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1 ECONOMIC AMONG NEGRO AMERICANS Report of a Social Study made by Atlanta University, under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D. C., together with the Proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May the 28th, 1907 EDITED BY W. E. BURGHARDT DU BOIS CORRE3SPONDlND SECRETARY OF THE CONFERENCi? The Atlanta Unlverslt~ Press ATLANTA, aeorgla I907

2 Contents Resolutions of the Conference Preface Select Bibliography of Economic Co-operation among Negro Americans Part I. The Background Section 1. The Scope of this Study Section 2. Africa Section 3. The West Indies Section 4. The Colonies Part I1. The Development of Co-operation..... Section 5. An Historical Sketch Srction 6. The Underground Railroad Section 7. Emancipation Section 8. Migration Part I11. Types of Co-operation Section 9. The Chorch Section 10. Schools Section 11. Beneficial and Insurance Societies.... Section 12. Secret Societies Section 13. Co-operative Believolence Ye(-tion 14. Banks Section 16. Co-operative Business Section 16. The Group Economy Section 17. The Twelfth Atlanta Conference.... Page 4 6

3 Resolutions of the Conference The C'o~lference regards tlle economic tlevelopi~~ent of the Negro Aniericans at present as in a critical state. The crisis arises not so n~ach because ot idleness or even lack of skill as by reason of the fact that tlley unwittingly stand hesitating at the cross roads--one wax leading to tlle old trodden ways of grasping fierce i~iclividualistic coinpetition. where the shrewd, cunniiig, skilled antl rich nniong thein will prey upon the ignorance and siniplicity of the Inass of the race antl get wealth at theexpense of the general well being; the other way leading to co-opertttion in capital antl labor, the massing of sinall savings, the wide tlistrilution of capital and a niore genera.1 equality of wealth antl colufort. This latter path of co-operative effort has already been entered by 1na.ny; we flntl a wide development of industrial antl sick relief, inauy 1111ilding and loan associatioi~s, some co-operation of artisans antl considerable co-operation in retail trade. Inclentl from the fact that there is among Negroes, as yet, little of that great ineqnality of wealth distribution which marks niod~rn life, nearly all their economic effort tends toward true economic co-operation. But danger lurks here. The race does not recognize the parting of the wags, they tend to think and are being taught to think tllat any inetl~od which It~ads to individual riches is the way of sa.lvation. The Col~ferelice believes this doctrine mischievously false, me believe that every rtfort ouglit to be made to foster a~rd emphasize prrsent tendencies an1011g Kegroes toward co-operative effort and that thr, ideal of wide ow~iership of small capital and sinnll accu~nuliztioiis :iinong inmy rather than great riches among a few, should persistently 1)e held 1)efose them.

4 Preface This study, which forms the twelfth of the annual publications of Atlanta Unirrrsity, and the second iuvestigation of the new decade, is a further carrying out of a plan of social study by means of recurring decennial i~lquiries iuto the mine general set of h~unan problems. The object of these studies is primarily scientific-a careful search for truth conducted as tl~oroupl~ly, broadly, and honestly as the material resources ant1 mental equi11111ent at connna~id will allow; bnt this is uot our sole object: we wisl~ i~ot only to inake t,iie Trnt,h r,lear bilt to present it in such slia,pe a.s will enconrage an<l help social reform. Our finn,ncial resources arc l~nforiunn.tely mt?agre : A tlautx 1Tniversitg is primarily a scliool ant1 most of its funds nut1 energy go to teacl~i~~g. It is, however, also it wat of learninga~~das such it has endeavored t.o advance knowledge, particularly ir~ n~a.tters of racial contact aud develop~nent which see~ned 01)viouslp its ilearest fikltl. In t,llis work it, has received unusual encouragrn~ent fro111 the scientific world, and the published results of these studies are used in Americx, Europe, Asia and Africa. Scarcely a book on the Negro problem or any phase of it has been published in the docade wl~ich has not acknowledged its indebteduess to our work. On t.he other I~and, the financial support given thi~ work has beeu very s~uall. The tota.1 cost of ttlc: twelve p~iblicatioiis has been about, $13,000, or a little over $1:000 a yea.r. The growing tle~nautls of the work, t,he vast field to he covered and the tlelicacy and equipn~ent. ~ieecled in s~icll work call for fa.r grea.ter resources. We ueed, for workers, laboratory and publicatio~ls, a fund of $6,000 a yea,r, if this work is goillg adequa,tely to fulfill its promise. This gear a s~nnll temporary grant from the Carnegie Institution of Wa,sl~ingto~~. D. C.: has greatly helped US. In other years we have bee11 able to serve the TTnit'ed St,ates Bureau of Labor, the United States Census, t,he Board of Educat,ion of the English Gover~~n~ent, many scientific associations, professors in nearly all the leading universities, and maliy periodicals and reviews. May we not hope in the future for such increased financial resources as will cnable us to study adequately this the great'est group of social problems tlmt ever faced America?

