoen ahen the ice had to be broken in salt creek near nephi utah as benjamin R birchali birchall Bir was baptized a member of the mormon church in 895 elder birchall returned to england as a mormon missionary and remained there rather than returning to utah his employment eventually took him to dublin Iireland where he was instrumental in promoting the church most of his life in 99 he was appointed district president of ireland a position held until 937 Inas inasmuch nuch as he resided in dublin irected re s ded he directed erected the affairs of the church from that locality and frequently traveled to belfast to assist the church members there he often traveled over twenty thousand miles a year at his own expense to promote mormonism As previously mentioned the scattered condition of the mormons in ireland proved to be detrimental to the growth of the church during the twenty years however that president birchall birchal I presided he helped overcome the problem as he traveled from one end of ireland to the other vi siting visiting the members in remote areas who were unable to attend

139 27 regular meetings indications of his work in southern ireland were reported in a conference during 932 noting n even though there i s is but one branchy dublin president has conducted seventy 9.9 birchall four meetings many with scattered saints during the previous six hsi monthsi month hbl cavert cmvert montesi a through his endeavors he was also instrumental in converting eightynine people to the mormon church during his lifetime 9 in addition to providing the needed leadership in ireland benjamin R Rs birchall served as a member of the national board of health for the irish free state he was a chairman of the tuberculosis board Societ clet societ socheties leb les of dublin chairman of the national association of approved societies and a fellow of the faculty of insurance alus birchalls BirchalPs original desire cormons was to labor among the mormons Mor mons and beiler belief he eventually accepted them although he began opposing the mormon beliefss nistrationp mormonism Mormonian because of his untiring efforts and skilled administrationa in ireland gained a stronger footing during daring the twentieth century 20 irish free state conference organized in 922 a civil war in ireland politically divided the country when leaders in twentysix counties in southern ireland established a parliament and government in dublin the seceding counties first were known as the irish free state ere later as eire elre and since 948 have been known as the republic of ireland the remaining six counties antrim Fer armagh down fermanagh managh londonderry and tyrone retained their rela- tionship ap p with the united kingdom and remained under britains jurisdic juristic millennial lmillenrmal illennial star nial XCIV milennial 2millennial Milen nial see LXXVII star XGVI XCVI XMI xai XCVII also

140 28 tion northern ireland is also known as ulster the province in which the six counties are contained prior to 922 all momons moimons comons in ireland were organized as the irish conference but after the revolt of that year church leaders recognized both governments and the irish conference was divided into the free mee t state conference and the ulster conference arence on april a meeting was held for mormons in dublin and the gathering proved to be the first arst f held after arter ten the state was establishedo establishe stabi shed 2 edo Llikewise I J I thee meeting held on october 922 in belfast was recognized as the first held government3 government in the province under the dominion of the ulster governments it 3 was not until september that the reorganization of the church in ireland was announced by david 0 mckay then the president of the british mission Missio nw he attended the meeting in dublin bublin on that date and proposed that benjamin R birchall preside over the newly proposed free state conference A missionary john C bell was appointed to act as ulster conference president 4 4 the free state and ulster conferences theoretically functioned separately but in practice were still a single unit as it was during this period that president birchall travelled in both northern and southern ireland meeting church members due doe undoubtedly to lack of progress in southern ireland the two conferences were later rejoined edo ede on october 28 i annua 934 a joint semiannual andua annual meeting was held in belr beirast belfast and six sem months s later on march the two areas were reorganized to form limprovement era may ullen 2millennial milennial Milen 3lbid 3jbid 654 o 4millenni millennial star 96 buo 2uo nial LXXXIV al star LXXXV L 65

141 29 the irish district a name retained until 962 when the irish mission was organized james Hho wallis traveling patriarch cont coat because patriarchs in the mormon church were assigned to areas containingg many church members latterday day saints A 3 and said arld arid western europe usually didnt residing inn britain dicht have the opportunity to receive a special patriarchal blessing to rectify this problem church authori authora ties assigned james H wallis as traveling patriarch to the members ai i ing living in europe and britain he served in that capacity during u during which he visited ireland a number of times 2 in 93 irish conference reports indicated that patriarch eanls wallis eanis had given thirteen auch such blessings to church members in ireland during that year 3 and in 933 sixteen members in the dublin branch were given a blessing which completes memberseff4 vhich couple tes the list of free state memberstt4 because of patriarch ffallisa waii wali wall ff irish momons moimons members of the church comons gained a greater understanding of their roies roles as roies les first missionaries from ireland for nearly one hundred years the mormon church had sent mis- sionaries to convert the irish to mormonism early in 936 the first mrss missionaries fonaries ion lonaries arles from ireland left their country to go to england to con eon milennial lmillennial Milen nial star XGVII XCUI millennial star CII cl9li millenni millennial sal lal sai star XCIII millennial star XCV

142 30 vert those people to the churche two tiro young men eider elder harold P po mogerly eogerly and sad snd elder fred horlacher left and about the same time sa t tao two tvo tad young women gertrude S horlacher and laura Ddialler sailed for ror england the event was significant inasmuch nuch as in the years that followed many other irish members were also called on missions to england scotland wales vales and western european countries mormon international soccer star the mormon health law commonly called the word of wisdom was brought to the attention of the irish by one young latterday saint who achieved fame through his unusual athletic abilities abill tiese tieso fred horlacher a young member of the dublin branch became a member of the irish soccer intemational international football csoccer tecam team during ding 929 during duning 936 this period the devout latterday day saint brought himself and the church wuch such recognition because of his achievement on the soccer field often of ton playing before crowds of one hundred twentyfive f lve thousand people he became the favorite of many soccer fans on one occasion he was publicly asked how he maintained his athletic vitality and he replied the word of wisdom prohibits the use of tea tobacco and all alcoholic drinks it is a piece of good counsel which the lord desires his people to observe and to those who do so he will give great wisdom and understanding he will increase their health and will win give strength and endurance to the uele eele faculties of the bodies I can trutha truthfullysaylhave vantage over sy my rivals in my living up to the word of wisdom for any success I have gained in sports have been due2to ato the blessings received by adhering to the word of wisdom bay I have a big ad- millennial star ICVIII s 0 7 millennial starxcviii 2bide

143 iria with his position on the arieh irieh free state international soccer 3 team young horlacher competed with players from other european countries and won the respect of many certainly he indirectly taught mormonian Mormonian in a unique but effective way irish keep fit girls an unusual group organized in the belfast branch was the irish itkeep fitt girls a physical fitness class comprised of young girls in the branch the girls began the class in october 937 and specialized in drills of physical exercise english and irish folk dancing and precision military drills the group performed first for branch functions and soon began displaying their skills in other civic gatherings perfo the dance and drill team perforated med before more than four hundred people perfomance on january and were applauded for their perfonnance performance the girls also gained recognition not only for themselves but for their f or church when on february they performed in the belfast cooperative hall to crown their brief but successful career the girls were invited to england to perform for other members of the church in britain the achievements of the girls were but another indication of mormonism being demonstrated as well as being preached in ireland millennial chorus nissionarl i es factive fective A chorus of mormon missionaries proved to be a new and effective proselyting tool in ireland in 936 when fifteen elders from the british eor mission arrived in belfast and tried 0 0 M assion to bring mormonism Mormonian to the attention 767 lmillennial star XCIX Cc ogi I Y CI 939 ua u7 0 UOO 4000 hoob 392 hoo UOO

144 32 of the irish through song corporations radio network and also sang at various socials and twice they sang on the british broadcasting Corporation ts gatherings on january the millennial chorus returned to ireland and were guests of the york street unitarian church in belfasto belfatto Belf aste the youthful mormon monnon chorus rendered several numbers for an audience of over four hundred people and won many friends through their performance A similar group of missionaries M under the same title returned as a chorus in 947 ight after world war II and returned again in 949 to help interest people in ireland in the mormon church miscellaneous activities other activities prior to world war II helped to improve the image inage of mormonism in ireland the primary for the children relief society clety for the women and mutual improvement loprovement association for the church youth all ali experienced considerable growth in the decade prior to tle the tie war dances were held occasionally on saturday evenings for the young members f and in 934 the first ttgold and green ball bail was held in belfaste belfasto belfatto scouting was 3introduced during this period and a belf ast drama society was begun in the belfast branch in the early 930 f S belcast social outings helped unite the belfast abt branch members closer together as did similar socials in dublin even though the membership was gradually decreasing in southern ireland although few in number the dublin branch won the british tt ttbuilding fund contest Cont in estt 934 and 935 by donating over each year 3m in a contest sponsored to raise funds fon for millennial star XCVIII C XGVIII XCIX

145 33 bri tain chapels in britain effects of world war II As the contention between germany and england grew worse in 939 mormon church leaders anticipated an impending conflict and so advised the missionaries in britain in september 939 missionaries were called from ireland along with the other missionaries in britain and imericae were relocated in Amer america inasmuch as the irish free state declared neutrality during url uni the war d ng rs members bembe of the church in that area were not subject to the same hardships which were later experienced by mm ambers members in northern irelandw even though the church membership in belfast numbered over two twa hundred in igho 940 the war caused a sharp decrease in activity in the brancho many mormons in ireland were employed in factories producing war VW materials and were required to work seven davs days a week to equip the british soldiers and allies for battle between 940 and ight there were only about twenty active members in belfast the guidance of branch president joseph ditty sr gut ua u3 Sr and they were under during the seven year period ditty was often the only active male member of the church in belfast branch inasmuch annuch In as shl ships ap p s and airplanes for the war were produced in belfast the city was often the target of german bombs consequently surf surr buffered saff many mormons in belfast suffered greatly and reported barely escaping death but even mith unf infavorable abie dur ng with such unfavorable conditions during the war even ta church meetings were held weekly in belfast ditty stated that only millennial star millennial XCVIII XCUII 93 lose 050 iose 935 0

146 34 once did he cancel a sunday morning service and when that particular day arrived he related that he went to the meeting hall on queen victoria streets streete being the only person present he sang a hymn opened with prayer read a scripture blessed and partook of the sacrament sang another hymn said a closing prayer and returned hone homes that was the first and last occasion that a meeting was cancelled in belfast during daring the war because german submarines were known to be in the irish sea travel between ireland and england was very limited during the war years in addition passports were required to travel between england and ireland which made it impossible for much contact with mormons in ireland and church leaders elsewhere in britain except through occasional letters the stress caused by the war also limited proselyting in belfast even though several young ladies were called as missionaries in their city in the absence of elders eiders from america one encouraging factor of the war was that several mormons from america were stationed in ireland as members of the allied forces on several occasions they joined the irish members for church services and ls als ais sociats soch socials and ine lne there was one known convert gained d from the american servicemen vicemen credit must be given to joseph ditty and the few members of the belfast branch who continued to function as an organization during the wars ware commenting on the experience ditty has said the belfast branch just barely carried on in a very awkward but we carried ono this is the amazing period of its history thing about it every sunday but one during the seven years a meeting was held 0 4 it is amazing how the church held together and how the lord blessed us during those trying years our branch was out in the backwoods no one ever bothered or

147 35 knew we were there yet somehow we always held on on september ll 3 missionari missionariess the irish saints welcomed the missionary e from america who were assigned to ireland after the war ended elder western Nye christensen from victor idaho and elder arnold R rawson arrived menti on the date mentioned oneda on onedo december 20 elders james L mortensen and mark L southword were assigned to work in i n belfast making a total of four missionaries the average number during the following decade the mormon church in ireland had survived another crisis a world waro wars first building purchased one drawback amback that mormons in ireland always faced was finding an adequate place for public meetings they always managed to find a meeting hall though often inadequate but were constantly under the threat of eviction this was especially true for the mormons in belfastf as indicated in the list below of meeting places beginning in 8900 years meetings halls l thorndyke no independent street belfast 90 thorndyke andyke street belr beirast belfast abt 7 claun place mt eto pottinger junction and loh 04 york street belfast abt donegal chambers 40 donegal street belfast abt 48 york tork street belfast princess building 06 ann street belfast igho igho 948 carlton dance hall hali haily york street belfast belcast 22 upper north street belfast 3a donegal street belr beirabt belfast 22 upper northern street belfast belfabt meetinghallo meetinghau Meetinghailo HaU Hallo han great victoria street and 22 upper north street belfast lre ire lrecorded interview with vith joseph ditty sr& in his home at 807 kensington avenue salt lake city 9.9 utah sra november

148 icart signiaicant one of the most significant steps forward for the mormons in 36 lre ireland was the purchase of a meeting hall in 948 early in that year a three story apartment building was purchased JL belfast and on march as 8s 98 iga 948 alma sonne president of the european mission selvoy 8 boyer 4 J president of the british mission and other church leaders gathered at 3. 3 the mount and dedicated the first church owned property in ireland the mount as it became known served not only as a meeting hall but was mission headquarters district presidents office branch presidentfs presidents office and it also provided med wed housing for the missionaries two years vi ml later a baptismal font was constructed in the building and on september igo a convert from bangor was baptized in the new font the mount became a wellknown place among mormons in ireland as it was there that the church activities in belfast were centered during the following fifteen years the church owned meeting hall certainly added to the permanent establishment of mormonism in ireland t new mew branches organized for over one hundred years there were only two organized branches of the church in ireland belf beir belr ast and they were located in belfast and dublino branches in londonderry and lurgan burgan and a few other localities had been ng temporarily established dura dur3 during the nineteenth century but were not few large enough to function for an extended period of time in 9500 the third branch of the churchin ireland was organized in bangor near belfast missionaries conducted the first sunday school in bangor on august and not long afterwards regular meetings ielllennial millennial glennial ilen liennial star CM

149 were vere held at l 7 9 high streett streete by the end of the bangor branch had a membership of twelve and grew to twentyeight eight the year following ollcwing yearo bearo by tsy try 956 the mormons in bangor claimed thirtyfive f lve iry 96 converts and gained a total of ninetyfour four members by t A fourth branch was organized in portadown Port ireland adown in and though the growth was somewhat slower than in bangor membership in the portadown Port branch grew to twentythree three members in and then tripled in number by 962 mormon expansion in ireland had begun genealogical microfilming igo igi other mormon activities in ireland during vast amount of genealogical microfilming of irish records included for ovet ovey over a nineteen months a micron microfilming iming imming team led by james R cunningham genealogical chairman of the british mission was in ireland and reported microfilming It ithundreds of large volumes contained jn in the proven pedigrees of the leading irish families for three centuries besides many transcripts of parish registers wills wilis wllis lists of papist mists nonconformists ormisto church census returns tards tarns etc n ttl iti valuable records for both northern and southern ireland were located at the public record office at the registry of deeds in dublin officials in charge of the records were anxious to have the inform- informa ation duplicated since many of the records had been destroyed and aad damaged darlng during daring the uprising of 922 during daring duning the period of unrest a disastrous ire lre burned the fire four courts of dublin doblin Doblinit dobling where many of the valuable records had been stored even though many deeds and records were microfilmed in dublin lithe improvement era LV up also see the im- provement era may

150 38 and nearby areas the government emment in northern ireland withheld permission to microfilm the parish registers contained in the public record office at belfast nor did the presbyterian historical society allow the mormons to microfilm their vast collection of parish records ss by june 5. 9 igi 95 the mormon genealogists had duplicated all records available in ireland at that time copies were given to the owiers ovners oeners of the records while recorded copies were forwarded to church headquarters in library libra ilbra utah to be added to the churchs vast genealogical libraryo ryo ryg conclusions the events mentioned in this chapter all aided the church in improving its image among the irish people during the first half of the twentieth century centuxy igo two new branches were organized and the membership in all of ireland grew from 322 in 900 to 275 in in arditi addition the first church owned building had been purchased the missionaries and church members could be justly proud of ments their accomplichments accomplishments diments dimants but the growth and increased activity only proved to be the dawn of a new era of mormonism in ireland as the best was yet to come coneo

151 cn CHAPTER JAAPTER IX NEW ERA FOR IRELAIND IRELAND I iggi beginning in it seemed as though mormonism in ireland entered into a new era as several events occurred in the british isles which helped to strengthen the church these events occurred at the visiting same time mormon church leaders from america were visiting ireland the increased activity eventually led to the organization of the irish mission president david 0 ece oe eck mckay in ireland one of the highlights of mormonism in ireland during daring darlng the twen awen bieth century was the visit of president david 0 mckay in 93 igo 953 tieth ti0 Prior prior bior to that time a church president preb dent had never been in ireland while serv ing in that capacity david 09 mckay was sustained as president of the church of jesus christ of latterday day saints in 9 igi 95 and two years later august ugast dugast 8th ath and 9th ath he made his memorable visit to ireland to meet narim the irish saints and missionaries he did so during his tour of europe and britain to dedicate two temple sites the district president of the church in northern ireland wrote flwith fleith enthusiasm the saints received the news of the impending visit to many it was impossible that a president of the church could really be coming to their land it was like a pleasant dream nl lmilleial milennial millennial Milen nial star 3 CXV l

152 the missionaries and ambers nembers mmbers made plans to welcome the church tafe leader his nife wife and other members of the party president mckay arrived in ireland on august and received a warm greeting from the irish saints the following day sunday two meetings were held in belfast Bel beicasts fasts and the esteemed leader addressed those in attendance presi president mckay said to the one hundred sixby sixty present that he was pleased to see the improvement that had been made darlng daring during the past thirty yearsn yearin yearb iko 40 iho ibo presl after the meeting president mckay was besieged to shake hands and to sign his autograph and he remained until everyone had his wishes his son lewelleyn who was with president mckay noticed particularly that his father went out of his way to accommodate the children he mentioned this to president mckay who replied never slight nor offend a child children are more sensitive to attention and recognition than realizeot2 we reail realizelt dett deti after the conference r de it was not possible to ride a train to du- I blin so president mckay and his group took a taxi from belfast to dublin log champion&hi a ride of 05 miles many cars were on the road since a championship IP football soccer game had just ended and many fans were returning home not used to riding on the left side of the road president mckay remarked that he had never dodged so many cars in all his lifee ride ra r2 de 3 ilfe as on this after president mckay s departure the district president noted through the visit of the prophet testimony of many have testimonies testimonl been strengthened the interest of investigators deepened and lpresident lp mckay mekay s journal august of secretary clare middlemiss middlemas9 2bl idd 3bido ibid also see church news august used by permission

153 ili iki 4 hll gratefulness to god increased many are the blessings that the almighty has poured out upon the hands of righteous saints and the saints of ireland feel that this visit of Presi presl prebi president presideit deft mckays has been one of the greatest blessings to them the visit of the president who is also acknowledged by church members as a latterday prophet important was a historic occasion for the mormon church in ireland and led the way for other important events which aided the growth of the church in the emerald isle president mckay has recently said were had in ireland some of my most memorable missionary experiences I love the irishn irisha te london tempie temple aith alth in M for many years the converts to the mormon faith falth 3 ireland had this been taught the concept of marriage not only for life on this earth but as a continuation of the relationship in the life hereafter providing the marriage was solemnized in one of the latterday saint temples the members were also taught that ordinances could be performed in the temples which would help their deceased ancestors attain salvation this ths I thib vicarious work for the dead bel bei mormons believe belleve ieve leve is taught in the new testament 2 prior to the midtwentieth century bialief twentieth however these beliefss were taught in ireland as theory only as it was financially impractical for the irish members to travel to one of the mormon temples in america to perform the much desired work financial ly financial millennial milie StarC starcxv XV starcev al sty ani CXV 953t 2 see I peter usa us66 john and malachi in relation to the prophecy in malachi latterday saints believe that on april elijah the prophet appeared in the kirtland temple in ohio and restored the authority to perform the vicarious work for the deceased see D & C ee I corinthians 29 I peter 3820

154 ust 953. the day after arter hish I s sit on angust august hib visit to ireland president mckay dedicated a sites for a temple near london england the ju42 u2 vi presi announcement of a temple accessible seible to the irish church members was happily acknowledged groundbreaking ceremonies took place on august and in three years the temple was completed on september many of the irish saints traveled to england to attend the dedication of the temple and an irishman joseph ditty sr was off er honored by being asked to offer one of the prayers at a dedicatory sessiouo session thousands of people were permitted to see the london temple prior to its dedication and the britia britich beritich news media gave wide coverage of the event A few irish newspapers also contained reports of the historic bistor ic event for mormons in britain january was officially declared to be the first irish temple day at the london temple and many members took advantage of the long awaited opportunity mo no longer did the missionaries in ireland need only to tell the irish saints that someday they might be able to visit a temple with the completion of the london temple the temple work became a reality also of importance IMPortance during the dedicatory services in was the statement of president david 0 mckay who said that the construction of the temple marked the beginning of a new era of the momon mormon church in britaina Britaino taine this certainly proved to be true in ireland mormon tabernacle choir in britain part of the groundbreaking ceremonies for the london temple in lmill millennial amillbenm enmai star 98 CXX

155 9 igl 955 included the singing of the world ramous famous mormon tabernacle choir 43 on tour in europe and britain during august of that year even though the wellknown choir from salt lake Ccity ity was not able to perr perform in ireland it did conduct three concerts in scotland and england the f rom choir received high praise from nom the many thousands bho who heard it sing and through the choirs the church received many favorable comments ants from the british press the impressive publicity the choir moir received also indirectly helped the status of the mormon church in ireland because of the rapid sales of record album recordings which were later sold throughout britain by there were eleven such albums ly by the tabernacle choir available in ireland the british broadcasting corporation bli britain government radio network for bid britain and northern ireland played many of the recordings on various radio programs which helped to bring new status to the once unpopular church even though the good accomplished by the tabernacle choir cannot be measured on a scale the favorable impressions made ty by the singing was indicated to the author one night in coleraine northern ireland during december 962 four mormon missionaries including the author attempted to conduct a street meeting in coleraine one stormy night and after one hour had not succeeded in attracting many listeners savoured eventually an irishman who apparently savoured irish whiskey staggered towards us and listened for a few minutes we offered him a pamphlet but he muttered something about having his own religion and let us know he wanted nothing to do with cormons mormons Mor As he turned to leave however he remarked that there was one thing he liked about mormons and that was their tabernacle choir he further muttered mattered nattered as he staggered away that he had purchased all of the albums that were available

156 HA 4 ill though the irishman was hesitant to listen to mormon missionaries preaching in the streets of coleraine he had been very impressed by the choirs singing and had become an admirer of the music the visit of the choir and their subsequent recordings greatly aided the image of the church in ireland and undoubtedly helped do away with much prejudice held towards mormons prior to that time visits of church leaders prior to president mckayla mckays mckayls visit in igo few of the church leaders had been in ireland other than those assigned as either british or european mission presidents following president mckay however many church authorities visited the irish saints and missionaries W kimball a member of cf the council of the twelve apostles spencer made a stop in ireland on july and a year later adam S bennion also an apostle visited the irish church members and held meetings on august ord ond uth and ath 5th elray L christiansen assistant to the twelve and president of the salt lake temple traveled to ireland on Dec december enber lias 4s and met net with the irish saints and one year later august marion G romney apostle also conducted similar meetings in belfast on january alvin R dyer assistant to the twelve and newly appointed president of the european mission spoke to svoke the mormons convened in belfast after the scottishirish irish mission was or- gani zed ganized howard W hunter apostle travelled to belfast and on january its spoke to the mormons and their friends july was another historic day for the church of jesus christ of latterday day saints in ireland on that occasion henry D moyle counselor in the first presidency of the church and gordon B

157 au u 45 hinckley an apostle went to ireland to introduce and install stephen re R covey as president of the new irish mission As far as it is known this was the first time that two general authorities were in ireland at one time f tim tia and it was also the first time a counselor to the president of the church had been in ireland it is the authors opinion that the visits of the leaders aided in strengthening the mormon church in ireland certainly their guidance and leadership proved to be inspirational to the irish saints who undoubtedly enjoyed the association with the church leaders which they had not previously experienced scottishirish irish mission missīon for eighteen months january 96 through july 962 ireland was included in the scottishirish irish 3 missionl missional nl Missio during which time many prepa rations were made for the forthcoming irish mission As previously mentioned at the dedication of the london temple in president david 0 mckay stated that the occasion marked the beginning of a new i ng era for the church in britain on december the first presidency announced the organization of the scottishirish irish mission over which president bernard P brockbank would presidee mission headquarters were established at t69 paisley road tv in renfrew near glasgow scotland and president brockbank spent much of his time in ireland meeting with church members and looking for locations on which to build new chapels realizing that a separate mission and more missionaries linf kinf information matlon for except where otherwise otherva noted scottishirishshirish mission church historians s office I formation for the scottish irish mission was obtained from the quarterly historical report sh january 960 june 962 located at

158 46 were needed in ireland president brockbank recommended that consideration be given to organizing a separate mission to Ix ireland wiand singing mothers choir three months after the organization of the scottishirish irish mission a choir representing the church traveled to belfast ireland to perform a concert on march 7 96 the singing mothers Mothersp w a choir of over female church members from america and britain sang before an aadi audience of nearly one thousand people gathered in the ulster hall the concert proved to be the first major event of the church in ireland where such a large number of irish men and women gathered to listen to a mormon sponsored event it was noted all tickets had been distributed and a small queue formed outside in case there should be any spare seats after the first go ing song it was obvious that the concert was going to be a tremendous success As the concert continued the applause was thunderous encore after encore the audience just refused to leave they wanted the choir did much mach to raise the image of the church inasmuch as it 3 was the first time that the irish had come in contact with so many mormons MorEions at t ime one time imb the citizens of belfast and surrounding areas were apparently impressed with the mormon choirs singing increase of missionaries one great noticeable effect of the scottishirish irish mission on momon progress in ireland was the increase of missionaries during the twentieth century there had been between four and ten missionaries serving at one time in ireland by march 3 J 96 just three months after the scottidi scottiah scottish irish mission was organized there were thirtyfive five missionaries in ireland and by the end of 96 the number had more than doubled on february the first lve five f millennial star CXXTII 96 iggi 57 v 963

159 47 irl iri sh missionaries called to the irish mission arrived in ireland followed by nine more on june 5. ight 962 all totaled there were eightfive e f lve full ssionaries in ireland when president and sister stephen R time ma missionaries m covey arrived in 3n july 962 during daring darlng the following four years four there were more mormon missionaries proselyting in ireland than there had been darlng daring during the entire previous century since the work began in ast belc belfast abt chapel by march 3 96 president brockbank had a building site approved for a chapel to be constructed on the hollywood road in belfast on august 5 96 groundbreaking ceremonies were held belcast belf and many prominent citizens in belfast attended the services for other sites for chapels were located by president brockbank in lon- donderry portadown and a second location in belfast even though the Port chapels were not erected for some time after ireland was designated as f or a separate mission preparation was made for four beautiful chapels to be erected in that country growth and expansion prior to 96 there were five rive branches beb bes heb five of the church functioning in ireland located in belfast dublin dablin dablain por tadown jadown bangor and in the londonderry branch was reopened with the increase of missionaries new areas were opened for proselyte ing and consequently new branches were begun during 96 branches were begun in lame rathcoole Rath coleraine omagh and on january 8 96 the belfast branch was divided into the east and west belfast branches by july 962 there were eleven branches of the church in iri lri ireland when the irish mission was organized oed organii notable achievements were made in conversions as well as over two hundred people were added to the church membership during the eighteen month period most of the activity occurred in northern ireland where nearly all of the seven

160 348 hundred members were located when scotland aid and ald ireland were designated as separate missions missione preparation Ppp for the irish mission one of the great achievements of president bernard P brockbank was his proposal of what could missi be done if ireland be organized as a separate mission on december 3p 96 he reported work has moved very slowly in ireland even though it is a noticeable increase over 960 five new branches were started in ireland in 96 but more could be set up if there was proper missionary personnel 0 q 9 I am sure that when a mission is set up the work will increase and improve among this fine group of peoplee the earth are living in ireland many of the fine people of titien tftien yffien he was told ly by the first presidency of the church that the irish mission would soon be a reality president brockbank spent consi- honsl derable time in belfast locating a suitable place to serve as mission headquarters for the irish mission he succeeded in finding a place known as redhill tf on finaghy road south upper malone road a beauti ful estate on the outskirts of Bel bei belfast raste faste because ills of president brockbanks foresight and planning skills slliis the necessary preparations were made for the irish mission organized during july 962 qarterly quarterly historical report 9.9 scottishirish irish mission Mis mls october siong 96december 96 december 96

161 CHAPTER X THE IRISH MISSION on january george Q cannon of the british mission Bri tish presidency stated that they tthey irishj are susceptible of the tru ui irish the irisha when circumstances are favourable mctall mctdlloster for itttl ittel sa milarly Milarly ariy able their receiving it similarly s3nil nii malarly elder john T D mcallister missionary in ireland had previously predicted that 0when ewhen they the irish have the privilege of hearing f the gospel they will embrace it 2 the time arrived for both statements to be tested when the first presidency of the church of jesus christ of latterday saints 3 day announced on january the organization of the irish mission inere tsere were the circumstances favourable able and if given the privilege by many more missionaries would the irish accept mormonism mission organized gmiced geographically the irish mission included ulster the six northern counties in ireland and the irish free state biad ate also liao included was irelnd the isle of man off the coast of irelmd irelaid Ire lre although the irish mission was geographically just onethird the size of utah there were million people living within the confines of the missione stephen R millennial star XXIVV lob iob 35 I millennial star XVII la l8 855p deseret news hews january

162 daring coveys previously a mormon momon missionary in ireland during igo 9lt 954s 0 50 igo igli was called to preside over the fifth mission organized in great britain since 960 the church leaders had organized the british north british scottish irisha irish3 southwest british and finally the irish mission in the british isles sandra merrill covey wife of the new mission president was called to direct the womens relief society in ireland and also to assist her husband in other administrative duties president and sister covey were set apart by the first presidency of the church on may they arrived in belfast ireland the latter part of the following loving month 2 mormon headquarters in ireland was established at the redhill estate previously secured by president brockbank when tihen the remodeling was completed Uheir f the coveys and coheir amily moved into the new home along crheir family stafy staff with the missionaries called to assist on the office staffo on july the newly appointed mission president and his wife wire met with the eightyfive f lve missionaries then serving in ireland at the conclusion of the afternoon meeting president covey and all the missionaries went doam down dovm to belfast city center and conducted a street meeting although this proselyting tool had once been popular in ireland and elsewhere in britainn brita it had not been used for a number of 9.9 years on this date the street meeting was held in frontf of belfast lchurch city hall and the technique soon became an important part of the pro- achurch news except where otherwise the iri irl lri sh M ssion bion hews january zil 2a all infonntion infomatv lon ton ion in chapter ten the irish mission otheivi ose lse obe noted from the quarterly istorical the irish mission blon church historian stor I s office 0 was obtained historical report of

163 igl igi 5 selyting strategy other missions in britain later adopted the street eting meeting ie T as part of their missionary program five days after the initial meeting president henry D moyle melor meior counselor to the church president and on tour of cf the european missions stopped in belfast and met with the missionaries also accompanying president moyle were gordon B hinckley apostle nathan eldon tanner president of the west nest mest european missions president bernard po P brockbank iri lri irl president of the scottishirish irish mission and other men representing the chapel construction program of the church president moyle the only counselor ever to visit ireland stated on that day july the significances I acance of the newly organized orgal iced m mission and the anif icance potential the church had in ireland at that time stephen re R covey was sustained by the members and missionaries as president of the irish miss elss mission eiss ion lon not long after president moyles visit the belfast newspapers noted the increase of mormon activity in northern ireland in september 962 the belfast newsletter reported there has been a mormon mission in ireland for the last 00 years sic but it is in the last seven years that the laoo 00 to just under looo membership has jumped roughly from5oo 000 there are gho 940 members of the mormon church in ireland of whom whon about 900 are in belfast londonderry coleraine omagh larne portadown portadovn Port bangor ballymena Ballymena holywood hollywood Ho and rathcoole Rathcoole C Portado after arr al soon after his arrival IV president covey visited all the missionaries and each sunday he traveled to a branch of the church to greet the f rom irish converts assignments were given administrative policies were viere declared and as missionaries from salt lake city arrived new towns were quart equart rqport quarterly historical rap report irish mission

164 2 52 opened for proselyting activity it was apparent to many irish that the mormons had arrived in forme force rome and planned on staying one newspaper the church of ireland gazette declared those of us who enjoy the distinction of having been bom born and bred in belfast and of having grown up amidst all the wonder of its truly fantasticf religious life could perhaps have excused the presumption of thinking that having known all this variety we had seen everythinge but apparently we within recent months the gay bazaar of the thousand and one rites has been further hotted of the cormons mormons Mor yes cormons Mor we have not cotted by the arrival the mormons and no brief call by attache case carriers in black hats on their way through from utah to dear knows where not at all they have come to to stay growth wth and EMansion expansion ancion As suggested elsewhere in this thesis the monnon mormon church in ireland had not grown as rapidly in ireland prior to 962 as it had done in other parts of europe and britain according to covey there were two basic reasons for the previous lack of growth in ireland first the emphasis in terms cf number of missionaries and basic support was devoted in fields of labor closer doser to mission headquarters and social support second the seen and unseen obstacles were greater in ireland thus requiring a much higher level of faith and faithfulness to make successful inroads into them to a degree ireland 9 was labeled in the minds of missionaries as an interesting place to work ror for a while but basically where not much could be done this label comprised a prejudgment which proved to be self seif belf bulf fulfilling iii iliing the judgment is prejudice and enables people to deal with that mental label rather than to deal in- ductively ductilely lively with living due ively real human beings who really are searching for a true may not know it 2 I atrue guide and the true shepherd even though they t in july 962 the irish mission contained eleven branches of the letter from stephen R covey former president of the irish mis- sion libid bibid bid 2letter aletter f rom on february 2 968

165 3 53 mormon church eightyfive rive five five lve missionaries and about guo 940 gho 340 glo members by the end of 962 branches had been established in ballyroena ballymena Bally bailymena moena lisburn burgan lurgan carrickfergus Carrick enniskillen lywood lymood and holymood holywood hollywood Ho there were also two branches in belfast the east and west belfast branches one in londonderry coleraine omagh lame portadown portadovnl Port bangor rathcoole Rath and dublin no sent missionaries were sent to the latter area dublin until unti february 963 during the first year of the irish mission the number of missionaries increased from eightyfive was noticeable el i gaty five to one hundred twenty and the impact ablee in just one year the membership more than doubled and end since most of the converts were gained in the belr beirast belfast area two more branches were organized in the city the growth was not attained however f without facing and overcoming some soms ang lng bome great obstacles referring to such conditions president covey recently stated 6 we the number one obstacle was a faith barrier in our minds discovered that the lord works his miracles through the faith level of his servants if they follow true principles and exercise faith raith ralth f in him then he will give them power to overcome most any obstacle he will win fight the battle he will soften the hearts and testify and convert he will pretare preoare predare the way he will convict I am personally convinced that all aith alth barriers which exist in all people if I can lift my faith real barriers are faith falth c an ai ift falth fath in n the lord Jesus jesus jebus christ st to t0 a level levei ither above either elther the seen or the unseen obstacles within others I will inski inspire and lift other peopless faith falth fai above their I ob- stacles the key variable therefore is faith in for decades the attitude that it couldnt be done persisted in ireland because of the strong religious tradition the militant social and economic warfare extent throughout ireland mentalities characterized ty provincialism isola- tionism traditionalism defensiveness etc no doubt existed and still do exist but bat basically a good percentage of the average avenage people are god fearing sabbath honoring basically avera e 9 good people the lord loves them and is merely looking for his trusted servants to exercise bufflelent sufficient faith and faithfulness so that he will work his miracles of conversion through them to the lives of thousands of irish people is beginning to take place and this to me is the great miracle xi 9.9 mir this

166 54 done christ comprises gre a system of pride and in this country ire- landl tit fit cantt aith alth in any other object except the lord jebas jesus jebus faith in the lord jesus christ begins when and faith falthf of above church it be lre because of the unique seen and unseen obstacles spoken no system of pride will make any inroads for the the image is vastly changing because of the real the beautiful new buildings s and fruits of the youth program the ever increasing awareness of the factf that mormonism is christian and of good report prejudices are dissolving in the face of the fact of moimonisms moxmonisms truthfulness and goodness my experiences f rom particularly the first year from dom fron june of 962 to june of 963 forcibly taught me often in a very hard way that all problems are spiritual and they begin in my own heart it is the sheer power of character that is true dedication honor and faith in the unseen realities which comprise the essential variable in turning a negative situation into a positive onea oneg at the conclusion of the first year of the irish mission seven new branches had been added making a total of eighteen in all after arter the first twelve months the mission president wrote A wonderful foundation has been laid the mission has been established and the blessings s of the lord have attended to all who have sought him in earnestness and in righteousness the kingdom of lucifer has to a degree been shaken in this creed conscience country where the religious issue is on the tip of every centuries evelt evert tongue and has been for decades and even some people are literally becoming aware that there is another potent force in this traditional war between catholics and protestants with all ali ail of its social and economic and political repercussions so the kingdom of god is being established in ireland which isi a very blessed and favored adored f land and all those who have contributed feel so blessed beyond measure with cups overflowing for the privilege of so doings doing2 inga church membership reached nearly twentyfive f five lve hundred at the close of the second year of the irish mission eleven new branches were added making a total of twenty nine and the number of missionaries had head risen to a record of one hundred fifty filfty the work had also extended in other areas in the free state at the close of 964 branches of ibid Quarterl 2quarterly historica historics quarterl quartell historical Hist X i report rish mission I irish

167 55 pottinger the church were organized in belfast near mountpottinger Mount kill shankill Shan cavehill caverhill Ca stramill strumill alitt is rossetta stranmillis Stran Stramill and rathcoole Rath coole other branches in northern ireland were located in portadown Portadown gnp Bal wnp londonderry ballymena lymena larne dunmurry danmurry Dun Dan coleraine carrickfergus Carrick fergus enniskillen omagh lis bem bern ards newtownards newtovinards Newtown dungannon Dun portrush Por armagh newry portstewart Port and limaveda Lim in merick the south of ireland there were branches in limerick 3 cork and dublin there was also a fairly large branch organized on organi theisle theasle isie of man the rapid growth was due to several reasons music the mormon tabernacle choir and the singing mothers have previously been acknowledged as helping to raise the image of mormonism in ireland there were vere several other momon monnon singing groups which contributed to the same objective after the irish mission was organized seventyfive missionaries and members joined together in 962 and organized the irish mormon momon choir the choir sang not only at church functions but entered into local competition as well on november 962 the choir sang in the bangor music festival and placed second in relig religious hymn Lous singing another performance by the choir in march 963 in the belfast music festival and a performance the following month 7 in the portadown Port adown music festival were acknowledged in the northern ireland newspapers on november many missionaries and church members combined their talents to present a two hour religious pageant in the ulster hall in belfast the pageant depicted in drama and song the conversion of an irish family to the mormon church the production was undoubtedly the greatest undertak3 undertaking undertake ng of the irish church members and missionaries

168 56 6 up to that time guest soloist sandra covey previously a member of the tabernacle choir sang before an audience of thirteen hundred bef beaore people many of whom had gathered for their first glimpse of mormonism pageantmas the page ant wab sab was well weli publicized prior to the performance and mormon opponents also gathered that same evening five at the conclusion of cf the production about twentyfive people with picketing placards assembled outside the ulster hall and vocally warned the departing audience of the evils of Mormonism mormonism mormonismall much anti antimormon mormon literature was distributed ly by the picketers and one placard accused mormons of being olves twolves twelves in sheep tw sheeps clothing the sunday following f olloving the pageant religious leaders in belfast went to their pulpits and publicly denounced mormonism reporters anti happened to be present and a flurry on antimormon statements appeared in the morning newspapers during the following f ollo week typical of the reports was one which appeared in the tyrone constitution on november quoting a prominent presbyterian leader as saying the mormon church 0 must be regarded not as one branch of the church among relig c ety w erts others but as an eccentric religious IOUs society to win converts away lous so I in conv colv from the christian faith to their own heresyollf nt the presbyterian leader also warned his listeners to close their doors on the mormon mis- Slonaries sionaries arles if any should call another important octant outcome of the highly controversial pageant tele teie visione involved television the british broadcasting corporation exteiided extended an invitation to president covey to appear and be interviewed on one of their programs when whan asked idoes idies it not cheapen the gospel of christ to gp go two by two to the doors of the people if the mormon leader replied diled olied it is hard to improve on the approach of the sava savi savior in which itit atit