5 Select Bibliography of Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans AIvr~rd, J. W.-Letters frcmi the South relntlng to the condltlon of the Freedmen, ndrlrrssed to General Major Howard. 42pp. Wnshln~ton, lh70. Fifth Seiiii-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen. 55 pp. Wfbshlngtan, %llrn. Walter.--Governor Cha~nberl:~lii's AdmlnlstratIon 111 South (.'nrollni~. 514 p11. London and New Tork, IHW..iinerlcnn Negronnd hisrcononilc relue. B.T. Wnshlngton. I~rfr~~nulio~~rclJio~~lhl~/, Y :w-86. h~~~e~-ioin Negro Artlsnn. T. J. Cnlloway. Cnrnier's dfagarine, %:I.%-45. Illt.11, Ril:hnrd.-First Rishol~ of the A. M. E. Church. The Ilfe, experlenw and gospel labors of th? Rt. Rev. Richnrd Allen. Writtr~l by hiinself. Phllt~lelphin, li!cl. 69 pp., 8vo..4111erlcn.n (Iolnnlzntlon Sodety. Annutil reports of the Aiiierl~:an Society for the colonizio(: of the Free People of color of t.h? United States. Nul~ihel's 1-72, with mlnutes of the riieetings and of tile b~)nrd of directors. IH1R-IBW, Sv., Xvo..\n(lerson, Matthew.-Presl~yte1'iu1ils11i tin11 Its reltition to thr Nrgro. Phll~~delphlu, IH!;7..%rilett, R. W.-The Bndget for IWl-ISHI. 651 pp. The Urnteni)ini Budget. lm'-lh!% MI pp. The R~idgvt, c!or~talning nlinual reports of tl~e gcnernl officers, err., lw5-u. 675 pp. The Budget, IX9l. 211 pp. Tl~e Bnclget,l!'Ol. 78 pp. The Budget of 1!I pp. Philridelpl~lu. UILCOI~, Eei~jniiil~i 0.-Stntlstlcs of the (tolured people of Phllndell)llln. Philn., Ibid. Second Edition wlt h stntlst.ics of crllur. Phiin., 1116!1. 2 (1), pi)., 8 ~0. Rlydel~, Ednnrd Wlliiiot~.-(:hristlanltsS Isla~ii, and the Negro Itoce. Introduction I)?. Suiilurl Lewis. London, 1W7 I I), vli (I i, 4% pp., 1?1ilo. RCW~I.~II, hl~~ss.,(:l'~t~~)~~lnr School (!olnmlttar. Report (,I ti spwlal coiiilnittve of the ~~ILIIIIII.?~ s(!11~)01 Ilonrd..\l)olit1o11 01 tlj? Sluith ~.oior+~d SCILIWI. Boston, 1WJ. 71 pp., sro. 1<1':1<:k~~tt, JrlYrey Richarc1sun.-The Negro it1 Xaryinncl. A atudy uf the i~~stitntl#)n of slnwrv. Halt., IW!I 151, f(ik pp. 1Jol111s Hopk111s U~iiversity Stii<Hc.s,rxti'n rol, ti), Xvo. I3urriw1.. Carl.-IndustrlnlEvolutinn, translated by S. hi.uri~~kett. :ih4pp. New '01.k. l!iln. Ilriidtc~rd, Sarah H.-Hnrriet, the hloses c ~ f IIer Peopie. 171 pp. New Yurh, Iliol. Rnnks, C!lins.-Negro TOIVII tmd Colony. Mound Buyou, Mlss. 10 pp. Bruoks, C!hns. H.-iGrn~~d Serxetnry of tiir 01'dt:rI. The Offlctlnl History niid Mnnunl of the (:rni~d IJnltetl Orcler of 011d Fellows ill An~erlcn. A Chronologi(:aI Trent- Ist:, etc. 274pp. Phllatlelphln, 1!W. Boas. blr1in~.-(!oniilien~~e11ielit Address nt Atltintti IJuiverslty, Mny, l!kir. Atlililt~b University Leaflet No. 19, 1.5 pp. IPolored Peopie's Blue Book and Euslness Illrectory of Chlongo, 111. I!lcB. (!olored 111ei1 tis Cotton ~ii~~l~llfnctllrc~.~. J. L)owd. G'fctrla,~'.~ illugurine, 2$:2.54-fi. Condition of the people of color In Ohlo. With interesting anecdotes. Boston, ~WJ. 48 pp., 12n1o. c!onstitutlon of Nntiounl Assoclntlon of (!oloued Wonien. Tuskegre, i pp., lt;!~. (:~)nstltutlon of thennt1on:~l League of Color?tl Women of the Vnited Stn.tes. Wnshington, 1S!r2. I!ollege-bred Negro, Atlantti Unlrerslty Publlct~tinn, No p,~, 1!:00.