169 7 57 he sent his disciples two by two to the doors of the peopled A missionary quartet from the north british mission tithe the mormon sons traveled to ireland during the first week in january and performed for a meek week in the cities of belfast londonderry and portadowuo tadown jadown the four mormon elders entertained two thousand people pe0ple peaple vath edth song and through a television appearance reached an additional cal cai rith with addition Irish irishmen mene the lcke added humor of the missionaries from salt lake olty city clity interested many irish people in mormonism who previously had had little contact with the church ressed undoubtedly impressed cressed by the tie tle success of the young singers 9.9 presi- dent lent covey organized a similar missionary quartet known as the ttmormon aireso caires airest the popular singing group traveled more extensively than did the previous quartet and made proselyting part of their numerous performances manceb in 96 formances 965 the singing irish missionaries were sent to the iria risi ridl ridi republic for an extended visit 7 and they often appeared on one of the successful variety shows in dublin aires the mormonaires Mormon sang before tens of thousands in 2n the predominantly catholic region before they were recalled to ulster the group also made a record album of irish folk songs bongs and mormon hymns which became a popular item in music stores throughout irelander in typical mormon tradition singing helped to dispell dippell speil prejudice and also interested dl ace many irishmen in the once unpopular charcho churcho ice rel public relations actions reiations with the rise of mormon activity in ireland oppositi orl ori the opposition naturally increased especially among religious leaders many of whom were still convinced that mormons were not christians one reverend

170 8 58 in county armagh printed and distributed more than one thousand leaflets stating if it were only a question of these people mormons Mormons cormons 3 being another christian sect it would be a different matter I could feliowsh fello have fellowship with them IP P sn cormons but I could have no fellowship with mormonsn Mormon mons nons A similar statement appeared in the belfast telegraph during 963 exclaiming do these mormons want us to sell our souls to line Aine american sectarianism do they honestly think we are going to submit to an ameri- ianisin can takeover bid yle lre tre tie lne yie had christianity here before li america was ever heard of we do not need joseph smith to teach us the gospel ye noor ie nerica poor british dont seem to enjoy any favour from god at all the only hope for us is to be saved by men can re- meh ligion mormonism jehovah witnesses or some such set up t&merican likewise the carrickfergus Carrick advertiser and the east antrin antrim gazette each printed a letter which stated fette due to the activity of the sect known as the church of jesus latter day saints or alternatively called mormoni momonian monian Mo after this book of mormon christ of latterday holy scriptures which they put on equality i with the the carrickfergus Carrick openair lir witnesses have launched selling antimormon literature in the hope sect a doortodoor campaign that this antichristian to remain faithful to god and the bible 2 will be recognized by all who wish the challenge arose to the mormons in ireland to convince the irish that monnons momons t chrls chris christ I monnone were and are christians and believers an in jesus to counteract the antichristian charges against mormonism several plans were inaugurated mission leaders believed that personal contact entact would be a key factor in making mormonism appear ar more adorable favorable rabie the religious pageant previously mentioned helped to gather mormons and mormons together in a large group and president and sister covey nonmormons ory later visited several government orf officials claib i and gave them books and pam- libid bibidbid 2bid bid

171 9 59 phlets phleas telling about mormonism other visits were made to prominent citizens in belfast and surrounding areas and the same literature was presented on a few occasions the irish refused to receive or acknowledge the visits of the mission president as indicated in a letter from a mayor in southern ireland stating he saw no purpose in the visit since there were ample spiritual leaders in his city for the most part 6 howver however the mission president and his wife were courteously received by the government and civic leaders pre s dent C catey f ormerly since president covey cavey was formerly aly a member of the faculty of th e facul abulty brigham young university in provo utah and a competent instructor in the field eid of business administration 6 he was accepted by the belfast belf a st part technical college as a parttime time instructor in business management Ut although hough his purpose was not to proselyte for the monnon momon church the mormon molln leader was able to demonstrate that momons mounons comons were also capable of making achievements and contributions in areas other than religion another program to dispell dippell prejudice during coveys s administration was the at homesite held periodically in the mission home friends and contacts of the missionaries citizens and businessmen were invited to attend socials at the mission home and mere were received and entertained o 6 0 by president and sister covey and the mission home staff the purpose of the hoa was at how homes hombs sa s to show the fruits of mormonism mormonism through films slides illustrated books and personal contact with members of the mormon church undoubtedly one of the most unusual attempts in the area of public relations occurred in march 963 when two missionaries were sent to enroll as parttime time students in the trinity college in dublin ireland the missionaries were there long enough to associate with

172 60 many other students and introduce them to mormonism even though there were no known converts gained from the experiment these programs and several others have unquestionably raised the image of mormonism among the irish and to some the mormon church is a christian denomination degree convinced some that when asked about the transition of the churchts churches ts image president covey answered nominate on I believe that the mormon church is accepted to a degree in ln belfast abt and some of the northern cities as a christian de- nominati nomination however I am sure that there are hundreds of thousands of people who today still believe old prejudices and consider us antichrist or communistic the gradual elimination of prejudices has been due to the impact of hundreds of missionaries contacting tens of thousands of people and demonstrating in deed and word the christian model by the conversion of al- this has been effected ly most good irish people and ty by the impact of the many programs where thousands of nonmembers are involved either as active participants or as observers also playing a vital role in removing these age old prejudices are public relations programs to reach the top elements in society the active seeking of favorable media responses and grassroots roots publicity the sponsoring of cultural events and openhouses where top nameb names namee ment and business leaders were invited the supporting of worthy and popular social causes prominent govern- and business dealings with scores of prominent irish businesses all this and more help bring forth the truth regarding the christian character of mormonim mormonism els chapels elb eib one great factor inhibiting the growth of the church in ireland during the past century has been the lack of adequate meeting places As recently as june president bernard Ppo brockbank president s of the scottishirish irish mission noted our clur great problem in ireland is that we have not had proper places to hold our meetings the chapel called the covey scovey loc cit

173 6 mounts in belfast is an old renovated home partly settled maid mald not justifying repairs or ary arv id cracked any expenditure because of its inadequate facilities ve belf belr beirast abt we have checked many pieces feces of land for purchase in belfast during this last quarter three months and I am sure that we will sign forf places to meet soon A beg nn ng two months later august 5 96 marked the beginning of a chapel building program and during daring darlng the next five years f our four rour beautiful chapels were constructed in northern ireland lywood the belfast chapel on holywood hollywood Ho belf ast road was begun began on angust August augusts augusta august55 96 and after much work and financial sacrifice the chapel was fi nanci al neady ready for use on november of the occasion president covey noted new day it was a great day in the history of the irish mission a beginning in which the full program of the church a had its first opportunity in the form magnificent dicent physical baci facility ficent of the church in ireland iacility to go on forn of a beautiful in the long history f that will enable the full program of the church to be carried out in grand styles stylee 2 f orm this is the first physical structure cha eis els three other chapelsp were soon constructed I one in londonderry Port one in portadown adown and vehill one in the cavehill caverhill Ca area of belfast Bel beifaste raste groundbreak f or ing ceremonies for the londonderry chapel were held september and the chapel was dedicated on november 6 as 6s jaas jams jaws A 966 by james cullimore assistant to the twelve apostles groundbreaking ceremonies for the Portado portadown portadovn chapel were held june lu 4. lh ih 963 and elder cullimore dedicated the building on december 966 the second chapel in belfast the cavehill caverhill f 9670 Ca chapel was begun on july and was ready for use toward the first part of 96 the four chapels have stood as monuments to mormonism in ireland and have convinced many that mormonism is for yor the irish as well as americans for lquarterly quarterly historical report 2quarterly quarterly historical report scottishirish irish irish mission eibs elbs Miss mission iome

174 62 02 n I mormons have previously been accused of conducting aggressive campaigns aigns aiges in ireland and then returning to utah to leave the irish converts unattended and lacking guidance the newly constructed chapels and the local leadership have given great impetus to the fact that as previously quoted the mormons in ireland fhave starll stayll come to stay two mission presidents brockbank and covey have given their views on the effect and importance of the chapels said brockbank the new chapels have given the church recognition and stability in ireland and the church will progress much faster and reach a fine class of people much of the prejudice is disappearing as a result of the new buildings and the attitude of the members of the churche lt president covey similarly stated that the chapels play ita ila tta a very important role in several wayss ll he continued by giving four primary reasons first in lifting the overall oved ail ali image of the church which softens hearts prepares ways and undermines undernmneb prejudices second in inspiring more dedication and real basic pride toward the church in our own saints third it more effectively facilitates nes the execution of the full program of the church which is really the heart of the plan of life and salvation for only in the program of the church do people undergo the basic character development to gradually save and exault themselves fourth great missionary tools for investigations to come to meetings to partici- pate in your programs etc the mormon church had access to a piece of property on groomsport Groom pi ece road in bangor northern ireland on which they have anticipated antle antie ap pated abed for a number of years building a chapel one of the prominent protestant churches in that area however has prevented them from doing so by placing a restrictive covenant on the property and through some legal brockbank ico loo 00 cita eite elte 2coveyo covey loc ioe loe 40 cit

175 63 technicalities have refused the mormons the right to build a chapel on the estate several attempts to lift the restrictions have failed and at the wime tims time lime of this writing the restriction is still in force permission has recently been given by the church to the mission president to purchase another piece of property in bangor tempie temple e work until the irish mission was organized in 962 few irish saints had the opportunity of going to the london temple to perform their temple work shortly after covey arrived he accompanied john moore irelands Ir oldest mormon convert to london where the elderly gentleman was able to receive his long awaited temple ordinances one year later fortyfive rorty five irish rive saints the largest group ever to attend from ireland Irelan ireiandj traveled to the london temple on july 963 the party sailed from belfast arrived in liverpool and from there traveled ty by railroad to london A bus took the group to the temple in surrey hundred irl iri lr i sh athe ythe where in one week the irish saints performed over twentyfive rive lve ordinances for themselves and their deceased ancestors five the following summer of au 6u a larger group of sixtyfour irish saints participated in the temple excursion to london and completed many temple ordinances the organization of the irish mission has literally made it possible for many lid irish saints to receive the blessings and benefits of the london temple which otherwise might have not been attained had the mission not been organized free state reopened mormon activities in southern ireland had been minimal since the

176 igl 64 close of world war II at that time many of the members emigrated and few missionaries had been assigned to revive the work in that locality occasionally church authorities in britain would send two missionaries to the irish republic but little good was accomplished in mission- adl aries 0 were reassigned to dublin and mere ari adi were there off and on until early in agazed 96 when they were finally withdrawn after the irish mission was organized 9arazed in 962 no attempt was made to reopen the south for nearly eight months or until the foundation foundat foundas roundation lon was s firmly established estabi idled in the north 0 during march feed 963 six missionaries were transferred to the free state and two of them enrolled in the trinity university in dublin by june of that same year the missionaries had located in dublin llmer limerick I and cork and had established stabi shed new small branches in n the latter two cities to thirty members dublin branch had retained a small nucleus of twenty president covey and a few of the missionaries conducted a street meeting in cork on august and over two hundred irish men and women attended itnever itneyer has a crowd drawn so readily or listened so attentively ty said covey without any heckling or contention or with such a positive responseitl responseml Ml after ten months of proselyte ing the missionaries under coveyls covey s administration gained their first converts from the irish free state and on december a man and his wife from dublin were baptized members of the church of jesus christ of latterday of years day saints the first to do so from that region for a number certainly one of the highlights of the first three years of the irish mission was the visit of president and sister covey to eamon quarterly historical report irish mission Misaione

177 65 devalera president of the irish free states part of the mormons bei beliefs ier ler a iss that their doctrine will vill be proclaimed before berore kings rulers and rulers also mormons believe that the lord has said pertaining to the kings and rulers of the world ind nand again bof borvon ton ven I will visit and soften their hearts many of them ror for your good for that ye may f find rind grace in their eyes that they may come to the light of truth and the gentiles to the exaltation or lifting up of ef zion2 zion02 ziona in the latter part of december 964. president and sister covey were in the irish republic and received notice that they would Valeras valerae be able to visit president devalera this they did by presenting the revered irish leader with several church books and conversing with him for a half hour on the principles primelpies ples pleb of mon ninae Mormo mormonian mormoninae monian president devalera t told them he had visited sait salt lake city in 929 and had been in the famed tabernacle on temple square he also said as a young boy he had heard of the momons moxmons comons and the stories of polygamy associated with them re ma er the remainder of the time was spent discussing joseph smith and the momon gold plates of the book of monnon 0 f in part this experience was the fulfilling of a promise given gaven to the coveys by president david oo 000 mckay when tihen he set president covey apart as mission president he told him that through many of the political leaders in ireland estial they would be influential in raising the standard of eormolli morstmian mormolli Morstmian mlan am by the end of 967 there were one hundred seven members of the momon church in the irish republic the membership of the dublin branch had grown from thirtytwo two members in 962 to fiftyfour four members in 967 ad d & GC 23 2 ibidol id

178 66 the remaining membership was located in small branches in drogheda Drog waterford tralee liaerick merick aralee dungarvan Dun llmer limerick Li garvan cork and dun don dan loaghaire Loag in december there were thirtyeight missionaries in n the republic of ireland As to the the future of moamani Mormoni mormoniaa rmani an in 3 the south of ireland leret where lerel beret ieret ninetyfour four percent of the population belongs to the roman catholic Cliurch churchy cliurch two tvo mission presidents have voiced their opinion president brockbank stated that in southern ireland progress is very slow but urcho I feel that many will become interested in the church in the near future because of the changes being made in the catholic church ghurcho Gh president covey recently stated near I believe we will live to see more than one stake in dublin perhaps a stake around limerick and one on the southern tip around cork and tbtaterford waterfordo gater Water people in ireland are basically good people they have lived under a medieval relig3 religh religious system for 0 oub OUs centuries even though it will take time considerable patience patiencl patlen patiencye faith and faithfulness the lord will work the miracle through trusted servants berv antso antao the south is beginning to open and to liberalize itself some whato chato the ecumenical spirit is helping along these lines however some real obstacles in terms of meeting halls building programs and the actions of the catholic church when they become aware of cf the permanence real motia motivation tion and possible impact on their flocks are yet to be seen irish republic the future may prove to be interesting for the mormons in the for auxiliary development 4 one of the he purposes of the irish mission was not only to gain converts but also to train the members to work together in the various brockbank loccit 2coveys loc loe ioe loccie elt eit cit cit cite cita

179 67 church auxiliaries for the mutual betterment of both old and young these auxiliaries included the woment coment s relief society ror f or the primary for the young children and the mutual improvement association for the for teenagers and young adults reiier relief relier ler so reller society in 962 there were seven small relief society groups functioning in ireland and in the next three years the number rose to sixteen sister covey served as president of the relief society for nearly two years and by that time the organization was sufficiently complete so that one of the irish sisters could preside part of the activities of the womens organization included monthly woman Is organi zation bation service seminars and insera inservice training the women also made and maintained inthe all the baptismal clothing used in the belfast chapels A mission wide garden fetelf fetell netted a total of over one thousand dollars when the mormon women made and sold many useful household items the irish relief society had one hundred percent subscription for the churchwide wide relief society magazine and numerous publications and booklets were printed for the aid of the lady members in functioning together terfaith interfaith socials with other religious groups also helped the women better understand each other during the three years three church leaders representing the relief society traveled to ireland and met mst with the irish saints belle Sso spafford president of the relief society general board aulda parker young secretary to the relief society general board and hazel Sso lovej a member of the relief society general lovea board all visiteds and helped unite the I iridi aridi ra r ah mormon women certainly the strengthening of this organization did much to aid the growth of momonism mormonism in ireland prim 0 primary primacy in 962 just seven branches of the church were regularly conducting primary for the younger children and within three years a total

180 68 of twenty branches primary organizations there mere were several problems scattene hindering the growth of this program as the children were scattered tene d portation dcult difficul throughout the cities and since few members owned automobiles transportation to and from the meetings was difficult to find often the fare caress were beyond ayond the means s of the children I and their parentsp bus fares however considerable 3 growth was attained in this auxiliary aided by the visits of laverm parmley pamley edna M faux and bemiece beniece einzinger all officers acers and members of the primary primax7 general board in addition to the regular classes and activities 9.9 primary choruses were organized and father and daughter nights were vere mere held which strengthened family f bonds mutual improvement association inasmuch as many young people were ivere converted to the mormon church during a concentrated erfort effort was made to maintain the interest el 6f af the young converts in the church by 965 there mere were over one 0 thousand irish youth enrolled in the mutual improvement association programs organized in nearly thirty branches monthly sponsored dances in the cultural hall of the chapels helped provide social activities for the young mormons as did athletic programs such as soccer basketball table bable babie tennis t and occasional hikes A girls summer camp program got underway and every three months an ell eil MIA mioao migao youth conference was sponsored where roadshows shows drama 9.9 and speech contests were regularly held aiding the development of the MIA eil ell program were the visits of florence jacobsen president of the young womens s ma M I ie Aao board of the church Ggo carlos smith superintendent of the young mens M I A board and pearl johnson a member of the general GM eral boardo there were also some problems probien this m3 n program due to inade anade

181 69 quate facilities wilities to carry on the proposed program and a great need for experienced leadership to help plan and guide the various activities the four chapels constructed in inland ireland plainly demonstrated the need for other similar buildings in order to carry on programs such as the maa &ual beg 040ao uhl ubl bual o 4o facilities As the missionaries gained the converts young and old alike auke euke plans were made to incorporate them into the fullscale program of the church or at least into the part of the program that was able to be carried out with the physical facilities and leadership available leadershi shl ap p availableo administrational changesim during july 96 dur ing 965 president and sister covey were released as mission leaders in ireland and president and sister rolland holland L jaussi0 were assigned to preside at the close of his three years yearse administrative assignment in ireland president covey stated zhe the tithe lord taught us that with vith his help I it could be doneo boneo done itt when asked what he considered were the major accomplishments shaents during his administration 9.9 president covey answered I feel the major accomplishments were the conversion of approximately 2000 people older branches in belfast the strengthening of several of the the establishing of many new branches in the north south and on the isle of man aad aid ald and opening of approximately 32 cities to the gospel the establishing of the mission assion home the establishing abolishing m of cf the building construction program in londonderry portadown holywood hollywood Ho in belfast and cave hill in belfast Port lywood the establishment estabiishment ashment of the full program of the church the developing of leadership training programs the establishing of mission board and district boardson in short laying the foundation for future church stakes and the taking of the gospel to millions of people who have lived in centuries of darkness As to the immediate problems facing church growth iii in lil northern libido

182 70 ireland he also replied one of the great needs is to pay the price in basic founda- tion work in the small cities I believe we are on our way in belfast the climate is very positive and favorable and the growth will be considerable particularly as we convert more of the trained and educated classes the 7he she ahe real leal leai problem at present in establishing a stake in belfast is that people can carry the program financially but theydont they dont they are economically at the basic survival level and it would take great faith in the unseen to bring about the material and spiritual blessings which would enable many of them to make the contribution of which they are capable I understand another pressing problem in northern ireland is the emigration spirit which is rampant among many of the leaders still another problem is the need to build additional buildings in belfast to carry on the full program of the church and to increase the conversions onse I continually preached a single standard in public and in private consistent with the counsel of the brethren which was to discourage emigration while ehile I was in ireland we had very little emigration in two or three instances where certain lies faithful fanilies families were absolutely vital to the growth and development of struggling new branches I actually requested the saints who desired to emigrate to stay to establish the foundations of the branch before leavings giving them the promise that if they would put gods else would be added unto them again and again godts kingdom and his righteousness first all these promises were fulfilled at the present time the branches are stronger theyfamilies are stronger both materially and spiritually for their dedication A few of these families have emigrated since and it is my understanding that the emigration problem is becoming increasingly significant and a real drain on the crucially important leadership in the struggling young mls mission in biona siona blona ny my opinion however both the immediate and long range problem is one of faith original intentions were that this thesis and the history of the irish mission would end in but the author feels reeis f reels it appropriate to acknowledge president and sister holland rolland L jaussi who presided in ireland from and president and sister theron M ashcroft who are currently serving there the church in ireland has grown under the administrations of presidents jaussi and ashcroft as it did under the libido

183 7 administration of presidents brockbank and covey to present an idea of the present 967 standing of mormonism in ireland the author took the opportunity to write to president I asheron asheroft adi eai ealcroft who responded in the following letter dear mr on the I isle isie ale aie of cf man we have a total membership of 367 in the irish missione missiono Missiono lono mission of that number there are 07 members in the republic and in the Nort northard northand cavehill caverhill I think that the future of the church in ireland is very brichto brighto there were 298 baptisms in in 965 ua u0 405 in 966 and we have 465 ua u6 so far in 967 with two weeks to goo goe I hope this formation inf incormation matlon you were seeking and you can find these figures ormation is the information usef user ugeruio ulo useful uis aad 36 north and on the isle of man our largest branch the vehill Ca branch here in belfast has a membership of 937 and they are meeting in a new chapel the next largest branchy the Mount mountpotting linger tinger branch here in belfast has a membership of 627 and they also meet in a new chapel known as the holywood hollywood Ho the stranmillis stramillis Stran branch is next with 8 48 and the rosetta branch has 332 members msmbers these two branches will be combining in a new chapel which will be started about the first of april the rathcoole Rath branch is next with 267 members and then portadown Port with 56 members there is also a new chapel in an portadowne Porta downa 6 the has 54 members and they also have a new cha- 48 members and we have permission to purchase londonderry Londondeny branch pel bangor has 8 ground there for a building site smalis smalls smail barlow I will try to answer a few of your questions in your letter of december we had quite a few missionaries go home for fon ron school and we are down now to ith laboring in the north of ireland and 38 are working in the 74 of that number 28 are south the republic of ireland there are also eight elders adown chapel these are the largest branches omagh is next with 86 members and we have applied for permission to search for property there following omagh is douglas isle of man with a membership of 82 and we have permission to search pi bece oece consldera for a piece of property there and are considering iderang a lot we have foundo boundo coleraine has jh 74 members lame larne has 6aj 6j5 membersj bally mena has 633 members lisbum liebum has 60 members dublin has 54h me- mbers and newry has 343 members the rest of the branches are very ards newtonards Newton has 9 members and it goes down from there sincerely yours signed theron M ashcroft mission presidentl presidents Presiden tl lletter aletter december letter from theron thenon mi M ashcroft president of the irish mission

184 72 also indicative of the church t s accomplishments in ireland is establish the number of towns where branches are presently established edo TABLE BRANCHES OF THE CHURCH MURCH I N IRELAND 967 a belfast northwest mission irish district ulster district district republic oarr carrickfergus ckf cafergus antrim armagh cork Carrick caverhill Ca cavehill lisburn lisborn mountpottinger Mount ballymena Ballymena ballymoney Bally douglas isle drogheda of man dublin coleraine larne limerick portadown Port dungannon Dun limavady Lim dun don laoghaire laoghal rathcoole Rath enni skillen newry waterford Newtonards aralee rosetta londonderry newtonards hankill hankila han kill shankill Shan h ac c strangi I is stranmiuis I I omagh tralee dungarven Dun for aihfomation ainfomation re ort irish elss Miss mission historical report this table were obtained from the quarterly iona iono lona furthermore rol fol roi the following loving chart represents the combined efforts of all ali ail who have served as missionaries in ireland bince since 962 TABLE 2 GROWTH OF THE IRISH MISSION MISSIOI a iggi number of missionaries iso membership q b 367b Bbaptisms hog 405 ua u0 465 ua u6 number of branches memberdj memberdlip it of t 75 the P t should be noted that approximately 7 located in the greater belcast belfast abt area is bthis athis figure is up to december this bhe present church

185 73 evidently chapter were vere mere true the circumstances are favorable for the irish receiving the gospel the two statements quoted at the beginning of this and now that they have the privilege of so doing they are embracing it

186 ru CHAPTER VLI wil XI II DESTINY CF THE tee IRISH ISH ise lse MISSION the research thus far has dealt primarily with the past history of mormonism Mor monian in ireland but mention should be made as to the possible future of the church in the country to do so it is necessary first to note a staggering internal problem in ireland not connected directly yath vath but yet possibly holding the answer to the question of future church growth an in impending menaing 4ing een crisis C while the majority of european countries have doubled or tripled in population during the last century ireland has decreased by nearly one half from a total population of in 84 ISU irelands population has dwindled to in 96 racial annihilation is an impending crisis typically illustrated by john A obriens obrien0s obriene OB book the vanishing irish g the enigma of the modern world modem worldon lri iri irl0 many irishmen sckmezi have become extremely concerned about the population decrease which is ess el specially acute in southern ireland where the population has fallen from in an 84 to 28l83u 2a8834 in 96 dister or what now constitutes ulster stek stellr northern ireland in the northern six counties has decreased less drastically t945 to syo o62 during the same periodo periods from 689i i although rate e of decrease has lessened in the recent past some authorities the ta t ae tiie 9.9 have stated that unless there is a change in the current trend in population decline the irish face the possibility of extinction evert event everl 74

187 7 L 75 though the impending crisis does not seem imminent whether or not it occurs wa w will have a direct bearing on mormonism in ireland in the distant d J stant future the statistics previously quoted are given in the following table TABLE 3 statistics ON IRELANDS population DECLINE BEGLINE a ulster irish republic total southe ireland year northern ireland southern ra population P atlon 6hqf9h o s a l4lt igo 90 9 igli iggi p u 5sl lt836 47o4j75o u70u70 w877 4s s s29 u u ooo WO 476 u76000 S000 ooo P c hg u2u3u S u o62 c S statistics astati asiatistic s for ror this table vere nere were compiled lied from francis haekefct ireland a study in natlo Nationalian nationalian aa op cit 399 john A obrien the vanishing irish j the enigma of the modern modem world new york new york mcgrawhill book company incvj luj mwm ihi and britain an official 3 mo handbook 966 edition 3 a prepared by the central office of information malion mallon london england p amp i led from franci s hackett cwm population of six counties that now constitute constitule ulster bpopulation northern ireland csome authorities claim that the percent gain between u may be attributed to a larger than usual number of foreignersf moving to ireland irelands population loss is attributed to three factors emigration g 2 too few marriages and 3 too late marriages even 3 em ration john A obrien op cit 7

188 76 though the three factors have been noted primarily in the republic of ireland it is likely that the loss in northern ireland may be altr attri- 3 buted to the same reasons political separation does not easily abolish tle tie cultural tiess emigration ialo lalo though emigration from ireland began before 80 lahos there was s a great upsurge of irish fleeing their country beginning in 845 due to the famine between l8i lay lai 845 and u irish men women and perio perlo children hidren c left their homeland during the eight year period d 9.9 and a good share of them sailed for america irish aamir aamigration to america alone during was as follows TABLE 4 NUMBER OF CF IRISH MISR immigrating imagra imdgra TING TO DURING WRING THE nineteenth CENTURA TuRya turza NINE crr CRi AMICA AMERICA emerica years number immigrating l bo l80 85o x u82 655t statistics for table 4 were total here obtained from thomas A bailey the american pageant fstanford university california do D Cce heath and coo ooo of the immense movement to america it has also been notedg tens of thousands of destitute tute irish fleeing the land of ibid 20

189 77 iut lut famine for the land of plenty flocked to america in the fortiesall sall black Fortie in lesser numbers they emigrated to australia canadal canabal and other lands irelands s great export has been population and the iridli iildi fridli take their place next to the jews as a dispersed people before many decades had passed there were more people of irish irii arii blood in america than on the ouid ould bod sodt erin I s erins ewins isle of ehrns the emigration rate has declined since the turn of the century but the irish have continued to leave their country in less staggering fact ever numbers the fact remains homi hovi however that they have and are continuing to emigrate which vhich e rate factor in the population loss chich is a vital actor Mai mal too few marriages agel agesl A second factor attributed to Irel irelands s irei irelaad ireland population decline is the low rate of marriages lightly while the marriage rate in ulster is slightly higher than that of the republic of ireland both are below that in ii i other countries for several decades ireland has had the lowest marriage rate of any country in the civilized world in 936 a survey was taken of married women under U 45 years of age and the following was obsez observeds observers 0 A4.4 comparison COWMUSON BETWEEN lible TABLE tabt25 MTVWN SIX COUNTRIES COUNTRUS OK USEER UVXR fmay FQRTI Y ai MARRIED M yive agea kaa ama YEARS OF MAMIED nown WOMEN WOMN aaa country married women under 45 years of age perl peri ooo 000 united states lu per 000 wales 23 n ft england 23 t scotland ios 05 los w y ulster northem northern ireland 97 tt w republic5 republieb 73 n n irish irida Republic 270 statistics for table 5 derived from john A orlen obrien op M cita cit2 bsouthern southern ireland is twentyfive tii til an any other country in the world woride than percent lower lover in this this thib figure egure f bailey 0 cit 325 ar 2r 3250

190 78 ehat what ehab effect has the roman catholic church had on marriages in southern ireland where 94 of the population is catholic or in northern ireland where onethird is third catholic or on the whole population 76 of which belong to the catholic church has the high esteem for the celibateb ppriests and nuns been carried over into the lives of the lay members in vrho who may prefer celibacy over matrimony one priest answers where unf inf ortunately fortunately it has this thl is particularly true in f familiess unfortunately s one of the children has become a priest or nun the number of the remaining children who remain celibates is as a ruled ruie unusually high ch ren the irish need to be reminded that marriage is also a vocation in fact the one intended for 9 at 9t percent of the people upon whom nhom nhon rests the indispensable delty duty deity not merely to contain the race but to increase it A second froman catholic leader has similarly noted it would seem that over the years the practice actine of celibacy by large numbers became a part of their the irishli s social customs their traditions and their way of life so it v is with the practice of bachelorhood and spinsterhood among the irish continued for many years cepted part of started daring the years following the famines the way of life irishli eche irishly it gradually bepme beame became an integral and ac- he also added another factor tending to deepen and extend the wholesale practice of celibacy in ireland is the enormous reverence for ror the priesthood and the religious ilfee for life which obtains among the irisho it is without parallel anywhere on earth and produces far more vocations than any othernation nallon nearly every family aspires to have either a priest or a nun among its members and preferably both priests brothers and sisters are most numerous in ireland and touch the life of people at almost everytarn eveiytarn everyturn unconsciously the with eg 0 add to this the fact that priests young grow up with an outlook on life not substantially different from that of their celibate spiritual leaders guides and counselors s thus is the idea of celibacy inextricably 0 interwoven into the pattern of their emotions thoughts dreams and aspirations so that they tend in thib thisregard this regard to react like monks and nuns wearing lay garb and living in the world instead of in the cloisters cloister33 obrien ses 92s seb cite 0 q 3 2 ibid id 229 bide 3bidos 2300

191 79 whether or not irish catholicism accounts for the main influence ror nonmarriage for is marriage questionable it does sp however houver as noted have a considerable impact on the inhabitants of ireland ear Marriffe marriages marriffe too late barriffe when rhen the irish do get married the comparative age of marriage is the oldest of any nation in the worlds in the 926 census the average age of marriage for men in ireland was 34 olg 3u9 9 years and 29 for women the corresponding figures for the 946 census were 33 years for men and 280 for women in contrast half the men in the united states during this same period were married at years and half the women were married at 26 years at the age when more than half the men and women in the united states were not only married but raising families the overwhelming majority of irish men and women were still bachelors and spinstersi spymsterst terbl also of interest is table 6 comparing six nations in the number of marrled married women of childbearing age per 000 ooo women ing 000 TABLE 6 A comparison BETWEEN SIX COUNTRIES OS ON MAR ear ehr MAREIED WOMEN agr a bomen childbearing agea OF AGE country statistics united states 2 42 per 000 women germany 25 M ft n england 2 n it italy denmark 2 M 9 39 ilg t lt M ireland 74U t n n statistics for table 6 were obtained from orien obrien orlen op cito 29 m cites 290 id 28 obidos ibidos 280

192 80 it is evident that the percentage of women who marry in ireland is almost one half of that in other countries furthermore sixtyfour four percent of irelands population is single six percent is widowed and th lrty arty only thirty percent is married arld arid the lowest rate in the civilized wrid adrid the marlay author desires to point out again that the data given is primarily for the republic maray republ of ireland except where otherwise noted however while the trends may not be as spectacular it is the authorts authors clted opinion that the three factors cited ie emigration too few marriages and too late marriages are largely responsible re sponsible for the lack of population growth in ulster or northern ireland as well authorts the future of the church of jesus christ of latterday saints ither in either elther part of ireland will undoubtedly be influenced by the three mentioned factors if members continue to emigrate qualified quailyled su- and bstantial leadership will be lacking around which the future wards and stakes would be organize organizeds furthermore church growth comes not mt only from conversions but from births in momon families as well if the irish saints are influenced ly by the cultural trends to either not marry many mamu late in life or marry mamy the church will obviously not grow as rapidly as if these traditions were overcome since the nucleus of the monnon f annly momon church is the family unit it is the author s I opinion opinion lon that the church in ireland will not be on solid footing unless all the irish converts overcome the apparently traditional views on and acquire new attitudes towards the importance of marital and family relationships as many have already done libid bibid ibid evidently these figures are referring to the irish republic and not the whole of ireland

193 8 was mormonism intended for ireland although several nonmormons have suggested that mormons made mcade meade a stake by trying to gain converts in ireland it is evident that joseph ita ira lra mistake smith the momon mormon prophet foresaw the optimistic future of the church in ireland as in all other nations latter according to latterday saint theology the mormon leader received several revelations indicating the church was eventually to become cosmopolitan and worldwide in 83 just one year after the church was organized joseph smith claimed blaimed a revelation wherein he was told that the doctrines of the church of jesus ams christ of latterday saints all iwa 6 ga 6. ail day were to be preached to nations kindreds tongues and peopled later that same year a similar revelation was given stating that the gospel was for all ail hearken 0 ye people of ny my church who dwells on high and rhose whose rhode mere molere were the voice earth that all may hear volce of the lord thatj thatti thata the gospel might be pro- unto the ends of the earth and before kings and claimed f or ali people saith the voice of him hinm obe eyes are upon all men the voice of the lord is unto all men and there iss none to escape lor is unto the ends of the rulers unto all flesh ba.00 I 0 0 the lord am willing to make these things known italics added two days later november 3 83 another revelation was received and joseph smith was told that fthis fathis gospel shall be preached unto every ition nation aition nc kindred tongue and people dle ole die ty3 and a similar revelation a few years later stated it there are many yet on the earth among all sects seets parties and denominations nations 3 t4 truth because they know not where to find it4 ta saint jho are only kept from the from according to latterday beliefs it is plain that the claimed restored gospel is being orwill be taught to all nations onse in ad d & C ibid bide 2 t p lbid 3bid abide ibide ibias ibids 239

194 82 fact latterday saints day are commanded to do so and the author has found no statements where ireland is to be excluded it is well to note that since the lord has commanded latterday saints to take the gospel to the irish it is also LDS theology that it the lord giveth no commandments unto the children of men nen mena menp save he shall prepare a way for them that they may accomplish the thing which he commandeth mandeth them th eno themi thema emo ene in 842 just two years after missionaries were assigned to ireland joseph smith wrote a letter to john wentworth and reiterated that the gospel was for all nations on march 842 he wrote it athe golpeo gospeo and wales where in the year a few of our missionaries were sent and over five jthe gospel has spread into england ireland scotland ive lve f thousand joined the standard of truth there are now numbers joining in every land our missionaries are going forth to different nations no unhallowed hand can stop the work from progressing per def ame the will secutions may rage mobs may combine armies may assemble cal- 0go forth boldlyb umny may defame but the truth of god will o donea oldly nobly and independent till it has penetrated every continent visited every clime swept every country and sounded in everye t ear till the purpose of god shall be accomplished and the great jehovah shall say the work is done22 italics added to echo the words of elder george wilson who asked on september then why not in- the gospel is for all nations of the earth clude ireland I for one am interested in having the gospel preached in my native country are just as honest and virtuous virtupus qpus pub apus part of the world of this great empires empirep virtu virta and whygive why9 whye 0O gl there are many in ireland who as are to be found in any other it an equal show with other parts when john taylor tfiylor began preaching in ireland in july 840 he fulfilled part of a divine decree in that land to preach the gospel to of latterday irhe ithe book of mormon salt lake city the church of jesus christ day saints 960 I nephi dhc JLC IV ha 540 h0 3millennial star XLVI

195 83 st nations all nationst but if the gospel is to be n sounded in every eart there remains a great rork nork work vork yet to be accomplished in ireland Mormoni ain arn mormonism is sin now well establidied establiehed established in that country and the author knows of no reason why it will not remain comparative growth another indication of the accomplishment and potential future of mormonism in ireland might be made by making a few comparisons in parisons times past comparisons have been made but they have usually been comparisons of the growth of the mormon church in ireland with the growth count of the church elsewhere in the british isles and other european countrieso rieso furthermore the conclusions derived have usually been interpreted in such a way as to cast a dismal view on any future mormonism may have among the irish the author proposes to make some different comparisons however which may give a new outlook on the future the proposed comparisons are not the growth of mormonism in several countries but rather the growth of several religious denominations within ireland the fact is recognized that mormons have not gained an unusual number of converts in that country but the question arises as to how rapid other religious denominations have grown in ireland table 7 lists some of the larger religious denominations in both northern and suthern southern ireland and gives the respective membership shl from the 96 census membershi derived

196 84 TABLE 7 COMBINED CMINED memberships OF aeligictjs ig0uq denominations IN THE IRISH FREE 60 STATE a AND ULSTER NORTHERN IRELAND DERIVED FROM THE 96 CENSUS denomination membership catholic church of ireland presbyterian 432s066 methodist brethren u ul 78s54 plymouth t baptist lu2i6 246 congregationalist unitarian l3 jewish reformed presbyterian hfhh6 4s446 it63 4tl63 CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTERDAT LATIERDAY det dey SAINTS other religions includes 4 denominations no CHURCH religion OF or JESUS information CHRIST letter not given det ob OF LATTERDAY LATTERDAT dey SAINTS baccording bac bec total a3 statistics for table 7 were obtained by combining information obtained in the 96 census in both ulster and the republic of ireland cording to the 96 census there were 37 mormons in ireland rene church records show there mere were wene mene 677 members As table 7 indicates mormonism monism moronism in ireland with rath a membership of momonism Mo 367 ranks eleventh among the major religious denominations in all of ireland if the 967 membership is used even though this does not appear too impressive consideration should be made of a few other factors first the roman catholic church which claims 75 of the total population has been represented in ireland for over loo years second the nine othero ranking denominations which claim 24 of the population have bei been bel represented and seeking converts in ireland for between two and three hundred years third even though mention has been made of the first eleven religious denominations in ireland there remain another

197 U rember renber ship recognized religious bodies in that country with more than ten members and another 88 religious groups with a membership rembership of less than ten it is little wonder that ireland is known as the land of saints and scholars since it is one of the most evangelized countries in the world geographically ireland is onethird the size of utah yet there are igl 5 igi recognized religious groups in that country tryl therefore the I eleventh place in which the mormons rank is a respectable position how has mormonism grown in ireland in comparison to other religions also begun in america and organized about the same time as the latterday sal saints ants day or how does the mormons mormons progress in ireland compare to that of other religious groups which have been proselyting in that country about the same number nwnber of years following is a comparison of the progress of several of these denominations in ireland seventhday seventh day adventists the seventhday adventists was organized in america by a woman ellen Q G white during daring darlng may 863 in a native born irishman returned xe and began preaching seventhday adventist doctrine in clones ireland A branch consisting of seven members was organized in dublin in 902 and the irish mission of the seventhday adventists was organized in 908 with twenty members in southern ireland twenty years later in 928 membership rose to thirty three and the first church building was purchased by 960 the church had grown to members which increased to 275 by 9679 at the present time there are nine seventhday adventist missionaries four congregations and four chapels in ireland milton mllton amilton religions milton V backman american religions lons and the rise of mormonism salt lake city utah deseret book company additional 9 information obtained from D VW hunter at the seventhday adventist head- quarterss eastern avenue N tii tacoma park washington TIT Ddo co C 2002 letter dated september and sent to author