6 Bibliography ('ntto, W. T.-IIistorg of the Presbytcriiin Rloven~rnt. P~IIII., INn7, Wo. A SPlni-~elLtennrydiscourse and Illstory of tile flrst African i:llurcll, P11i111- delphja, hfng, 1857, from its ot'gnnlzatlon, lllcludlllg 11 notlce of Its flrst pnstor, John (:loucestt.r, also n,ppc?n(lix containing sketchrs of nll the colored chur('i10s In Phllrtdelphln. C!lnclnnntl conrelltlou of colored freedlnt'n of Ohio. Proceedings,.Ian , 1W1. (!iilcinnntl, 1W2, Xvu. Ulnrk-Negro Mason 1x1 Eyulty. Crolnwell, John U'.-The Envly Negro C:onrentlon hfovenlent. The Alllerlcnn Negro Acr~~lelllg, Occnsional Pupers No.!). 33 pp., Washington, l!x).&. Ulln~pl,ell, S1riieorge.-Whltr nnd Black 111 the IJnltrd Htntes lb2 pl,.. London,lH7!1. I)elnnry, hfartln R.--L!ondltl~~~l, elerntion, e~nlgrntion rtnd destiny I I ~ tlle colored people of the 1inlt1.d Htntes. I'hlln., 1W. 216 pp I)uBois, W. E. H.-TIl<> Nrgrll In the Bltwk Belt: Some Sodlil 8krtchvs. In the B111- letin of the Ilel~:~rtnlrnt of Lalmr, No. 22. P1111:tdelphi:t Negro. %%I 11p. Phllrttlelphin, lr!rb. Den~llker, J.-The Races of Mnn 611 pp., Nrw York, 1!W. Eaton, John.--Grnnt, TJln(wln nnrl rhr Freedlnen. 351 pp.. New Yurk, lw7. Ed\\-nrds, Rrynn.-Hlstorp. clvil an11 conmlrrolnl, of the British (!olollirs Ill West Indirs. :3 rol. Tmndon, The Rconomlc Posillon of the hnlrrlc~rn N~xro. Hrl,~.lntrd fruln Pnper~ ilnd 1'1.0- cee(lings of the %x\-rntrenth An~lu:ll Mertlng of tlw Amerirl~~~ Ewnrrnlic A-hociation, Ikcelnl~er, l!!o4. Fourth Annuol Rcpr~rt of the C'olr~rrtl \VOI~IILII'S Lrtigue. 1:i 111~. Wnshington, J~nllury, Freedmen's Sarlug Btink. Bnnkr?.s' Mrfynzine. 21):!1:3G; 81i:I,L. Frerdlu(1n nt Port Royal. E. I,. Plercr. dllanlic. 1'?:$:11. Freednlen'~ Savlllg Bank. Old rr.n(/ LVPIIJ. 2:'?i.5. Fletchrv, Frank 11.-Negro Exodus. 24 pp., Hvo. Gnlnes, W. J.-Afrll,al~ hlethodlsln 111 thenouth. Allnnta, 1*!10. Onnllrtt, Hen1.g.-Occnp:ttIolls of the Negroes. Bnltl., l>i!l5. 18 pp., 8vo. (inrnrt t. Henry Higllln~~tl.-The ~mst alld present condition :%MI the drstiny of the 1.olored rtlrr. Troy, IHlh. B) ~IV., bvo. Plntes. Goodwin, 31. B.-Hlstory of schonls fur the rolored populnti(~n ill tllr nistrlcr of C1~~lllmhiil. 1l. (5. Rut'rnu I J E:tlu(~ntl~n. ~ Sl~eclal Report on 1)lstrict of Colulnl)i:~ for lki!l, p11. l!l!l-:3ln. Grllnke, Archll~i~ld H.-Right oil the Scr~flold. U'ushington, I!lUl. 2i II~J., Syo. (;rllllsl~n\r,\v ffici:~I History of Free M~isonrg, etc. New York, 1!W H!I? pp Ueorgla State IlldustritLI College for Negroes. L. B. Ellls. GI~U!~I~'Y ili~qpsirw, 2,5:2i~-%;. (:ihh. M. W-SI1:ldow nntl Llght. 374 pp., Washington, l!rm. Garner, J. W.-Rrcwnstrurtlon 111 Misslssiypl. 4%" pp. New Tork, IW1. (feorgl~ Eqwl Rights (!I)II\ entlo~l. Iti pp. RI~oon, Febrmry, l!kiti. (;mnd United order of Cldd Fellbws..IOII~II~LI ~lld Proceedlugs oi(>enera.l hiertiny. l'! Reports, IHK3-l!107. Howard, Auto11iogrnl)hy. 2 vol. New Pork, 1!l07. Hl~~ford, <':~selg.-(iol(i ('onst Nntlre Il~stltutlons. 418 pp. Tmndm, ~~~ullpton Conference Reports, Anllu:tll?.. IX!M-1\07. Hiclink, (:bas. T.-The Nrgro In Ohio, IHO2-1X70. A Thesis, etc. 1R2 pp. Clrrrlontl. lr!ilj. H11~el,, Al~drew F.-The Twentlet ll Oenturg CII~IIII Lengne Ulrectwy. A Compilntiun of the Efforts of the Colored Proplr ot' Washington for Social Butterme~lt p. Wnshington, 1!l01. Jones, Rvbrrt.-b'lfty years in the Lombnrd Strcet Central EresL)yt~r1~11 ChurvL~. Phlln., 1891, 1713 pp. Knights of Ltihor and Negroes. E~rblic Ophio?r. 2:l. IloW. E. K.-History of thr First Africa~l Baptist C!hurch. Ma\-n~~llah, IWI. 3IcPiteI'~on.l. R. T.-History of Llberitl. Balti., IYHI, til pp., 8vo.