198 86 christian scientist cchurchchurch achurch of christ scientist the christian scientist denomination was also organized eed in america by a woman in dscovered 866 mary baker eddy discovered dscovered metaphysi cal cai the science of divine metaphysical metaphysis healing and organized a school in lynn massachusetts in she established a church of fifteen adherents in boston in 879 doctrines of this denomination reached ireland in len 884ien when christian scientists in america and australia began writing TIting letters to their friends in ire- land telling of the new church the firstf copy of science and healthy Scientists beliefss a publication containing many of the sdientistst scientists belief beiler reached cavan ireland in 885 according to the 96 census there were 326 members in ireland with societies in belfast bangor newry cork and dublin 2 jehovahs witnesses during 868 in america charles taze latos russell withdrew from the congregational church and became an itinerant preacher during the 870s in 884 he secured a charter in pittsburgh pennsylvania enabling him to establish the zions watch tower bible and tract society commonly known as jehovahs witnesses because of their intensive proselyting the church grew at an astonishing rate from in 942 to nearly one million in 962 from 3 the jehovah jehovahs s witnesses began proselyting seiy belyting in ireland about 900 when a Jehovah group of russells followers were organized into a group in dublin according to the 96 census there were 72 jehovahs witnesses in ire lipide libide W a 2 bid infcrmation information received from theodore no N cook assistant manager committees on publication church of christ scientist headquarters 07 falmouth street boston 5 massachusetts 3backman op cit

199 87 landl landi land gregat and five congregations lons church of the nazarene naea Nazarenea renee phineas Fs breese organized the church of the nazarene on october in los amgeles Ai california a church that has become the largest of ten holiness churches after merging with several other similar religious groups the church continued to grow until 966 it had a total membership of and a sunday school berse berbe enrollment of nearly one million members 2 the church of the nazarene started a camp canrp meeting in ireland in the summer of 933 and by 938 a congregation was organized with twentysix six members according to the were viere nene thene 96 census there wene tlene 303 members in ireland with eight pastors and eight congregations so there shere is one congregation in the republic of ireland with 9 members 3 erny enny salvation lon army even though this religious group was not organizedn oed inn america I I it did begin during the nineteenth century centary and may serve as a comparison for the growth of mormonian Mormonian in ireland the salvation amy was organized in england by william booth on july organizing his followers similar to a military army booth waged a war on bini sint bint and employed the use of brass instruments and uniforms to unify his group4 groupe the denomination has grown rapidly in the british isles and according to the 96 census there were 2028 irishmen who were members of the salvation army of the nazarene ace linfomation obtained from watch llnfoimation vatch tower bible and tract society headquarters 24 columbia heights hel hts ats n brooklyn new york USA usz letter received october only the gae zae active participating members are counted as members of the jehovahs witnesses there thera were 268 acknowledged members in ireland during nazarencc 2brent obrent ao unpublished nazarenet Nazarenco ncc neo provo utah 9660 slater office manager letter sent october ak 2k glio cito daring 967 hig iggi 96i doctry rie xie of the church of the doctrl brent A barlow history and doctrine research project at brigham young university 3nformation obtained from international headquarters information 640 the paseo maseo 4backman op cit 45 ul NW church kansas city missouri from marloww

200 88 mary sugary the following loving in summary f is noted tibar TABLE TABUE 8 membership OF SIX RELEGIOJS GICKJS denominations IN NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN IRELAND SINCE 830 acano acknowledged year year begun membership membership organized in ireland 96 census in 967 CHURCH MRCH OF JESUS CHRIST & OF DAY LATTERDAY salvation army seventhday SAINTS amy aby we day adventist jehovahs witnesses 88 christian scientist the nazarene church of membershi shl from table 8 it is evident that the membershi membership of the church of IP jesus christ of latterday saints is more than ten times larger than that of other denominations which originated in america the mormon church i ṟeland also has a substantial number of members more than the rapidly growing salvation army by these comparisons the mormon church is doing re- markably well in seeking converts in ireland religious denominations in the irish republic although the mor mon church admittedly has had a dlfficult difficult scult time gaining converts in southern ireland so have other denominations organized during the last century roman 0 catholicism claims of the population and the church of ireland presbyterian methodist and jewish faithsf aichs account for another 8 of the people so all in all of the people belong to these five denominations in 967 the mormons had about 07 members in the free state but they have recently intensified their efforts in that areao arcao it is worthy to note that of the 275 seventhday adventists in ireland 75 of themi then live in the republic of ireland so they have themllve ive in

201 89 slightly outperformed orned the mormons in that area the denominations in southern ireland derived from the 96 census are represented on table 9 TABLE 9 RELIGIOUS RMIGIOUS denominations AND NMERSHIPS U memberships IN THE IRISH FREE STATE DERIVEDD FROM THE 96 CENSUS TP denomination catholic church of ireland presbyterian methodist jewish jowish jorish jenish rish society baptist of friends plymouth brethren Membershi shl IP membership membershi u06 lo4ol s s hoi 40 CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST chhist OF LATTER- DAY SAINTS 967 other rel3 rela religions no religion information not given total of ireland lu mation matlon ains information obtained 52 st 2 Step stephems henrs hents green east dublin census stephens from the representative body of the church tiblin 2 ireland september religious Reigious lous denominations in ulstera northern ireland in ulster bister northern ireland the mormons have done much better and rank tenth out of sixtysix SIaty s six Lx recognized groups of the lh 4 ih.4 million population roman catholics claim 33 of the population presbyterians Presbyterians 3 church of ireland ah 2h 24 and methodists 5c leaving the remaining 7 distributed among 5 lsi isi various religious groups all an zil religions in ulster are as follows so

202 90 TABLE 0 IPS RELCGIOUS denominations AND memberships IN ULSTER ULSIER DERIVED FROM THE 96 censusa NORTHERN IRELAND denomination membership denomination membership roman catholic presbyterian ched CHURCH OF JESUS CHKE CHRISTOF slints SAINTS saints967 ua u3 43s church of ireland methodist 7865 brethren baptist 3765 congregational unitarian 563 6l3 R presbyterian 463 rt LATTERDAY 367 salvation amu amy army emy ermy 2208 elim church 768 jewish 9 ligi free presbyterian 093 society of friends 067 logt church of af god 00 protestant 980 pentecostal gsg undenominational 789 jehovahs witnesses 729 seventhday yite cooneyite gooneyite Coone adventist day 20 Goone 62 christadelphian 25 free evangelical 90 atheist helst haist At 87 bible pattern 86 free methodist 80 nonconformist 7 sikh 62 spiritualist 566 greek orthodox church 5 buddhist 500 independent baptist 37 church of wales 34 bahal bahai world faith 32 united church of canada 30 free protestant church 22 anglican church of canada 2 protestant christian community 2 comman ty radio church of god 2 moravian 677 evangelical lutheran 2 apostolic church 572 protestant norwegian irish evangelical fal faith ssi mi on falth mission 376 chhist OF 96 iggi CHURCH OF JESUS CHRISTOF IATTERDAY LATTERDAY saints96 slints SAINTS 37 church of christ 364 fellowaip fellowchip fellowship Fellow of independent evangelical churches christian scientist 326 hindu 36 church of the nazarene 303 state church 2 free baptist 9 bible student chinese religion 5 5 christian fellowship 4 apostolic pentecostal lu 3 combined methodist and presbyterian church 2 singh 2 humanist 2 free thinker mohammedan Moha 272 medan aedan lutheran 264 christian church interdenominational 2 25 sembly of god 249 As assembly free pentecostal emanuel other denominationsb emmanuel mission not stated denominations0 22 total 28u8 p48 u20u2 425s042 contained statistics for table 0 were obtained from the information in the 96 census bahl matlon mation inro info government information service of northern ireland stormont castle belfast northern ireland november ll bthls this heading comprises denominations denorn i nations each of which had less than eightyeight different ten adherents enumerated in northern ireland were used in describing these denominations in the census returns ss terms

203 9 comparato Comparati ve growth comparati summary of comparative of 6 67 recognized religious denominations and 88 smaller groups in ireland the mormons rank eleventh among the thae 55 groups those biose blose niose thobe churches with larger memberships have been proselyting in the country for several hundred years catholic have been there for the catholicss over loo yearb yearse 500yearse 2 of the religious denominations organized since 830 the mormons have the largest membership in irelando 3 since 962 when the irish mission was organized the mormon church has grown proportionately faster aster f than any other church in ireland more than 3000 converts have been gained since 962 optimise lri iii mormon optimism toward the ilk irish in one of the preceding chapters a section was included entitled mormon vormon cormon missionary conary skepticism eibs elbsionary and a few statements were quoted containing missionary skepticism about the growth of the church in ireland and the irish people in general in nearly every instance however these statements were written witten or given by elders who had never been in ireland or were made prior to the nissionaries missionaries fonaries ion lonarles entrance to that country after I working among the irish there seemed to be a marked change in attitude among the skeptical missionaries and positive and complimentary remarks have been made in relation to the irish and mormonism at the conclusion of the thesis the author feels eels f it is appropriate to include some of the statements of others nho mho who have given their opinions of the destiny of the isee see pages 3 ilu

204 92 irish mibs missionion lon the growth of the church in that country and the general iri lri irl sh character of the irish saints As early as 848 an article appeared in the millennial star stating there are thousands of honest warmhearted people in ireland who mho if they could but hear the troth truth would receive it with witli ditl great joy A few years later as the work commenced in dublin elder gilbert clements wrotes protes my heart is full of faith falth aith alth regarding the work in this great beautiful city and look reel feel to ex- metropolis nhen when I walk through the rine fine lne magnificent squares of this far famed upon the intelligent countenances of the people claim in my heart spacious streets and eel I f surely the lord has a people here to be saved and my constant prayer to the lord is that he will abundantly pour out his spirit upon them lando landa land3 land0 he added that they may receive the truth and come to a knowledge of those principles2which alone will save and exalt them in the presence of god in 8 elder john T D mcallister wrote from belfast ireland 855 te that in a recent meeting the spirit of prophecy came upon us and we felt so good that we had to prophesy good concerning mormonism in this it is really cheering when I look around and see those 0 0 that I can call my children in the gospel and when they come forward and grasp my ny hand and say they know I am a servant of god and bless his name they ever saw ny my face words of life and salvation flow from my lips for all the hardships harushi IP s endured ared in erin counted worthy to come cone corner and heard the it more than pays I thank god I was ever he also noteds noseds starx lmillennial J star sparx milennial 2millenni Milen starxv X 286 millennial nial star XV l83 ill lul ili ihi millennial starxvii XVII 855s h 335o U4bida ibid

205 93 on monday the day following conference conf conrerenee we me went on a mou- cave hill and when we reached ntain called cane hill sic the summitt suemi brother ferguson fergason led off three times three cheers for the advancement of mormonism in ireland the brethren and sis- made it echo again and again ters joined 9.9 and we me AlUster two months later elder mcallister Mc countryside toured the irish countly side and preached the gospel and after returning he wrote to president franklin frankiln n do D 0 richards in england while walking the roads I felt to bless the people 0 a0 0 for I could see ephraim all through my nt travels yes brother franklin royal blood flows in the veins of Ireland ireland irelandt s noble sons and daughters and when they have the privilege of hearing the gospel they will embrace it well veil eeli the time to fabour favour erin has come and I rejoice that I have been counted worthy to work in the field known as the belfast conference 2 elder john scott had similar feelings toward the irish as one year later in he likewise reported I trust that myself and the brethren who are labour stuf spiri ing with me will yet be able to show that there is some good stuff atuff in ireland I can say that I never saw a spirit spini t of willingness more strongly manifested considering the circumstances and situations of the saints neither in the valleys of the mountains nor anywhere aru anu else where that I see in my mission 3the athe furthe and burthermor furthermore amore socia ls in the church socials sociats church so clais the I irish ra r saints displayed the same congeniality and affability which was also noted by the same elder scott mho who wrote on monday evening we closed our conference with a soiree evening social to which saints and stranger were alike wel comeo cameo iras tastefully decorated with appropriate mot- wrought with native flowers and evergreen which adorned toes our hall tras its walls pleasure while it was filled with cheerful participants in and I must mast say that though I have attended a number of conferences and parties got up in the best style in england giand and wales I never no never saw this side of zion such union in all my travels eness and such congeniality of spirit such oneness 0 libi do bido 2bid 474 millennial star ebido ibido 6990 staro XVIII e

206 94 by 862 president george Q qa q9 cannon spoke and defended the irish and their acceptance of mormonism when he declared theyhave what is the reason then that they have not received the gospel in ireland as they have in wales and scotland the reason is obvious because they have not been surrounded by f as favourable able abie circumstances I understand there are more saints jin irish extraction than there are of scotch and this proves that they are susceptible of the truth when circumstances are favourable lin glasgow and in western scotland who are irish and of able for their receiving it even when there was limited growth in belfast elder george halliday wrote in october 863 that n visited nearly every saint privately and although they number but few yet I know of no branch ti where there is more love and union among its members and priesthood than there is in the belfast Branch branchw brancha branch2 2 perhaps it was the dire poverty of the early irish saints that accounted for apparent humility whatever it was their oneness and spiritual unity were noticeably evident in 884 the church in ireland experienced considerable growth 4 in the belfast area and as previously suggested the success was undoubtedly due to the positive attitude the missionaries held toward their work elder george wilson for one was unusually optimistic about mormonism in ireland since my arrival P to get an opening among the people prote wrote wilson wilsod wilbod I have been endeavoring arid arld have been able in a and their small degree to do so but this is a thing ang pretty hard to thl thi accomplish through faith and perseverance however I hope to plant the standard of zion in ny my native land for for who nho will yet re- assured there are many honest people here joice in the glorious light of truth3 trutha eel I feel millennial star XXIV ullen wilen 2millennial milennial Milen star nial XXV millennial star lte XLVI 88j4l

207 95 just four months later in september h s 884 he added0 we are only the first installment of the force sent to estab- lish the standard of zion in this benighted 29 eted land who oho now lie in darkness will yet be gathered out ranks of the faithful aithoul in the land of zions faithf f orce and hundreds to swell the cor for all f or the gospel is for the nations of the earth then why not include ireland I for one am interested in having the gospel preached in my native P country there are many in ireland rho nho mho who are just as honest and virtuous as are to be found in any other part of the world and why not give it an equal show with other parts of this great empire it is plain to my mr mind that the lord has a great and mighty work to perform in this land or else the devil would not rage as he does it cannot be asserted in truth any more 0 we have demo- than we cannot get a foothold in this country nstrated beyond the shadow of doubt that the gospel can be preached in this country as well as elsewhere pei irl lri iri notions about the irish was elder james p9 P low however he soon confessed that elder low lew len continued pa typical of df the missionaries who had preconceived unfavorable my introduction to the saints and few strangers I have met in ireland I must acknowledge dispelled the unfavorable opinion I had conceived of the irish mission mlssion and assion and people now I am prepared to say I have not met a more nore whole whoie souled or more honest people although 5 faults like the rest of mortals and although troubled with their little they are striving to overcome and all seem willing to heartily operate cooperate in rolling forth the work my heart is full of S lordts cordts vineyard 2 4 evil by doing good with me faith regarding the work in this part of the lord rould say sav bay saf by way of I mouid would mould cf encouragement that the school of ex- perience for our missionaries in this land is so vast and the training they get in coming in contact with the intelligence antell igence irence mingled with the pure irish wit of many is such that any elder need not fear to come over when the time arrives and the lord calls and I may candidly say we have the best field for cor beneficial experience in the whole of the british mission03 another typical statement of a previously skeptical missionary libido llbido bido 667 got gof Z fa f 2millennial star XLIX u9 349p 3bido ibid I

208 96 who became converted was elder joseph W smith he wrote to president joseph F smith on october and reported ir sh it was my fortune to labor for about seventeen months in the irish conference and though I felt it was pretty nearly descending below all things it to go there my sojourn among those people cured me of all those feelings I found the people in the north of the emerald isle possessing a very vezy high degree of intelligence and moral character and a few of them are opening their hearts advised prejudice ill to the gospel so that my former illadvised to admiration and love for the people was changed and when then vlen the missionaries returned they did not easily forget the irish friends they had made never again upon this earth wrote elder edward edwand clyde may I have the pleasure of beholding the faces of friends I have learned to love in that distant land but I will pray for their welfare and ask them to pray for mine so that though the ocean may divide us till the end of time our eternity may be spent together in the celestial glory of god 2 even after the turn of the century about their pleasant experiences in ireland missionaries were commenting elder heber jo J burgon related in ll it 0 0 I can truly say that some of gods s best children are among the saints of the irish conference and I thank god I was sent to labor among them in them I have found friends brothers and sisters whom I have learned to love and whom I shall never forgeto forgets for gete0 forget0 bernard Ppo brockbank formerly president over the scottishirish shirish I mission said on december the new chapels give the church recognition and stability in ireland and the church will progress much faster and reach a 0 fine class of able people much of the prejudice is disappearing as a result of the new buildings and aad the attitude of the seret evening news october Te deseret ullen 2millennial milennial Milen nial star ylli XLII 8879 MIX millenm milennial millennial Milen star nial LXVI igou 90u 904p 55090

209 members of the church I am confident that the church will prosper and grow in northern ireland at a greater rate than ever before and that there could be a stake in the belr beirast belfast abt area by 969 there is still great prejudice against uie the ule church in northern ireland because of much antiliterature and however sermons that have been written and given by the ministers this is decreasing and respect towards the church is in southern ireland progress is very slow but I feel f that many will become interested in the church in the near f future because of the changes being made in the catholic church the lri irl irish are good people s and they want the truth and down deep they have a great love being manifest in most areas for their creator and as they see the difference in the doctrines of men and the doctrines of the lord prejudices towards the church soften and the missionary is able to teach and reach the people the next ten years 0 withi lithi I think we will make inroads into the people within n president stephen R ro covey has recently said the irish people basically auy basic any live from their hearts rather than from their minds they are unsophisticated genuine guile- spi less generous humane unrushedo in the bigger cities the bpierit spirit of work is gone from the working classes socialism satans economic docar doctrine ane pmv pavded shortr cut and the spirit cit dit has has provided a shortcut pervaded other aspects of their culture and character sp rit und nr and under- covenc covenaalts uits aits mined their capacity to make and honor committments and covenants jine in the church there are however tens of thousands of very fine 0 trained educated people and hundreds of thousands in the working classes who as yet have the basic character strength and goodness and are responsive to the gospel their prejudices will gradually dissolve and they are dissolving in the face of new divine experiences which faithful missionaries and saints can give to them I have a most positive feeling for the irida people in the south and particularly in the north the people on the isle of man are more the character of the people in britain indifferent toward religion I expect to see the kind of growth there which has taken place olace in britain there are bufficient sufficient scient support and nesses basic goodnesses in can build well and for a long ime this culture and society upon which the church t time 2 optic optim stic perhaps there is no other statement more optimistic about mormonism in ireland than that given by john henry smith snith a member of the council of the twelve apostles it was under his direction that the irish lin linformation was obtained from a letter dated december formation written to the author by president bernard Pro brockbank scovey loc cito 2covey 2

210 98 mission was reopened and experienced rapid growth in 884 the apostle visited in ireland and then returned to utah the following year on april in a general conference of the churchy he declared I am inclined to believe that there are hundreds and thousands of people in ireland who will win receive the gospel my prejudices in regard to with them the irish people have been wiped away in mingling I found them among the purest stock upon the earth virtue is held at a high premium among them the statistics of great britain show this fact that illegitimate births in ireland this constitute three percent in england six percent and in scotland nine I say this speaks volumes for ireland and I trust that the gospel may spread in that land and that thousands may recieve relieve its truth debires the author desires to add his owl OTO omo omi wi appreciation for the irish and express gratitude for the opportunity to serve in ireland as a missionary for the church of jesus christ of latterday saints saintso saintlo it is his honest conviction even more certain after conducting this research that the lord loves the irisho irish may the church continue to grow and expand in ireland until the country becomes known as the land of latterday day saints Scholar and scholarsoff ScholarSo soff iio lio ijo liournal journal of discourses XXVI liverpool england Ffo D and si S W richards speech g given i by john henry smith in the 0 logan tabernacles Taberna clep cies cache county monday april 6 l88o

211 bibliography books nonmormon Non Mormon adams ireland and irish emigration to the new worlds new havens yale university press william forbes bailey thomas A the american pageanto D C heath and co do co cow coo 9560 geanto calif pageants Pa stanford university calicornila california ft bloch hoell nils mils press iggi the pentecostal Move movements mento new york humanities brit britain an official handbook tion london england 966 edition editiouo central office of inform curtis casewell de paor baor nobl nobi edmundo history A of irelando new york barnes and noble nobiee inc 93 henry henrt fo 937 historyof and F R riberton the prophet of the nineteenth cantu century ja 0 london J G F giberton Ri 8430 liam and de paor baor maire malre early christian ireland new yorks fredrick praeger A inci 956 j& go fo edwards R dudley and williams to desmond editors the great famine studies in irish history His tozy new yorks new york university press 957 encyclopedia britannica britannic vol o growan gowan robert ogle orangeism cism its origin and aid ald history lovell and gibson 859 histo toronto canada hackett francis franciso ireland a studly in publisher huebach auebach Hu Pu Lisher 994 nat bat ionalismo gatianalism new york B IT yorks yonkt macmanus seumas the story of the irish race new yonks publishing coo co 92 iri lri irl the she iridi aridi ch mcgee megee darche thomas darcho lar hi sto D reland A Ppopular history of I ireland deland 2 vols new york yark orien Brien orlen excelsior publishing house 903 Ot john Aae ahe ihe new york me vanishing irish mcgrawhill hill book coe coo inc 953 the enigma of the modem worlds woride 99

212 200 smith cecil woodhan boodhan Woo 9620 the dhan great hunger H new york eer per harper and row taylor phillip A M expectations westwards edinburgh and london oliver and boyd the world and its peoples pepples united kingdom ireland new york greystone press 9630 quigley hugh the irish race in california and on the pacific coasts san francisco ai roman and A coo 6760 book5 booke books mormon alien aalen lilen james B and cowan richard oo 00 0 mormonism in the twentieth cen tury provo utah brigham young university press 964 moimonian monian eor backman milton V american religions and the rise of mormonian Mor Moi lake city utah W deseret book coa coo 965 salt berrett william E the restored church salt lake city utah deseret news press book of mormon church of jesus christ of latterday saints carter kate bo heart throbs of the tieste west 2 vols salt lake city B utaht utacht daughters of the utah pioneers publishing 0 coo igo coe doctrine and covenants church of jesus christ of latterday saints esshom frank pioneers and prominent men of utah salt lake city stahl utahs utahl0 utah pioneers publishing co 93 evans vanb richard lo 0 L century of Mormoni aa city olty mutahr deseret news press 937 mormonism in great britain salt lake jenson andrew CCOBP comp church chronology 2nd ed salt lake city utahi mutahi deseret news press 899t 8990 ciety encyclopedic history of the church of jesus christ of latter 9 day saints lake Ccity olty utah coo saint so 94 salt ity deseret news publishing t latterday saint biographical sa nt bioera I biberaphieal encyclopediaa encycl9pedi U4 vols salt lake city utah deseret news press 90 & journal tournai To urnal of discourses seso liverpool england volume 26 0 fingland Ffo Ddi and S W richards leaver W ho H history of sanpete sanlete sae San and mutahi tribune job printing co city utahi Lete emery counties utah salt lake

213 20 linf kinforth linforth james and fredrick piercy route from liverpool to great salt lake valley london franklin do D richards publisher 855 pearl of great prices church of jesus christ of latterday saints roberts B ho H A comprehensive history of the church of jesus christ of latterday later dw daf saints 2d ad ede edo revo 6 vols salt saitt lake city utaht igo 96o utah utacht deseret book co f 0 the life e of john tayloro cannon and sons co 892 taylora salt lake city utah george Qao qo 692 smith joseph fielding essentials in church historyo Hist orye orze salt sait t Llake Citys city utah deseret book coo 950 A newspapers newspapers and periodicals conference reporto report october 935 salt lake city utah 0 deseret news salt lake city utah igil improvement era salt lake city utah 909 9c iglo 9 star Mil mii millennial lemial liverpool and london england uo 967 the the la l8 mormon new york l87 857o instructor salt lake city utah 90 q tines and seasons nauvoo illinois limes times unpublished material at barlow brent A history and doctrine cf unpublished utah 9660 bigler jacob go diary research project at briam itdiary and life sketch of jacob G of the church of the nazareneoll un i veral brian brlan young univera ty bigler Biglers lf utah utaho state historical society library salt lake city utah itaho go ett oll eit provo butler wilford UT henryo A life sketch of my ity ley leb father william butler taken from his own handwriting obtained from arso mrso mrs clifford butler orem utah cannons ho H M the gathering of the british cormons mormons Mor american university washington do co igoe 9500 col 90o 900 masters thesis stes mcallistes john to do mcallisters T mcallisterts McAllist 80 brigham young university library provo utah journal 855 lao special Collection collectionso So journals utaho itaho l8o

214 202 elss missīon platt F jeffery fission to the irish unpublished research project at brigham young university provo utah 967 unpublished blushed material church historians office the foi folloving following follomng loving sources were obtained from the Historian church of jesus christ of latterday saints temple ita ifa tta salt lake city utah A brief history H of the irish conference vol II February february aary 936 library number b8456 B historians ts office day located at 47 east south igi igl arence may 4 95 ice branch historical records belfast branch ulster district british mission january julys igui 944 library number b7233 B e david mckays mckayls journal oe mckayla igo irish conference tri sh priesthood meetings Meeting sp it 889 library 902 number 392 irish irish irish conference record of meeta meetings ngsand eibs elbs missionaryionary conary labors november 9.9 ogo september jan jenson iriri irini irish ch conference corr Corx may march library number history ifirish conference priesthood meetings l 88u ifirish conference arence priesthood meetings library 889 number number library 960 library number 090 bon andrew the irish mission A compilation of miscellenous articles pertaining to the irish mission journal history of the church of jesus christ of latterday saints manuscript history of the british mission ogi 509 gogl 609 tf tfminute book belfast branch irish Confer conference It tminutes june 96 library number 092 lt encee october irl lri iri sh conf erenee itminutes of the regular belfast adt branch irish conference from january 6 92 library number 09u 5094 ftmi femi tf nute of belfast branch irish conference historical record bookt boodt library number 09 minute book of belfast branch lt june december library number tfminutes of dublin branch meetings library number 2 belf ast 520 Meetingso march december 30 igou 904

215 203 minutes of dublin branch meetings ft january library number 53 igo 905 november 7 It itminutes of dublin branch meetings it december 907 ilu lih library number 3u november 7 It minutes of dublin branch meetings january 5 93 march library number itminute book of belfast branch ft january june library number minutes of the belfast branch ulster conference lt december 3 92 june 7 93 library number b7232 B itpriesthood ih 40 93o It minute book of the belfast branch it may january 935 library number b7234 B quarterly historical report scottishirish irish esh mission quarterly historical report irish mission ifroll roii inroll aid and ald record book forf the aaronic and melchizedek priesthoods belfast Priest branch british mission tt library 9 number 703 ua map of ireland smith cecil woodham the great hunger new yorkt yonk 4 r yonkt harper and row 962

216 APPENDIX A statistical REPORT OF MORMON PROGRESS IN IRELAND the following allowing statistical report for both northern and southern following ireland represents the number of branches congregations number of mormon missionaries in ireland see appendix B the total membership bapti of the church and the number of baptiaas baptiaus aab aas aus sab aub sub the year indicated deaths eni rations and emigrations 9 for year branches missionaries membership baptians bastians ans sms deaths emigrations.840 u U I u 242 U no report for ror this year l80 80 i85o igo iho sm U U M U ah 3h assisted irish even so it missionaries from america were often by the members is difficult to ascertain the number of fulltime missionaries though there were often only one or two missionaries there were proportionately more converts see and 86. further evidence of local proselyting is indicated between 8o l and 873 when there were no missionaries from america but yet there were over sixtytwo two baptisms during the same period 204

217 205 year branches missionaries membership baptisms deaths emigrations ul it ut U u 242 U li4 2 4 eft oft egg u6 46 U4 6 U4 U U ak 9k U w M igo igou au u it igo it ign 9 igli igui gil igi U irish civil war no report faw gih during dulling 867 ireland was closed as a missionary field and included in the bristol conference in england the few church members in ireland were only visited occaso occasionally bonaly from the missionaries in bristol occasi onaly Bristola etoia

218 206 year branches missionaries membership Member shlp baptisms fians deaths emigrations tians it U d u6 935 igo 2 it u j no report missionariesiin missionarieslin tin 46 U it U U me.00 Missionaries 25 MM trn september due to world war II igho am am am igli am am U4 9hh U4 9 igi U it U U igo igi U U h hg u U emm U4 ii ul 25 U hlo ulo 40 hio hig a 959a 5 24 lu ua u3 28 U IM b au 9u igo l ua u0 hos ua u c reincrease c rhe heincrease in from hig 6 46 members to ua u3 members came about with the twentyeight eight baptisms plus a recount in the belfast brancho in belfast branch reported 307 members and in reportedul8 48 members after arter an apparent recount sp theirish eirish athe irish ma bthe Th m3 mission was organized july asl sslon cstatistics for 967 are up to december

219 APPENDIX B MORMON missionaries IN IRELAND the following is a list of the mormon missionaries who have been in ireland the year under which they are listed is the time of their arrival in the country reuben bedlock hedlock john taylor will wiil iam lam william black meguffi james janes mcguffie f r s e theodore curtis 84 biggie jaques james mcnaughton samuel reid he H E bowering bowertng james craig edward john reid scott H he EsE bowering angell james carrigan gilbert clements almerin drow grow james miller john lindsay janes james jares david wiik wilkie wilkle ie edward sutherland james mcghie edhie eahie to T Hhe rutledge edward L sloan janes fjames sloan richard H he attwood hayess go G be B wallace do D wiik wilkin cairnes john mcdonald thomas ward daniel toner T paul harrison thomas crowley james bond peter mccue william butler 86 paul joness matthias cowley john croston jacob go G bigler 847 james be ferguson samuel kerr IRISH MISSION samual mcclatchey patrick lynch CLOSED BETWEEN john to D do mcallister

220 ed edward clyde thomas henderson william B be baker robert marshall james so McMarrin mcmurrin robert Eeo sloan 886 william butler joseph do smith 887 Ddo H morris harry M me payne 888 james janes po low samuel nelson jacob piercer alix rankin henry henzy reid beid beld edward lo 0 sloan william wood 889 so ro R brough jr charles Hho criddle alma H hale Cco Eeo carrol job hill alonzo lewis hugh mckay Eeo N pugmire 894 charles A Jje Mmo dalton re R Jjo kerr eo mo lindsay 895 thomas adams callis charles peterson stephen ross W francis stowell stovell 896 william A bate alexander faddies john hirst john wo james andrew ferguson fergason william ao ae gray green me gilbert mo hyrum hyrom H orson hyde anderson heber Jjo burgon robert wills hilton 900 george Aao dixon Aao mo me john oo wo we fo F faddis 00 freckleton murphy daniel to price thomas bo B 90 lurenzo jo drury je durrant 902 john fo allred anred anded edwin cox charles lo 0 le mcmilne george ao A purrington robert welty GeorgeX georgex georgea wo willis jre lewis hunt william 0 mawson james janes bo be jardine ghi daniel whippie whipple pie IP 903 edward mo me perkins 897 john so boyer ajro 890 john po benson J jo william critchlow joseph S donias robert go frazier charles mccarthy james so S stapley 89 james ro re beus james bo bracken samuel sanuel ao A king joseph so lindsay james mchahan william oneil james mo M 9 so wardrop jo fo F J A jaques walter J knell hector mcquarrie john wo robertson we robert 898 to lousdale lomsdale Lou so S co duncan son bon allen alien bilen peter go johnson john francis merrill nels nelson joseph Wwe smith jre jno john so colbert grant mo me jedekiah zedekiah Jede john william holden samuel fo F leigh john ao leishman alonzo jo marchant earch ant me mccarthy charles mo robert ho edward mo me william R he moyes rower scott george warren tolley myron eo wade igou 904 edward eo hill alex lindsay francis murphy

221 209 igou 904 cont roy passey john A beck clyde H he beuuison edward C benjamin Ffo igo 905 thompson wood thomas ray burt joseph so fife be harper edwain B aafred alfred N no olsen hugh R sloan robert toy alfred aifred 906 arthur G jessee Sso johnce johnwe W william iff I lliam lilam ne N thomas rhomas thonas IT j george H jo leo J he edward S berrett brough fields hunsaker ivins lecheminant neville tew walter H bolton samuel campbell Sso elysh elash david lorin corbridge harrison ro re merrill osborn joseph we W io M me 90 jesse crosby Aao Jjo Dar horace egan riches leison lelson ielson danielson jr Wwe we W freckleton cleon A harding william johnson john Mme jones T C jones to ce to he he T H mcdonald patrick Hhe mcguire john Mme mcmurdie Mc Mardie eardle eurdie hemon leroy pierson harold H thomas C martin A re william R ao le amos ce C lei lel and N A L hanks bishop briggs farrell hatch frank W we P L nelson ira A he co leland no po le goates holman munns 94 hatch william jr Ggo hoggan daniel he H stuart 95 george brooks Wwe Wwe kent jo leonard J sidney wyatt gayment wayment jre jo W we randall thomas J 907 albert black roy D bennett hoagland jackson victor etor vi0 0 eugene pickett john spackman william wo we summer william roberts parley J welch 9 so S H cornaby W ca c4 C davidson empy john A warren H james B he be fjeldstad fieldstad gray joseph H 96 he 97 alma moss 98 ririe 908 james L lo 0 madsen laron andrus walter sidney beatle go M bybee jr mo alma A lea le L ellis harris william D head lo 0 S miles elles elies mlle L so s william me M nelson neison ottley john Hho geroge wo perry albert ho powell david mo me andrew si john S so powelson so rogers sharp daniel P williams joseph to wise albert eo arthur D do evans ee money wo A nobley jr W ao nobie samuel samael jo russon charles charies marles maries he H smith norrall A smith hyrum L sterling gearge V george Ffo wells gecrge vo vincent george 92 A clark alva be B enniss ermiss grover po P greaves daniel ho H stewart jkirby okirby eirby alexander criddle claudwe W hinckley claudae hinckly stenquist edwin 0 99 malcom hunter 92 leo bringhurst leonard brimley william horlacker john J robert warburton 922

222 igou 934 halter ton gordon Lle john ro R hicks george A baker farrell N beckstead J arvil marcroft john Ebe bell fred H he cox ray L richards marcellus Rre clark dark arthur Sso galley gailey albert Rre smoot kenneth A curtis arlow arlov Vwo nalder john lo 0 L van orman ernest J johnson le orme walter waiter he H maude eo E ailing allington johnson elmer H lloyd 0 david merrill william W 925 me we burt adrian L ailen zilen allen alien alma C palmer so rulon S cecil hi villiam yancy J satterfield he toone william ellis yardley 930 victor L 23 bingham Ffo we W fox keith M mcfarlane david rogers Yyo austin scott charles J ford elizabeth we W rees ford ellis L john he H smeath daniel Aao thompson 926 john bunderson otto done edward ee E drury merrill H he glenn cyrus H gold jamea Harvey harvey jameb r B he 936 josephw W darling parley pi po giles eldon to T lindsay cecil B david W E crane we eardley vernon derrick john N no be moroni B robert E cyril P lyman T rondo H adrian V fraser harrison ronald lo 0 L uli Mil ulllenni milcenni lanni iannial choir be Es harvey 93 darrell M me bracety bracty bractr maughan ralph Ebe ba to go wendall co C he nelson robinson toolson conrad Aae johnson Tto bruce jenkins he jensen royal H jen ben raymond Hhe swenson eldon C frank re R wilson ririe wilier willer 932 the following elders sang periodically in ireland as members of millenni the millennial clyde barraclough theron L dudley M alvin B me be le baddley fowler larkin leavitt keddington 927 leonard L moffatt kendall do garff seth pi boyd W po leishman we madsen IT glen stanford ervin ro stoker elmer do white william H he clawson george ho H curtis re houston glen fo F oliver cleon skousen william R anderson moyes lural to T pugmire norman noman nonman nornan Hhe roberts george W shupe richard G smith robert S stevens joseph he stout ne Wwe go R howard fo F wood so 928 lo 0 blacker edward L joseph Sso brough ae buchanan david A erwin re R stoker byron vance lovell A youngberg leroy E george H 933 anderson curtis william A dehart stephen lo 0 donald jo eiggren elggren eiguren max re R openshaw w john co eo lv dunford ce owens david Cco bentram T 937 thomas wiilis will owen Sso brough jr burt duxton buxton W richard po P evans wendall C to willis fowler ronald H ho hebbon hebben

223 cont conte coe R ross L frank M re larkin layton marten oo 000 clifford merrill clarence be E silver kemeth kenneth mo M Ddo 938 williams maxwell butler J alvin campbell glen Hho grimmett ronald Hhe hebbon hebben david so S king en eo leon mather so grover rich ellen rose william Jjo shaw marvin J 939 ashton emmett Lle bromn brown broon bronn roy mo M elkins J allen ailen alien ax jensen ben mark pe lyman richard bo cyril J ben K don R ko re me be mendenhall thorne wallace wheelright missionaries left ireland in september 939 because of world war IT ir layton western no L christensen james leo mortensen annold arnold aamold ray rawson bon leslie mark southworth 947 ight bruce Sso benedict grant ro re dalton melvin M richard D george C john bryner glade H C calder caider loene Bbe cooley arnold J doris C co wo dumayne duwayne Dix dri sterling E martin G 949 same ass igli arnold C noel Bbe igo iso dance horlacher koplin kopi eotteson reeder 952 daniel beck beek charles brandt archie de st jeor doris de sto ste jeor james Hho hayes gary huxford gerald litchfleid litchfield fillerup sagers scott baker bowcut Mme dallas burnett john L crockett ethyl Cce crowther powers merril fowers leree gill forrest oo 00 oe hall james B ross E james A rita E hill lloyd maxwell et miller stayner richards johnce johnco W me be eo iggi 95 jo go do stephen Rre we flynn loyal W alfred B ross Wwe baum alma lo 0 L carpenter Cai francis darwin S K stephen G travis L 2il 957 dewsbury martell teli teil mcniel weaver lii III lil anthon n E anderson david no N bench L clifton goble mary jane grogbery Grog gronbery joseph no hodgson ross A james L david X ni jenkins wilde darrell G covey hughes eleanor popham neil ransome robert yag wagstaff 954 ben ray shippen sheldon Cco snow dix K waddell gary re R 955 merrill de do ronald Q bascom harold jacklin goerge D pace do douglas snarr xo be ko bellows fredrickson so martell go go ashby asfaly baily dennis P blackhurst jackl lo 0 booth lepeterson wade M may po lo 0 L me joyce joyce vaughn merrill william Rre albert E carl C waite walker whatcott be keith bo be christensen jack chipman glen L don R boyer peterson bon stephen ro R covey returned to ireland in 962 as the first mission president