7 8 Econornlc Co-operation Among Negro Americans Moore, J. J.-History of the A. M. E. Z. Church. York, Pa., 18HO. Moreau de Salnt Mery.-Description Topogr~phique, Physique, Clvlle, Politique, et Historique, de la Purtle Fraiicalse, tle L'1~le Salnt-Uoininlque. Vol. 2,'ilNl pp. Philadelphia, l?!lu.,mossell, N. t'. Mrs.-Forerunners of the Afro-Amerimn CouncII. Ho~~u~LZMmgazine. Wnshlngton Aprll. 1W. Negro In Business, Atlanta IJniversity Puhiiratlon. No pp. ln!l% Negro Enterprise, B. T. Wnshlngton. Oicliouk. 77: Negro as he really Is, W. E. B. I~uBols. Il'orld's IF'ovk M. Negro Exodus, 18i9, F. r)ouglaas. Amevicun Jo~wnnl of Bocinl Scieacc. 1 I:]. Negro Exodus, 1879, R. T. Greener Anrericnn Jouvr~alof Socinl Science. ll:22. Negro Exodus, 1879,.T. B. Rurinion. ALlu?rLic. 41:'L29. Negroes in Bnltli~~ure, J. R. Slaltery. Catholic I170?.ld. lili:5l(r. Negro Exodus, 1879, J. C. Hartzell. ilfelhodinl Qua~te?.l:y Re~rieco. R!i:'i2i. Negro as a mechanic, R. Lowry. ~Vo~fh Amcrica~~ Review. ls6:472. Negroes an lndustric~i factor, C!. B. YIJIL~~. O~ctlonk. li?:.?l. Negro In Business, I. T. Montg~~lnrry. O~~llook. 6O:il-I. The Negro in the dtles of 1I1e North. Churilics. Vol. 15, No. 1. New York, October, 1!Kl5. The Negro C:onlu~on School. Atlantn Uni\-eryity Public~~tlon, No. 6. I'?O pp.. 1!Q1. The Fegro Artisan, Atlanta. IJiiirersity Puhllcntlon, Pio. 7. XI0 pp.. IMM The Negro Church, Atlantn University Pul~llcatlon, No. H. 211 pp., l!m. The Negroes of Fnrmrilie. VIL-111 Bulietlii of the Depn.rtnient of Labor, No Negroes of Xenia, Bulletin of the Burrnu of Lahur, No. 18. Negroes of Handy Sllrliip, Md.-In Bullet111 of the I)ept~rtiiient uf L:~l>or, No. 34. Negroes of Lltwaltuil, Vt~.-Irl Bullet I11 of the I,el)art~i~e~~t of Labor, No. 37. Negro Lancltlolder of (feorg1n.-1x1 Bulletin of the Drpnrt~nent of Lnlmr, No. 45. National corirentlon ot'coiored inen and tlielr frlencls. Trny, N. Y., IW, :jh pp., Hvo. Nationnl oonrei~tlon of Colored men. Syrwuse, N. Y., O~:tul~er 4-7, Ruston, 1Hlil. V2 pp., HVO. Nutlonal conventlo~i of Colored me11 of Amerivn, lm!l. Proceedings, W;I.S~I., lhfi!~ 4% BP., wo. Ohio nnt,l-slarery wnwntlon. Putnnnr, Uhio. Itelmrt on lhr col~ditlou of the people of roior, etc N. Y., gp, Hro. Proceedings of t,he Select Committee of the Ilnlted Sttltes Seuato to Inrestlgate tl~e Crtunes of the Keu1orn.l of the Xegrors frolii the Southern States tv the Northern States. 3 Parts, I,IRI1 pp. Wnsh1ngt1111, Ih7!1-1&%1. Plntt, 0. H.-Negro cinrernors. In Pnpers of the New IIaven ('<,lclny Historicul Sorlety. Vc~l. 6. Nrw IIavrn. 1!'00. Prosljectus ~rf the <!olr~~~iin?vinuuii~~turl~ig ('I).> 01 i'(in(.ord. N (!. lip]). H~CIIIIIOIIII, l8ki. Procccdiuys of thr Natlonn; P;e;ro liusln~w L~i~gur. ~~in~li~lly. 1!10(1-'IK. 1'rrx:eedings of the Grand 1,odye of Frre and Awrptetl hlasons, Iss~ietl trunut~lly or blennlnllg, in the folllnving stntrs: Aiahnma. Arkunsas. ('niifornla. (:olo~~i~do. C~~nnecticyt. llistrlvt of Colu~ul~in. I )e I:L\VLL~C. Florida. (icwrgit~. Tllinuls. Indtt~nn. lo\\ 8,. K<~nsas. Kent~~aky. I,lhfarin (Ahicn]. Michigan. M inr~esntu. Rflsslssippi. hlissol~ri. New Jersey. NIAM. YOI.~. IOutnrio I B. C!.) I llilnho~~~t~. (Jhio. I'ennsyivania. Ftllode 1sl:~nd. South ('arullr~~. 'Tennesser. TPXII*. Vlrginio.

8 Imli~lnnn. Rlarylnnd. Massuchuset ts. Bibliography 9 Wasl~lngtori nnd Oregon. West Virgl111:~. OWclnl Proceediligs of the Bienninl Se;ision of the Supreme Lrdge of K~rlghts of Pyt Illus. 19 rrlmrts, 145!i-1!;05. I'ctln, 1. G., und J. W. E. Boaen, Editors.-The United Nrgro: His I'roblems :rnd His Progress. ('ontrliulng the A\ddressesnnd Prc!ceedlngs of the Negro Young People's ('lirlstinn HII[I Edn~irtioni~l (:ongress, held August !102. Ll(lll py. At- IRlltit? 1!103. Pictrce, Edwnrd Llll1e.-The Negroes r~t Port Royn.1. Report to S. B. C'h:~rr, Srv. of Trrns. Bostol~, ]HI??. Yli pp., lii11o. Rj~tzrl, F.-his tor.^ of Manklild. :? ool. New York, l!lill Report of the (!o~ninittee of Senate npon the Relations between 1,ttl)or n.nd Cnpltnl. and Testimony take11 by the ('~)ln~~iittee. 5 rol. Wflsl~ingt~rn, IW5. Report of MajorCienernl H~~\v:lrd,('o~~~~nissloner, Bureau of Hrfug~rs. Frerd~iieu ~ n Al)~ndonecl d Lands, rtc. MI pp. Waslilt~gton, I%!), Report of the Joint Select Conlmltter to Inqulrr into tliecondltion of afrn11.s in the late I~isurreetio~~nr$ Stntcs. (Iiu Klus (hnspiritcy). 15 rol. W&iuhington, 1!W. Sucinl mid Pliysic~~l Condltlw (I[ Negroes InCltlw. Atlanta ITnl!crblt)- Pul~licatlon. No. 2. X!I II~I., lw7. Some Etfo~.ts of Negr<ws for Social Betteruierit. At1:lntn University I'ul~llcnti~~n. No pp., I*!:". Hodal and 1ndustrt:rl ('oiidltion of i tie Negro ill Massti.c:husetts. 31!lpl). Bost~ln, 19Ii4. Riel~ert, Win. 11.-ITndrrground Hailrond. 4iH 11p. Xew York, lh9x. Still, Willin~n.-ITndergrt,u!~d Hailroad Records. Hartlord, (hiiii., lw(ti. Schneider, Will~rlu~.-1)ie GulturI:rl~lgkett des Negnrs. 2'3.1 ppp. Frnnkfurt. a K~nlth, T. W.-TIIE SleTP I~(':LIIRAIL. 111 thecollertions 01 the Nora Scotia Historic:~l Society. VoI. 10. Hullfn.~,~. 8., 1WQ. Second Annunl Rqmrt of the Uolorecl Worriun's Lcflgue. 2:1]111, \Vushillgton, 1R!!5. The Sotrthcr~~ Il'o~li~~~an, i~~ontl~lg. :-,7 vo1~111es. Hnrnp(.on, VII. Huvlngs of Rlnrk Ueorgin, \V. E. B. D~iBois. Outlrmk. B!l:l~8-:30. Snirdley, R. (!.--The Underground Knilroa(1. Phlln., 1W3. Htrrte Co~~crntion of colorerl men of South Cnrolinn. Proceedings ut (!~~lu~iihiil., 19RR. CoIun~l~ia, In%<. (i pp.. Xro. Stntistica.1 inqulry, A, Into tl~e condltlon of t.he 11eople of color of the city nud the (iislrictu of Phlln.drlpl~ia, lyl!l. 44 pp., 8ro. Tuskegee cotton plttntrrs in.4frlc:n, J. N. Oallonay. OuLlook. 70: Tobin, Father.-A hiodelcatl~ohc CUII~IIIIIII~~~ of CoL~~red People. Upton. Wni. H.-Negro Masonry.?(;I pp Cauibrldge, MRSS., 1W. VIES, S. N.-The Progress c ~ the f Negro Rner p. RflleigI~, I!tOd. Village in~pro\-einer~t ninong the Negroes, H. L. Binlth. Chtlook. lil:'i%-6. Wnlkrr, 1)rtvid.-Appeal, in Four Articles, tugetlier with a I'reun~lile to the ('olored Citlzens of the World, etr. cicj pp. Boston. hlnss., lh19. Wlllln~ns, George W.-Hlstory of the Nrgro Rflce In An~erloa. 2ml. 111 one, p., (ill pp. New York and Londt~n, 1882.

9 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Part 1. Section 1. The Background The Scope of this Study In 1898 the At,lanta Couferenee made a limit,ed study entitled "Some Efforts of American Negroes for their Own Soci~l Better~nent." The present study is a contiuuation a.nd enlargement of this initial stnrly made nearly ten years a.go, with certai~~ litnitations and changes. The quest,ioi~ set hefore us in the present study is: How far is t,here and l~a,s there been anlong Pl'egro Airiericw~~s a co~~sciolls effort at mutual aid ill earning a living? In answering this q~~cstion we must first cousider just how broad all int,erpretat,ion we are giving to the phrase. '&earning a living.'' In a highly dert.lopetl ec,or~ornic society like that which surrounds us here in A~neric a,nd in other cou~~tries under t,he lead of European cirilie:ition, the phrase "earning a living" is prett,y clenr, heca~~se there are large nu~nhers of persolis engaged simply or principa.lly in that. occupation; mil all persons recog~~ize the rfiorts towa.rcl earning a living as a distinct set of efforts in their ge~~eral life. It rnr~st he rememl~ered, however, that this situa.tion is, t,o an f.ster~t, abnormal; that neitl~er in the undevrloprtl races nor ill the fully developed Racr, when it corms, will ear11i11g il living as such, occupy the la.rge space tllnt it does tocla,y in humall rtitl~a,vor. Alnong tl~e semi-civilieecl races tlle work of getting t.he m:~t~rsrial t.hings llecelssilry for life is looked u11o11 as incidental to a. great ~nany otller largrr a~ld, in their opinioll, better thiugs, such as hnnti~ig, l.estillg, e:ttil~g R I I ~ perl1a1)~ - So. too, in an ideal co~nn~~~nit,,v. \\.e \vo111cl c,xpec.t that. the purely ero~io~nic eftorts to s11p1)ly 11nma11 l)ri~~#s at least wit11 tl~e ~~ecessit,ies of life w11~1d occupy a co1n1)ilrativrlj. s~nall part of tlle COIII- IIILIII~~,~ for short spiwes of tinif.. All this is trite, br~t we must not. forget it, as me apt to do, wheu we come to st~~clg a group like of the Negro A~nerican, wl~ich has nnt reach~d tl~e econon~ic clevelop~ne~~t of tllr ;i~ll.rnu~idi~~g nati011, aucl wliiclr l~rrlla,ps llever rill surrender itself rntirely to tl~e icleds of the s~~i.rountling gro11p. \Ye inl~st not es1)r.c.t. for instance. t,o find a snpa- ~,:ttcly tlt!vc?loi)ed ~mnomic life allmllg ti~e Negroes except as tl~ey Iwca~ne u~lder compulsion a part of tl~e ecouomic life of the atio ion I)eforr? r~~~ant:ipatia~l; a,r~rl excc,pt a,?; t.liey l~n,ve heco~l~e since the ~I~;I,IIcip;btiou, a prt of the great. M - O I ~ ~ force. I I ~ SO fa,r a.s t,lleir own inner twmon~ic effort,s are concernecl we must esprrt ~ I I looki~q over their liiqto~y to fit~d great strivi~~g.; in 1,eligiuns clc~relop~nei~t, in polit,ical life and ill rffo~,ts at ed11ca.tion. Aud so c:o~npletely tlo fl~ese cl~ltnral :tspc.cts of t?l~eir grorll) efforts oversha.clow thrx rcono~i~ic rtforts that at