224 cont leon peterson rulon H ao maria A victor J stocking stone bruner coltrl coltra steven be coltrin ralph A critchfield richard C gehrke Eeo clifton coble burton Llo don lo 0 L harding 0 guyman ned H hart lee jo godson william Ddo liv michael moore calvin E smoot paul Hho thompson norman D wright 960 incoiaplete prle delbert G alder david E buchanan dean Rre horrocks conrad michaelson david parky parka panky parkinson clyde D do albert roy clyde G davidd go davi shaw neil swann david Tto pierce seely worlton Torlton TS 96 incomlete incomplete linda andrews bernardfo paul S bernardio Fo brian to do go go sto aking austa austin aust3n christensen growth crowth er 9 crowther Eeo bruce farley parley panley fanley larry ro R fickland frank hillis dean horrocks rondin lo 0 L merrill co C home horne nome stanley jenkins H s 0 richard J kirk robert J larsen 0 lloyd lioyd reed lo L kent B karl to T ovid F fo john Tto franklin J george geore H hoso phillip S morgan nicholsen oeal oeilly otreilly Reilly beilly Ot reay platt richards carma so rollins donald bo rowley larry oo 96 conte conto paul iff duane labrun labrum odella I lorin pugh richard riley kirkpatrick mclntyre mcintyre veronica M mo rose no N lee smith edwin edvin edmin R tucker edrin IRISH MISSION JULY donald D brent A ronald J johnte P dean M warren HI 962 assay barloh barlow bateman callis cannon me carroll Rro cottrell phillip go G condie Tarren ao do john ti to demille william Rro decker owen ao dixon gerry L ellis evans david we mr michael jo J carol godfrey john co C 0 2 hart garbett 00 safford charles Eeo sanderson bon son irish mission marsha Llo 0 smith eo smith re swinyard stephen G go tanner margaret no N todhunter wayne E william R larry eo E vest february rex T to davis richard A davis heaps benjamin sibbett ned E sweat kenley R eo ro taylor T march carter stephen go raymond Ggo hackford william B handley douglas co C knudsen eldon Llo 0 millett gene Mal mui mulleneaux leneaux michael jo J neeley walton L rice jr april joan baker kenneth jo J christensen elaine king jean palmer bruce Ggo edward fo F john B bo rogers scott storment may ww stephen Rre covey miss pres sandra covy Rro merrill covey tonii merrill marlin H ho kent john ro shields judith K pratt forty missionaries called to the scottishirish irish lono iono lone and released from the irish mission Miss mission were assigned to date set apart as a missionary in the irish mission or the date of arrival in ireland in a few cases

225 23 june hf october april ronald A ao denaughel merlin B be black joel no green teven co C steven sam san Llo 0 & elcock king donald E crockett james go G kerr jr ir jrovarren irwarren Warren go rebecca J tate tomlinson grace ko K mcquaig kay Llo 0 ryan dennis dennls go wilson lynn mo me nichol roger Ffo sullivan november lit lik 962 june j richard fo thomas kay A wind max lo 0 stewart john Rro clement arthur ho he yeager kenneth ho H wheeler robert jo J cox kent ho he gibb 96 june 3 ay 3y 9622 december gary Gary ho H harrop Harrop john po pe larsen jerry fo battle victor E willey kelly K matthews ivin M Einz einzinger ino ng er phillip ro re sve swenen neen larry do haws january 6 s 963 craig so jorgensen june ohs 2hs alan mo me justensen jerold ro re birkinshaw michael lo 0 may sherril bo donal savage patricia bo be wilson be porter robert G go heater donald jo ruyan ralph eo taylor jre michale Ppo bolt bott thomas lo 0 L harkness tony ro re martin walter no stewart aary 963 february Febr 6 june july 3aj igo 3j 963 rosemary call Clonen ts michael re clements keith ro re dotson shaunna crapo john so davis glover john P earl eo green green james do craig co smith daniel co harrison edward ao hillery A J michael jo kennelly jr sharlotte wood trood august farch llarch august 22s 962 charles co garner gainer garker galker kenneth to allred gilbert ro re maxwell drew fo fe bolander marion ro re brown shirley mounteer david F brown james vo we campbell fred ro re nelson jr berenice kinnaird sidney mo M checketts deetta owens dennis jo longman jerry lo 0 la olay clayton ton michael F mcnally harriott russell so marriott dean R gkent okent lo 0 jrkent re conant io ferguson fergason september io james fo fe minster richard HW 0 hemming richard mo astle lynn co sessions jerry co C jacob ronald do bracken roger Llo 0 leavitt lester ro re burrell october 7 tv 962 z william eo ea lloyd james ko K clark jre douglas so nickle john ho he fawcett ronald ko ke bell sheldon sheidon L she idon lo 0 porter james A hill lyndon so S clayton bryan A lowe rondo ko K sullivan robert bo be wentz joseph lo L 0 hill gary go mcgiven thomas C mehegan richard 0oo 00 plothow thomas ro olson arthur ro R piper april julian Tto ried joseph ko torgesen ronald ho he roberts charles do lynn sherfleid james eo E sheffield sherfield jr james L slade jre neil M me williams roy fo F titeindorf wbindorf weindorf tiie TITe Wb jr jre

226 24 october laj l6j march 4i 964 ai july 964 joseph jo decker robyn ann am root carl halvor fodnes gregory eo gary lo ee hafen lawrence bo be christensen frank ro re johnson bon jr 0 L mayfield lawrence ro re ean mansell sell seil seii robert to oconnell cconnell david lo 0 le olsen robert go ge peters jimmie co ce powers 3 e richard oo everett ft ro richard bo 00 scothern re sharp be tuttle november myrna gammon march albert eo E walker march 964 dee clayton bassett jack do D sim march lyndell po P harper willard zo Z maughan steven lo 0 L snider we stokes carl wo august robert augu kugu hugu t 0 E eary mary uary ro eo boice re forman eugene ao johnson barry oo 00 oe stokes re tollestrup michael ro dennis lo 0 L wheeler robert bo be hyte jean tean ao A park nay dean peterson bon ridy ridd i D lamar riding david lo 0 le rosser dennis P smith sorenson leonard ro re stevens donald re R tolman C woodrow G leslie wo ball april neil we mcclure bali judith howell hawell roy bo be nii nilsen ben gary ke K joseph mo me reynolds thompson paul september 9 september dallas william joseph co hardy H lo 0 ho he 63 6 arnell greer heywood december lanny do green terry A john wo richard kelley we mclllmoil mcillmoil eo ee murphy jack may 20 ro rv james eo barbara june bingham daily madsen 7s 964 jre richard 96u 64 J violet mo me jo johnson loving helen bo be melrose adrian lo 0 le thomas lo 0 bruce brace lo 0 nyle lo 0 io youngberg merrill miller seedall galynn jan F uary oary januaxzr january larry M oaks lj 5j boyle 964 october blair Rro lu 96u 964 andersen robert lo 0 le barney gordon jo J low melvin jo je rudd lila co C rudd douglas P savage james greer Lle jon co ce meikle carl Mme johnson david fo sturgeon harold do lawder laureen taylor steven c do D rowley raymond awhile ao awhite william Wwe tanner ner kent june november EL 3 L ent wallis T 964 february aary FebruLry 9 arthur anthur rrthur Ir me jay jav 964 A JW curtis ro re groberg delbert ao A jo reid bumett blumett jre larry gilbert ho he madsen jo FT d J stephen co C downs gerald lo 0 palmer charles eo E norman Mme gagon michel bo sheffield B kenneth wo we co C haney cova 0 n covi nan covin nancy ro re daines ne hansen ilbert albert no michael do gary ao ede de kunz ro re baldwin lii III morris sorenson stadler wilks thomas wo we simmons

227 2 25 december june augus august t 27 27s iggy 965 ne newell febra february 24j ohs 2hs 965 iggy steven D jerry L gary A dennis M clyde J richard R andrea Ssa joseph Bbo kent W norma J ronald jo jeffery J richard L lo 0 trickier trickler darryl L kent S tucker tacker cheryl L butler jerald lo 0 peterson L april jerry lo william 0 ferguson fergason Tf L maughn re petersen 0 reeder donald R dan Llo james A john di adams carter chambers davis hayes may eay 9 96 horlacher jones payne peterson rice rex jo J winn je smith springer washburn march 7 96 richard L beard michael he H burton craig M K lonnie Rre bingham mayo meyo mevo darmy daftly daftny Vvo priest january robert L we jo mo do me smith malcom gigy 965 eldredge do richards jr robert re earl craig re R winston etherington TT E hickman clark Hhe joe re R lentz lento gary lo 0 L jeffery L gordon C val A jenkins starr sycamore ce barton robison june 2 96 roger M cunningham june kenneth Vwo anderson gary mo mcmillan tamara W monson sandra H smith gregory gregox7 L thomson june igo allan R michael zearl lo 0 L joseph R kugust august au u paul S vernon Vwe kenneth joseph lo L anderson christensen christensen dickemore hill iggy higgins august wayne vayne Rro baker don E cox roy me M eli ellefsen efsen james Eeo hallstrom jr william C luker dean C olsen dennis R david J P re ce re 965 ostermiller robinson smith L stacy yeates 0 jre ronald M passey september craig P richard J allen kilen lilen alien klien gary IT audrey ro dansie re collins fogg ramah H keddington jr he ted E lines jr michael to T ricks george C terry E ee dan ro spilsbury talbot re widdison john Kke do wright alan D williams october 3 96 linda rose callahan C ahan george Vwe cottam cragun dean kent G mark L carroll me mo franklin john E furness jr garth me M kendall re dwain R larsen david A medlyn gary do D morrill glem glenn gienn giem J nally jerry jeny jemy jenu Ddo reynolds alvenia H spicer ernest emest ennest wo spicer stanley Wwo stokes william Ddo white dennis C whitaker ghi leland Ccv williamsen october sheila A me co collins november lljj ija ij4 965 william Rre witte jre mr rolland lo jaussi L0 jean weaver jaussi maureen aw anne haney hahey jauss misso preso prebo november iggy donal A brown broam bronn lonne lo 0 L nalder naider gregory go van zweden anthony do D wanamaker willard bi be wilde

228 26 december 965 april ast ust august abt dale ro re jones rodney ko K moore dail dali dallace ace Llo 0 nelson peterson roger i co peterson bon january lo terry ro charles I keith B craig do fred lo re adams anderson averett 0 davis charles wo bartholomew durr dorr darr robert Ffo fitzgerald evan he gibbons H bruce brace ro re marley john lo 0 le mitchell HI mark Wwo mitchell warren jo J stuckie strickle stuckle paul C co ure owen whiteman milvin L john Rro lloyd R april coieman coleman ence hardy deame dewayne dewme davies roy Eei stevens mr may ranch rancty rancv Cce willis june phillip A michael G dennis go G james E june lg 5. 2 davie s go cook lance lardon lareon larson stoker 966 ig 966 david Hho bennion september mckell wo we allred david go G van alstyne richard do crossley ray Tto 0 fallows Sept september enber anber james ll 9 6 Wwe blackinton dennis go christensen gean laveri laverl christensen anthony so earl robert Llo 0 henderson J reed jo hill charles Eeo stewart september timothy M anderson january 26 j 966 james ro R avery danny jo J beard charles T to brown dean bo be Connol connolly lv wayne to holt alfred co hart C doyle go fullmer collins be jones B timothy lo 0 L hopkin february as 9. 9s 966 richard R nelson gregory gregox7 po meacham donald T to standage ellis ho he nelson william do brady ernest R ro sumsion christian eo green E october 0 loe low 966 david Rro hambleton june barry Llo 0 nielson barry barzy no johnson lovell low lou V vo turley gaylon fe F gooch february bruce brace jo daane K je hayward ko orchard october vern Jjo woolley terry V park Barretfc ronald eo E barrett michael G todd david eo E boothe june gary lo 0 le waite ferris jo ja critchley jr ronald ro re daybell michael jo gebhardt october richard lo L 0 nobis james li le peck re sherwood lincoln R david R wilson manghan mayghan Mmo guyman don ho he halverson madsen terry D do Z james eo martin brent do chaston edwin jo ford jack no hinrichsen dale A rosenl rosenlund dale ho he moss march aj 9j9 966 roger do D thornton august augast 7 a 9666 randall do sparks don R re fo billings donald F davis douglas so moss november as 9s9 966 blaine C co fowers david wo W ren ien swearingen Sweari don L mcallister carey wo we brinkerhoff brinkerhof f dale olsen barry do D wilson

229 27 november igo may 7s MM ust august danny damy mo me kelly january januan jajuan igo 60 ige 967 robert jo J bleakley par februaryy lo febrpat gordon lo beardall leslie go bromn brown michael to howells harold ko K oborn john do passmore D february s douglas E lloyd A douglas H ronald D roy E mary mazy eary donald Rre davidson henrie latimer liljegren ljegren sillito eart be hamilton Hai halailton jensen may steve S eo he mav bunting june douglas B do ll 2 dorton david T russell lo 0 michael Ddo hit hill I to hll C richards august gary Jjo bankhead freemon eo brown william L gentry hancock edward ao hinds david Wwo henly henry Jjo john ho izola jensen kohnke hv Ttanner mildren tanner leo so barnes donald Mme beard curtis so beames richard mo M 4p ril rii bird john mo me brookbank michael Llo 0 cosgrave cob 967 march james janes Wwo easley march gerarda ho he jo J bals march roger Nno bybee dennis ro knight march nelson Kko alger kent A myrtle myrtie iff lff inf tfyrtle hoggan smith thomas Aao smith april john A 2 dark clark mark mank ronald do D hunt terry go G loosli john Ppo walker jack Hho widdison L may mw as 5s 967 bryan Tto jex larry L moocy mooctr doocy john gi robison carl M june fihs 967 fredie E john E richard F hatch loghry smith jordan 967 june edwin A stanley R david B robert W bruce W bingham butler green hales hamilton hunsaker richard Eeo alan ro R taylor ray lito lifo Wtito theron mo inez lo L wood mm may john ho he lock august as 9. 9s 967 john co gordon ro re hochfilzer hochfilter hochfllter Hoch hoeh sidney le G mo be we me ashcroft misso ce earl wo 28 filter fliter stohl richard po P taylor michael terry do september blaine fo elswood king mo me jenks mark Aao sonntag ronald ro re stever september howard do hall brisn beisn D roger C nelson melvin Hho pedersen david bo mulholland malholland be rietbrock october t robert P john ro keith W wo brent go G plant allen klien alien kilen Wwo pogue scott Wwo sonne ra r7 kenneth do stackle stuckle 2o 20 october ao 25j 967 ronald wo we bess 0 L edvalson tommy lo re eames crowther darryl to hoopes david ho jeppson kent bo johnson miss preso 0 parsons ashcroft lloyd no layton W steven jo J lehnof lehnhof lesueur jr howard do hansen elizabeth A wailace wallace kenneth wo jensen

230 28 conte october conto harold B james H roger G go lewis robinson williams november 967 marvin Ddo pyper andrew E schow jr steven oeil ofneil deil wise wibe november dennis ro R stott additional missionaries tresley wesley gesley M pack helen pack william Will iani iaal lavon E E wagstaff wagstaff

231 APPENDIX C IRISH MORMON PIONEERS IN UTAH adams williamborn january at hillsborough county down ireland son of charles adams and cathrine willes of bagley borough county cavan5 cavana cavan ireland william and his wife and children came to utah on october in the george A smith company amp he was a seventy and served a mission for the church to pennsylvania from later 873 he was a counselor to the president of the san juan stake by occupation william adams was a farmer merchant and stockraisero juan county utah frank esshom Ppioneers loneer 9.9 salt lake city utah robertborn alexander robert born in 826 in county tyrone ireland he was the son of alexander and mary mcfarland of lurgan burgan ireland he came to utah in in the captain mcgraw company fib ibide abide tt B babbitt babai richard born july in ireland he came to utah in kate bo carter heart throbs of the west salt lake city utah daughters of utah pioneers 950 XE XT stockraiser krasser he died at bluff city san s and arona prona prominent men of utah 0 utah pioneers publishing Compa companys nyp J e ei tio 707 baxter robert wright born february 2 89 at donaghadee Donaghadee ireland a son of john jonn joen baxter and margaret wright baxter county he came to down utah september j with the richard ballantyne company besides being a member of the nauvoo legion he also served as president of the 28th quorum of seventies he also served as a high priest patriarch and home missionary his occupations were farming and shoemaking esshom op cit 742 cesshom ope opo geor e h black george born may in lisburn ireland a son of william black and jane johnson nsono asono he arrived in utah in and moved to fillmore the foll- 0 owing year from there he moved to sanpete county in 855 when the first wagons left for ste george george black was in one of them Hhe was wab s a veteran of the black ibid elbid abid ebbid 79t hawk war he died november 872 tbid 759e 797 black joseph S bom born july ll 836 in lisburn ireland a son of william 9 4 black and jane johnson he served as a seventy high priest counselor o0 to the bishop and a bishop in the deseret ward he was a major an in the sanpete militia and a spring city selectman he died august 3 90 ribidj lblido black william lan oan lamborn august in lisburn J black and mary gardner black he came to utah in september in the james pace company orday later ordained a high priest lisborn ireland a son of william f or he was a missionary to england for two years and was he was also a soldier in an the british army arny 29

232 220 for twenty years before coining coming to americas founders of spring city sanpete county in 89 william black was one of the de th curred burred oc cjbide 859 his death occurred january at rockville kane county utah ibid black william jr william black jr was born february at lie- lisburn ireland a son of william black and jane johnsone he arrived arr i in utah in he was a seventy in the l8th 8th lath quorum and president of the 2st quorum he was later a high priest and presiding elder in deseret 877 william black jr assisted in locating manti and spring city as an early pioneer to sanpete county he was also a contractor on the durg d&rg railroad raliroade he was a veteran of the walker and black hawk indian wars and president of the deseret irrigation company he also assisted in locating the dams and canals at abraham hinckley ackley I deseret and oasis in utah esshom op cit 79o 790 esshom bonner george bom january in ireland he came to utah in ibido 762. ebido bullock charles R born bom qw ld4b 2inn the brigham butler william Williaia lala j toas woas han young Com company july in ireland he came to utah in panye ecartery Ec oa op cit IX 475j ig lg u73 laid bom born bonn august 827 at carey 5. county wexford ireland a son of george and nancy colbum butler in his teens moab oas a young man he left ireland arriving in canada he his parents died while he was sought temporary employment and shortly thereafter he travelled to council bluffs s iowa in the united states where he met the mormons cormons Mor orson hyde in particular young butler decided to travel west with the pioneers and on august he entered the salt lake valley with the mormon plone pioneerse erbe one month later he was baptized in city creek near salt lake city he returned to ireland on a mission in 8533 and later returned to utah where he lived as a stalwart pioneer the rest of his life lwilford henry butler A life sketch of liy william butler taken from his own handwriting ogden utah during july 932 obtained Obtaine d obtaine from mrs butler orem utah also carter cit op fbhc aa 0a HC cartera carterp az 2z cite cita II XI bog hogg 406 cornwall alexander bom august in county 27.9 down ireland a son of alexander cornwall and eliza naele mission to ireland esshom op 22 cit he was a high priest and served a cite eit elt 82 cheney lucy elzada born february in belfast ireland she t came to utah in 849 8u9 in the george A smith company tcarter ar 2r op cit 0 X 4480 isy father unpublished biography written in cite XI h03 cilfford ciifford clifford ethyl Dubli ireland cantwell james sterlock sterlpck shwlpck born november 24 83n in dublinj son of simon cantwell and wilhemine sherlock he came to utah on december ll 4. ih lh in the martin tyler az 2z cherry william in the mormon zios lyler company esshom op cit williamin zion azioss camp march from ron fron Kirt kirtland landy ohio landt to jackson county missouri william cherry taught the mormon men the 9 art of swordsmanship ca 2 C iq I q 88j op cit2 cita II clifford 403 clyde c eliza mcdonaldborndecember december 5 83 in ireland she came to utah in lff iff 8500 carter a