10 Scope of the Study 11 firstastudent is tempted to think that there has been no inner economic co-operation, or at least that it hm only come to the fore in the last two or three decades. But this is not so. While t,o be sure the religious motive was ulq~ermost during tho time of slavery, for inst,a,r~ce, so fa,r as group a.ction among the ATegroes were concerned, even the11 it ha.d an economic tiuge, and more so since slavery, tms Negro religion had its eoonomic side; so, too, the political st'riving after the wa,r was a ma.tter even more largely of econo~nic welfare than it was of political preferment so far as the grea.t. mass of the race was concerned. And then and now the strife for educatiol~ is, if not primarily, certainly to a very 1a.i.g-e extent. a.n effort at earning n living in some manner wl~icl~ will sa,tisfy the higher cravings of t,he rising classes of Negroes. When, tl~ersf{lre, we t&e up under the head of economic co-operation such instit~t~ions as the church, such moveinents as the Exotlus of 1879 a,11t1 the matter of scliools, etc., it is from t,l~economic side that we are studyi~~g thesc! things, it~ld becm~se this economic side wa.s really of very grra t i~nporta.nce and siguificance. The11 a.gaiu we are studying tlle conscious effort ill economic lines not, priluarily, so far as iutliritlna~l effurt is concerned, but so far as thf~se t?tiorts are co~nbined in some sortof effort for n~utnal aid, that is: it is a ma.tter of group oo-operat,ion that we have before us. Now this briugs cert,aii~ difficulties because a race in the state of development ill wliicli the Negro American is today nus st of ~~ecessity depend treinendously upon t,he inclivid~~al leader. He it; in the period of special indivi(1ua.l developmei~t, and wl~ile the group clevelopment is going on rapidly, pet it is tile individual a# yet who stands forth. Coi~seque~~tly very of't,eii we inust. tomch upon i~rdividual effort and touch upon things wllich strictly speaking are not co-opera.tive, in the narrow sense, and yet i~; the preseut state of Negro developmelit they have n significance which is co-operative, because tlie leader has been called forth by a group movement and not siml~lyfor his own aggrandizement. In other words, tlie kill11 of co-operation which we are going to find among the Negro Americans is not a1 ways democratic co-operation ; very often the group orga~~ization is ariatonra.t,ic a~itl even monarcl~ir. and yet it is cooperation, aud the autocracy holds it.s leadership tty the vote of the mass, and even tile monarch does the same, as in the case of the small Rapt,ist church. Finally a study like this must throw great light upon t.he development of all social classes. We are apt to say that in Economics and in the Social Sciences we callnot segregate the class and nmke t,he "crucial test." as we can ill certain pliysical experiments. This is true ill a great many, but it is not universally true, as witness the present instance, where we a segregation, and where we ca.n study a cla,ss by itself. Moreover the analogy goes still further: The rise of a lower social class iu any cotn~nunity is in no wise differeut from the development of a race; in fact, we realize in studying races, and particularly primitive races as we have the~n today in contact with more highly developed races, that what we have going on around ns every day in civ-

11 12 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans ilizetl societ,y is the same thing in ~nicroc:os~n which t,he world has see11 aoir~p 011 from the beginniug: that whereas in the world we separate large g1wi11)s in varying degrees of civilization and tlevelopn~e~~t,, a~ltl hey gradually rise aud fall ant1 sometin~rs even clrange their relatire pusitions, so, too, in any separate group or uat,ion, we have smaller gro~~p~ with diffcri~~g developl~lc~~rt.;, and these classes into wbic.11 the gro11p is tliviclecl, are. coming forwi~rd or retrog~.aciing in tl~e sa111e way, :III~ with many of tl~e same ph~nome~~i~. l'l~erefore. A study of the Negro A~nerican in tl~e U~~itetl States tot1a.y iu his e'o~~o~nic aspect, as well as in otl~er aspects, throws peculiar light upo~~ t,hr problrlns of all s~-,ci;i,l (.lasses iri n great modern 11ati011. Section 2. Africa It r~sed to be aisu~netl ill st.11t1gi11g the xegro America11 that in ally rlrvelopme~~t we ~~~ight. sa.fc31y 11egi11 wit11 zero so far as Africa is concrrnetl; tlre later stt~tlies are Inore and Inore convir~cing 11s that this forn~er att~tnde llas h ~en \vit~i~~~ a.nd tl~nt~lwnys in explaining t,l~e devt.l~)pment in An~ericl~ of tl~e Negro we IIIIIS~ look back up011 n consitlrdral~le past tlevelop~nent in Africa. \Ve I~ave, t.hrrefore, first to ask o~~rsr:lves ill t,l~istudy, Ho\v far a,re there traces in Africa of economic life ant1 ecu~wnli co-operatiall alrloug Negroes? K,:~t.zrl t~lioughtfully says: L'Ere~~ in ea,rlit~r days a deeper t.l~iulrer ~nigl~t 110t havr agreed with our grl,at, I)ut ill tllis rrsl~ect sl~ort-sighted t~istorical pt~il(~sopl~ers, wl~o held that Africa was only in tl~e allte c:hamher of 1111irersa.1 history. The la~~tl whicl~ bore Egypt a~~tl Cnrthqr will always he of irnport,a.ncr! in tl~e \\'orltlls I~istory ; and even t,l~e tra~~splantation wit,l~o~~t their will of nill lions of Xrric:ans to America rr~l~a,ios :m event l~aving Innst i~nport,a.~~t. consequences. But since _lfrica, both politica.lly and econo~nic:~.lly, hils bee11 brought newer tu 115, the above 111e11ti1)nrtl iclea l~as had a.ltl~grthe~. to give way. 'I'l~nt so~~t,inrnt,, the grea,test portion of wl~ich longest rrrn:~.inetl a term ii,,crigriita, has sr1dde111.v bee11 ca,llecl on to play a great l):i,rt in tlrn I~ist~,~.y OF t,l~esp:~usio~~ uf tl~c European ra,c8cis. In our (lays Africa 11as hec~)n~e t,he srrne of a great moven-re~~t., which muat fix its destiny i'n history for tl~ousa~~tls of yews. While a centt~ry ngu the grt1a.t political a~~tl Lrading powers mere still merely hanging on likc leeches to its o~~t,- sltirt,s, today the "sphc.res uf int,erest,." tlon~aius of power of which t,he t.ste~~t is not yet known even to their ow~~er, >>re nieet'iug in the fm i~~terior of t,l~e contine~~t. Herewith for the first time E~~ropeaus itre coming into v~ry close connections wit11 the nlost vigorous shoot of t,he dn~,lt hra,nches of nations, OII the soil no st, appropriate to it, but to thein in tho first place by no means fi~~orit111~. NOW it will he tlecitled whether much or lit,t,le of these, the oldest of a.11 now living stoclrs! will pahs into ma~~lriud of the rernot,er fntnre. And this is one of tl~e greatest prohlems of the history of tl~e world, nrhicl~ 111ust be the history of ~naukind." Not o~rly is tl~ere this new attitude toward the meaning of Africa as a wl~ole, b ~ we ~ are t also revising our ideas as to thr exact status of Africa

12 Africa 13 in its devc3101)nretlt toarartl civilizatiou. We are hegir~ning to see that thv Africa,~~~, ~~ot\vitl~stal~~ling the fact tllat tl~ey I~a,ve not reacl~ed European cnlture, nc~vert~l~elrss haw ~n:~cle grea.t a.dvances. In 1885 Dr. Wilhel~n Scl111c1itler smn~netl "1) the c~~lt~~ral accornplisl~n~eutfi of the Negro by t )ri~~#i~~g t,ogather the testiinonies of Africa11 travellers 111) to t,hat t,iine. It' we take frn~n tl~;tt excellent summil~g up tlle conclitiou of tl~c! Xfrica~~ in eco~~on~ir organiza,tio~~ a-e shall I~rtve :L fairly picstnre. Scliueitler first takes 1111 tl~e 1natt.e~ of agriculture, autl says tl1:tt t,he Negru putmles i~gricnlt~~re t,ogether wit11 cattle mising a~~tl tiai~ying.. Sl~eiq), goitts and chicliens ;~r(, domestic a.~~inin,ls all over Africa, :~i~tl cows are ra.isotl ill regio~~s where grass gro\vs. Von Frauziw co~~sitlers Africa. the t~on~ca 1)1 tl~e I~ous~ cattle a.nd the Negro as the original tamer. lsortllea,ster~l 4frica espw-i~i.lly is ~ iotd for a,gricultnre, ca,ttlt! ra.ising and f~xit culturt t!~e e:~ster~~ So~~tla.n R I I ~ I I I O I I th(: ~ great R~,II~II tril~es rstc?ndiug fro111 tl~e SIIU~:I.II tlow~~ to\\-art1 the s~)ntl~, c:ittlo are t~vitleucc?~ of ur+altli. ~ I I P tril~c., for i~~stanc.e, I I : L ~ ~ so I I ~ III~LII~ oxell tl~at cac-l~ village 11xcl t,en ot'twelvc. t,l~o!~s;~.~rtl 11t.atl. L~II;~ (IXSI), Rtrnet-lf'il- Iau~nez (1>;4R), H(~cqna.rtl (1X54), HIISIII~.II (IX05), a,nd Baker (1868). all bear ivit~iess to thifi, a.nd Scl~wi-infu~,tlr (IXYtc), tells us of great oat,tlr \)a.rlts \\-it'll 2, I~eatl, mid of llulnerous agricnltural a.11tl cattle i s tiles. To11 tler Drclrer~ (1859-(il), descrit,es tl~e paradise of tl~v dwellera itho~~t Kili~~~n~rja,ro-the ~~I.II:L~:I.s, fruit. l)e:~~is. a.nd peas, :III~~ cattle raising wit:l~ st:ill-feed, t,lto l'ert,ilizi~~y of the fields. a ~ irriga- ~ d tion. Tl~e Negroid (i~lla,s 11;ive seven or eigl~t,lp t.o ea,ch iuhabitaut. C:II)IP~~II (IHX), tells of vill:~ges so clean, with hut,s so artistic, tl1a.t-save ill 1)00li kuon-ledge-tl~e, ~wople occupied no low pla,~~~ of cirilizat,io~l. Livi~lgstone bears wit~~ess t,o the busy cattle raisirlg of the U:I.II~,LIS and ITaffirs. RII~II~, (lhhl), a!d Chapnlrtn (1868), tell of agriculture a,ud fruit raising ill South Africa. Bhiitt (1884). found the tribes it1 thc Southwestern \)asin of the C'onpo nit.h sheep, swine, goats and cat,tle. TIIP African elephant. however, never was talnrcl t)y t,he natives in hter years, pa.rtly Iwca,use Ile is much wilder tlirt~~ the Indian. Sclineitler sun~s np tho Africans' ac~con~plisliments in I~antlwork and ind~~st,ry hy quoting Soyaus OII Africa~~s, as folluws: i'wl~oeve~. cleuies to t,hc:m indrpende~rt invention and indivi~lui~l ta.ste in their work, either shuts his eyes itlte~~tionally lwlore perfectly evident fact.s, or lack of Irn~wl~clge renders him an inco~i~pete~~t judge." Gabriel tle Rlortillet (IX8:3), declares t,hern the only iron users anlong primitive prople, and apt a,lly rate they are far beyond others in t,l~e clevclopment of iron industry,antl tlieir work bears ~tlm~lg resc?mblancc: to that of the ancieut Egyptians. Sorne wor~ltl t,herefore argue t11a.t tile Negro lear~~rtl It froin other folk, hut Andree declares t,hat tk~r Negro developed his ow^^ "Iroi~ Kingclon~," ant1 still others believe that from hi111 it sprearl to Europe and Asia.* ' Cf. Bms. In our day.