233 22 cuthbert susan M suban bide abide idna tb 80. tbidna 848 IX cornwall jos pos joseph vos 2ph 9.9 bom born march 8 89 tn ireland she came to utah in alexander cornwall and eliza naele born august in county down ireland a son of he wae warn was warm a high priest and served a mission to ireland esshom op cit 82 james bom born june 22 2 son of james and nancy diamond Diamon diamond2 diamonda aph E 0 dw 833 st at s t crossland county kerry ireland a he came to utah in 847 in an independent company he settled in manti utah where he performed the first plowing of the soil pbidj 8750 lbid3 he later moved to sprlngville 90ringville utah where he died april 2 afelt donnelly mary ann born january in magerafelt Mager londonderry ireland she came to utah in and later married george black who was also from ireland abid bibid fibid jip L VJ donnelley mary mya ann mckowan born in ireland she came to utah in l t she is possibly the same person as the one cited above fibid bibid lbido lebidj lbidj donnely phil bom born bonn in ireland and came to utah in ibidji douglas agnes cross born february 2 89 in ireland she came to utah in n 848 in the brigham young company carter op cit IX u82j ebido douglas william Bbo born february 2 89 in ireland he came to utah in 848 in the brigham young company &bid flbid7 oom comp any abi 0 flanigan jaines james born in september 822 in county down ireland he was converted to morisonian moriaonian Mori morl mormonian monian and eni emigrated 9 to america and became a resident of nauvoo hancock county illinois where he was ordained a gol aitio 63 foster janes henry hem her bom seventy at a special conference held at nauvoo in april 843 was called on a mission to virginia etain also see millennial na star n3 LXII 900 u297 george georae georee 843. he in 848 he was called on a mis- faithf aithoully uily sion to great britain where he labored faithfully until he was stricken with smallpox and died january while in the mission field in britain he wrote the pamphlet priestcraft in dangertt candrew biographical encyclopedia salt lake city utah deseret news 90 III ili ill fostell fosterl andrew jenson bom august 80 at castleberg ireland a son of george 82 in the thomas tidwell 835 in keady ireland a son of wil- born foster and mary wallhena willhena Wall he came- to utah an in 852 company george e foster died june 888 atohi atwhi TB hitney ltney atney idaho oes CEsshom cesshom ae 2e cit toj C top j L Freckletol freckletoa freckleton john orrborn bom march as 3s3 83 liam freckleton and jane orr he came calne calde to utah on october in the A P harmon hamon harnon cony cosy cosg company he was a missionary to scotland in 8577 and 9009 in addition he was superintendent of sunday school ireland in 900 bishops counselor justice of the peace indian war veteran and railroad raa worker mbidq fjbidop 878oj lroad broad he also had the honor of quarrying rock for the salt lake temple 878 J millen al

234 222 grahm grahn james gro gre jr born october 804 in ireland he came to utah in lqh9 carter cit X U henry andrew born in 8 in ireland he came XIIt cam to utah in 850 albi dlbi fibid bibid L do P born in Irel ireland ando aado she XI u20j L henly ry margaret ci C bom XII 420 irei came to utah in ibo ibid abid lbidap henry robert born in march 88 in ireland he came to utah in 80 Y 850 fibidj ebido ibido howard william lil born january 7 8 at belfast ireland a son of scott wiiam 85 howard and catherine babbington he came to utah in september he was a seventy missionary to great britain in the years and was a real estate and iron foundry man by trade he died december 9 890at holiday Holidayv utah i esshom cite cita 944j guu LE 9.9 jr howard william william howard and aid mid in 83 sshom 22 cit I jre born january in belfast ireland a son of wid elizabeth anderson he came to utah with his parents 8530 he was a high priest high councilman bishops president of stated counselor ward teacher lietenant luetenant Lie counselor in the nauvoo legion county attorney p- and postmaster he also held several county olitical positions and was a notary public and blacksmiths mr howard was called to assist in settling the bear lake country in lindop bibid fibid lildop gui guk L guf hyder ryder det t85a 50 sarah jarrold bom catter carter op imparter iparter az 2z cito born july in ireland XEI XI 4430 to utah in she the came an johnsony sarah mcgee stephen markham markhan markman Markmiam fiam hman comp Con kenny bom born in irelande filide fibide conyanyo vanyo ganyo I 23 lbidop E irelander she came to utah in in the genny john born march in ireland he came cane to utah in 858 XI 4230 j 88 in an oxteam companyo companio besides being an early settler in deseret and holden utah he was a veteran of the black hawk indian war and a farmere esshom 9.9 aa 2a cit 98u laird james born december in ireland a son of edward laird and sarah barr of bonebefore Bonebefore antrim he came to utah on november 9 linton samuel born june in irelandp a son of william linton eli ell eil county in the captain willie handcart company he was one of the first settlers in spanish fork in058 log 98 heber city in and parleyls ls in 862 fanner ranner farner by occupation he was a farmer lre ire ide ibidj ay iy 99 flbid fluid ellzabeth eilzabetheth seifridge selfridge he came to utah in 83 and elizabeth in the ueth u9th 49th quorum farner as a high priest and as a veteran of the echo canyon war and a fanner farmer lyons oscar sear bear fitzallen son of caleb lyons and sarah ba bigboy gl 25. ibad canyon seven 853 and served as a seventy fibid 00 bibid bid loo loob v L cit bigloy of ireland 25 ibid id 07 0 ad 0 he wasw A born december and came to utah in 849 ibld mackay thomas born july in belfast ireland a son of mackay and nancy sloan of ireland he came caw to utah in september in the john taylor and edward hunter coppa company nys nyp he was a school trustee

235 223 farner and a stockraiser naiser he died february ibid from a farmer stoc kraiser knaiser v Taylors taylorsvi lle in taylorsville lie utah macknight james born december ll 08 j raiser ralser at the age of 22 carter op cit in ireland he came to utah ain i m marshala marshall9 Marshall marshalla XI ibid ail george e 9 G e u29j g bom born july in ireland he came to utah in mccann sarah jo born march 7 89 in ireland she came in the stephen markham company lbidot ibid 430 h30 0 a mcgann thomas Rre born in ireland he came to utah in tbidj mccann MCC stephen markham company J reborn ibidj cane to utah in iao lao in the MCCarthy mccarthy john Born bona bora rothware Rath sneaden bonn april the day the church was organized the family later moved to australia where young john heard sydney new south wales on the ship julia juila juiia in rathware ireland a son of john mccarthy and catherine gaffney about and later joined the mormon church on september brother mccarthy sailed from sidney tfjulia ann with a number of saints travelling to utah on october the ship struck a reef and the emigrants got ashore to a nearby island on a makeshift raft they remained on the island until december 3rd when they mere were vere rescued by the crew of the t emna jackerott packerott Packe packenrett he returned to the society islands and continued in the work of the gospel and baptized many on april lit 4 lii brother mccarthy arrived in san francisco and travelled to utah in 877 he served a mission to the british isles fibid bibid ibideo III loud iohd loho mccracken near londonderry born in 80 near letterkenny Letter henry hanry a son of james and sarah McCrac mccracken mccraeken 2 W kenw keno he ireland came to utah on september in the john R murdock company he was a missionary to eqgland giand eagland Eq england 06j 056 eliza ellza born december lg ig 83 in ireland sme ste came to 5. S e utah in 050 in the aaron johnson company ibida XIv mcponaldz mcdonald mcdanald eliza mcdonald jane born july in ireland she came to utah in in the aaron johnson company ibidt do EIb A idt J mcdonald naid john born december in ireland he came cane to utah in 60 ibi ibl d 0 leo ieo lmdt Donald Me mcdonald john kilp elip trick ezra ezna ear T bens on company abid pbid y kilpatrick born in ireland and came to utah in 89 ebid X J 849 in mcdonald john taaffee john taaffee mcdonald was born april 830 in county armagh iṟe ire lre ine lne an landd a son of john kilpatrick and rachel burck taaffee 849 hi h he came to utah with his parents in 8 he was a seventy high priest 9 and a merchante and by profession he was a chenu chena chemist ste sto esshom op citow citop nc mcclenehan nancy N bom born september 24 chanto esshom op cit in county tyrone ireland she came to utah in the later emigration of 847 in the asa barton Com company panye ecarter acarter op cito cita higa ak 2k VIIIs ludt a to Benson ibido idj

236 224 mcdonald jos bor joseph job bornn october 5 84 in ireland he came to utah in 850 carter cit 0op XT li3 I x 430 medoriala aq dq doriald dorl Dori naid mon 4649 rot aid rachel boborn lul lui laidle lbidle Bbo born in ireland and came to utah in 849 ibi v L d 9.9 XP mcdonald robert born in ireland in 843 and came to utah in 850 iaron aaron laron johnson company bibid fibid il n ibidp XI xip bip 430 mcdonald sarah F bom born in 802 in ireland and came to utah in fibidtl the aaron johnson company mcdonald william born in ireland and came to utah in 80 mcdonald william born november 6 80 in the ibo in lebidj lbidj 8500 fibidt am 83u3 4 in ireland and came to utah in 850 inn thewilford woodruff company ICcarter Mop cit XI 43 u3 P mcdonald william born bom in ireland in 805 a son of james mcdonald and 2 sarah ferguson he came to utah in october layo in the wilford woodruff company Gompanye panya he Elbid ibo was a high priest and was appointed by brigham young to locate agricultural sections for settlement he worked on the nauvoo temple and was a scout in the echo canyon campaign in addition his services were found in the walker and black hawk indian wars pation he was a farmer and a stockraiser sfcockraiser fiisshom eshom op kraiser by cit lot mcewan henry hena born february bihy 4. lh 802 in parish of garvaby9 garvaty garraty Gar county downs irelan r d he came to utah september in the james do ross D company abide ibide john bom born a son of john mcewan mcewan johnborn bonn in february 824 at bonbricly county down ireland meewan and jane thompson he came to utah in his services to the church were as president of the 22nd quorum of seventies and secretary to joseph smith in naivoo naavoo naidoo nauvoo illinois he was also clerk in 9.9 the third judicial district court and postmaster in provo utah jbidje ibid mcewan 85 arter eazy mazy NIM eary niu yiu smi snith born in april 85 Jin ireland and came to utah in acarter lcarter 22 cit cita XII XH liu9j LC mcewan pbirj bidol bidoj matthew born bom bonn april in ireland and came to utah in mcfarland james born may in ireland a son of john mcfarland and mary irving he came to utah in october 866 in the joseph S rawlings oxtrain before coming to utah he married sarah mitchell in ireland highpriest andhelped city esshom aa op cit 0573& mcfarlan he was a high priest and helped settle mill creek near salt lake 2a Tr tyrone county ire- blaire he came to utah mcfarland william ilam llam liam bom born june 8 land illick 795 in trillick drillick d q W trill ck a son of archibald mcfarland and mary blair biair september 25s 855 in the richard ballantyne Ballan balian lyne compa company patriarch high priest and justic of the peace fibid atrick he was a church 0 obidos 0580 bibid ibidos 08 mcguire patrick henry born june ili lit 2 P t ireland a son of bernard mcguire and susan mchugh he came to utah nr L at derry lahan county davan

237 225 july he was a bishop president of the elverst elders elderst quorum rintende county assessory assessorv irelands school superintendent 9 eibid logg j t sunday assessor and missionary to ireland 90- thonas thomasborn bom in ireland thomas mckay came to utah in 847 pos sibly the same as thomas mckay previously mentioned ecarter acarter op citow citop 9.9 mckay VIII e elizabeth mclellandi McLellandt born august au bub in the brigham young company ebido lbid ibido IX h u in ireland and came to utah in mclelland thomas bom in the brigham young company born march in ireland and came to utah in firidl fibidl ibi. mcmichael in bibid fibid id 0 elizabethborn ellzabeth eilzabeth L bom 43 u3l7 ll born march 20 sia 4 sfa. 86 in ireland and came to utah mcmichael september stember 652 near salt lake city robert born august 9 8 in ireland he came to utah in 85 in the abraham 0 smoot company and lived in sugar house ies fesshom esshomv fes shom op cit mcmillan ilan lian david born march at ballyrick BaLly ballar cor ballyrich BaLly down ireland a son of hugh mcmillan and catherine fowler he came to utah in october 890 in an independent company county he was a high priest bishop sunday school superintendent school trustee coal mine inspector and a coal miner niner fibid abid bibid lbid l f itt I maffitt moffitt bof add idd andrew eirew firew jo bom born in inniskillen enniskillen Innis county fermanagh morritt Fer ireland on may a son of james and elizabeth isabella morf Moffit moffitfc the family fc came to the united cited states when he was an infant and located in iowa where he grew up and married led his wife bif H e died soon after arter the marriage and he started for california in the ts during the gold excitement nhen when he reached salt lake city he remained for a short time and on july he joined the mormon church after a brief trip to california he returned to utah 0 and served as coachman for brigham young for several years in 860 he a was sent to manti by brigham young to assume the position of bishop position he heid held until 8740 he was also aiso a veteran of the black hawk iṉdian indian lutar tutar war htild heild jbfo wo H lever history of sanpete and emery counties utah city tribune job printing co ope salt lake olty opo cit IV 62uo also see jenson montgomery robert born january 7 at church ireland a son of robert montgomery and agnes shepard he came to utah on september in the homer duncan doncan company he was a missionary to indiana from a 900 high councilor constable justice of the peace and farmer EESS hebb bebb esshom az op cit 3 j coun ilor 0u6j 046 robertborn 624 f or cita cit 060 cathe rl llor cit 9.9 ayo 2z morrison john born in 805 in ireland he came to utah on october in the eli Bbo kelsey company he married sarah of ireland in 835 he was a high priest and assisted in building the nauvoo temple tempie tenpie Q arner was a pioneer of franklin idaho and by trade was a farmer fanner ibid he H moyes mye eyesz robert mae bom born in m in belfast ireland although he did not come a 82 to utah he joined the mormon churchy churchv and after his death in ireland his

238 226 mif wifee elizabeth hutchinson of donegal ireland brought their three sons to utah jq in 865 the sons were william john hutchinson and alexander hill elizabeth moyes died august at ogden utah 9.9 ebido ibido utain j sane william D born Mew newsome newsone county C wicklow I bom in ireland on february at arklow irelcnd irelaad ireland a son of george H newsome and sarah proleo prole8 prolee he came to utah on november in the miner G atwood company he was a high priest missionary to england engineer paperhanger and paintero L painters ibid 068 J olne oeil beil john bom oeil otneil oell orneil and margaret cumni3 cummings i piriest lest pin missionary justice hawk eawkwardo ward ibid 0820 ja j born april at grey abbey ireland a son of john cane to utah in 864 and was a high and captain in the black he came priest home missionaryjustice of the peace id alij park u parish fanny falm barn born in ireland and came to utah in l8u7o sitj 0sita o VIII vil u93 90 S parko gene harvey mild mlij xz 5 earvy born in ireland harvy 847 carter op he came to utah in l8lo lalo fibidoe jbidoq L 220 park sanuelborn samuel samael sanuel bom born bonn in ireland he came to utah in ibl 8 85 fibido sibido ebido ibi ibl 85 at bella tore ireland a son of john pimm and ann martin As a young man john came to utah on september 2 limm pimm john born september 3 8 st martin city secton in the jessee B martin wagon company brother pimm helped to settle sto george in 86 and was a high priest tithing clerk field ma- ohallo ohallj rshall becton poundkeeper and city assessor C postmaster st in sectonp boro soro bora he sto george utah esshom op cit ilog 06j 03 al also albo served as pollock james born in ireland he came to utah in 847 carter op vill bo u9j 490 hige sat t q VIII higo 22 ireland plunkett sarah Keborn ko born in irelando X r hj 465 sie she came to utah in l8u9o 849a jifbid llbide L ralphs sarah johnson born in irelando she came to utah in 849 abid lbid7 reid john po P born february ab b25 in county donn down dawn I johnsonborn dann ireland a son of amily followed allowed john reid and fanny white he came to utah in 87 and his family in 8720 he was an elder a farmer and a gardner 3 n nere 25 nero esshom ap 2pp cit 8o 80 f reid honorable william KX the honorable william K reid of the law firm reid and cherry in manti was bom in belfast ireland on october 2 84 l8u88 son of john po ael pv and margaret kirkwood reidi p reids C polisher in his youtho boutho after his arrival in utah in 872 he taught school 7lh 74 ltd itd 7j 75o 2p cit he learned the trade of french and studied law he was admitted to practice in the supreme court of utah on june he was also elected to the office of prosecuting prosecuti n g 0 in 882 and was reelected elected in p 888 and again in 8960 he was elected superintendent of schools in and in 887 in 889 he was elected a member of the territorial legislature during clevelandis Clevelandis ecoid second administration he was appointed hinted probate judge of sanpete county lyt fit H ap W ho lever opo cito w prosecute attorney

239 227 reid william taylar taylor bishop willam william wlliam taylor was bom born bonn july in drumbo brumbo county down dom ireland he joined the mormon church in am belfast on january and iianirated imigrated immigrated to utah in 862 and located in provo he was a teacher and major in the black hawkwar war in sevier county rn in 867 he moved to manti and was appointed county clerk and recorder later he was county superintendent of schools a position which he held for sixteen years in l8u lau he was appointed billop bidlop idiop for 8 bl E cgu cit ward sshom it pssshom eshom sal gal 2 25 J idiol of manti north rich nancy born in ireland and came to utah in 847 carter op cit c L ryti t 79 mi hhlj hilj jor i I tay B shop sands robert born bom in ireland tabernacle choir jbnprovement mprovement if he was the fifthf leader 26 J 0 improvement era april of the mormon scotta ann born in ireland and came to utah in 8 scott2 villel VIIIUJ V I 4ay 4y 3 P e 2e cit sinclair william born bom bonn april wiit wilt of james amp s 2 sinclair cinclair and agnes rowley inclair llu9lloj apri in county down ireland a son he came to utah in 863 and was a pioneer to portage where he assisted in making canals and wagon wacrrn roads in the early days priests abid 62j he was also a high priest 85 acarter JC tbid ibid arter jcarter janes born october in the county of tyrone ireland elanda sloan james he joined the mormon church at an early age he emigrated to america and received a patriarchal gar larchai blessing fron fromjoseph smith sr on february during daring darlng the winter of he Ir 22 op cit L 9 scott johnborn may 6 8 in armagh ireland a son of jacob scott wamock and sarah War warnocke nocke nocko he was a high priest he came to utah in 848 in the john scott company missionary to ireland during the years and had the distinction of serving as bodyguard to the prophet joseph smiths snith he was also a colonel in the nauvoo N legion and an indian war veteran esshom ae op cite 4950 liyo 50 I i amo 839 visited the prophet joseph smith and fellow prisoners in liberty jail in missouri he passed through the missouri persecutions persecute lons and testified ily under oath in 840 that e had been threatened by the missourians Missourians that his hib property had lif his life ilfe been taken by them and that he was obliged to flee from the state with his family greatly to his disadvantage M he was one of the early mormon settlers of nauvoo where he was appointed the first city recorder in and later the secretary of the nauvoo legion he was also appointed the first notary republic in nauvoo and from he was general church Re cordere recorder cordera under the date of february Febr aary joseph smith recorded in his history tii til I prophesied to james sloan city recorder that it would be better for him ten years hence brother sloan and his wife were called on a mission too tio fessett fees feesett not to say anything more about ireland in qityy towards the later part of his life he migrated to salt lake city and died a faithful member of the churchy churche jo steele john born march 2 82 in holywood hollywood t- korn iee jenson chenson cfenson Cf his enson 22 op cit I 29 Ho ireland a son of john steele and nancy kennedy cane to utah on july 29 he came 847 as part of the mormon battalion immigration he was a high priest and a missionary to las vegas nevada and later to europe he was a major in the parowan carowan infantry antry9 marsti the distinction f all ail ali marshall of parowan carowan Pa mayor of parowan carowan Pa and postmaster he had XII distinct on of working on the nauvoo temple carter op cito cite xiii xii5

the authors have several purposes to promote according to the central purpose of men with a mission though is to

the authors have several purposes to promote according to the central purpose of men with a mission though is to JAMES B ALLEN RONALD K ESPLIN and DAVID J WHITTAKER men with a mission 1837 1841 the quorum of the twelve apostles in the british isles salt lake city deseret book 1992 xix 460 pp ap 84 illustrations 7

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