13 14 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Varions tribes hare 1we11 described: Raker a11t1 Felkin tell of smiths of mo11tlerf111 adroit,ness, goa,t-skins prqmred hettclr tl~an a Ei~ropea,n tailor could (lo, drinking cups autl kegs of re~~~arka,t>le sylninetry a.nd polisl~td thy floors. SrhweinfulTh sap: "'l'hr arrow and spear lieads arc. of tl~e fil~rst. ant1 no st artistic work; tlirir hristle-like l~arhs and poi~~tn a.1.r hnffli~~g ~ I I P I I one 1r11ows Ilo\r few tools tllese n111iths" Esrellctlt \vootl-ca.rriug is foul111 alnung t,he Ho~~go, Ovan~ho antl Uakololo. 1'otter.v a.ud basketry and carc~ful Iiut-builtling tlistiug~iisl~ Inany t,rilrrs. Thr Monlmttu work Iwth iron antl cnl)per. "Tlie ~nasterpiecrs of tl~e Moi~huttu sn>iths tlie fill? chairis wort) as orllarneli ts, :inti \vllich in perlectic~~~ of for111 and fi~~rness con2pal.r well with our Iwnt sterl cli:~ir~s." Sucli chains are I~a~~tlenrd I I N I ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ Bart,l~ I I ~. found copper esportetl fro111 cr11tm1 Africa in counpetitinn \vith Europea,!] cwpprr at ICano. Nor is the) in)n industry confined ti) the So~itla~~. At~o~lt the great lakes a11r1 otlirr p:irt,s of ce~it,ra.l Africa it is widely di<tril)uted. Thornto11 says: "This iron i~idustry prows tl~at, the Eiwt hfrirans sta11d hy 110 Ilirans on so low a. plme of cult,urr as iiiany t rnvellers wo111tl have 11s think. It is unnecessa.ry to he r(~~iii~idt:d t,lia.t a, people w110 without inst,r~iction a,r~d with the rudest tools (lo such skilled work, could do if furnislird with steel tools. Arrows iriatle east of Lake Nyanza were fo~~ntl to be 11enr1y its good as the hest Ywedisli iron ill 13ir1iiinglia.m. Froin Egypt to tlie cape Licingstoiir assiu'rs us th;l t tlle iuortar a.nd pestle, the lo~ig liaiitllecl axe, the goat ski11 I)c\llows, t?tca., tlre salue l'o~ In, size, etc,, poin tiug to a ~nigratio~i soi~tli\restwa~i. Holtil) (1879) tlie Zainbesi foui~tl f ne workers ill iron a.11t1 bronze (copper and tin). Tlie Bantu huts co~itain spooiis, wootlen disl~es, ~nillt l)a,ils, c:lliba.slies, l~ni~tl~l~ills a ~ a,xcas. ~ d 'Icatfirs a,ud Zulils, in tlie rxtreilre soiitli. are ~ood s~irithn :\r~d the la,tter melt copller a.nd ti11 t,ogetl,er antl draw \\,ire from it, accortling to Iirauz (1880). Went of tlie Grea,t Lalirs, Stallley (lb78), fo:~~~d \voilderf111 ~saii~ples of stnit 11 \v01.1<: fig~ires \vorlrrd out 011)rass and mucli woi~lr ill copper. C:LIII~~OII (187X), S:I.\V vases iiia,de near Lake: 'l':cng:~~ryika. wliioh rrn~i~ided lri~ii of tlie a~i~~)lior~~ ill tile Villa of Uio~iirdes, Pompcii. Horn (188%), praises trihos here for iron and copptjr work. Liriiigstone (1871), passed tliirt,y slrieltiiiy horises in one jour~ic:y antl Cainr!ron caliie across bellows with valves, aiid tribes who used knives in eating. He fou~~d trilw wliich 110 E:urol)ea~is liacl ever visittd, who made ingots of copper in t>lie form of St. Andrew's cross, which c.irculated eren to t11e coast. 111 tlle soutlierr~ Co~igo basin iron ~11d copper are worked; also \vood aid ivory carvi~lg and pottery are i r e 1 In equatorial west Africa, Leliz and I)II Cliaillu (IBFI), fnnntl tl~e iron workers with charcoal. a~id :ilso carvers of t~oile :~iid ivory. Sear Cape Lopez, Hiihbe-Sclileiden found tribes n~a.l;iug irurg lieetlles illlaid witti ebony, wliile t.he arms nl~cl dishes of the Osaka fo1111d ~~iiong lnitny trihes even a8s fur as the Atlantic ocean. \ViIson (1Gfi). fo~t~itl nat.ivrs in West Africa wlio could repair. Anierican watches. 'l'lie Ashmti are renowned weavers and dyers, smiths and founders. Ul)lcl coast Negroes make gold ~iilgs and chai~~s, forlning tl~e metal into

14 Africa 15 all kinclsof forms. Soyal~says: '.The works in rrlief whiol~ ~rativrs of I,o\vrr Gui~~ea. carve wit,tr t.heir ow11 knives out of ivory a,11(1 I~ip~)opota- ~ I I twth, E we really PII t,itletl tn l)r c.alled works of art, a.ilcl mwtry woode:: figures of fetirhes iu the EtIi~~ogra.pI~ic:~l M~~seuni of Hrrlili,show some ~~nclc~rstantlitlg of the ~)rop~~rtions of thr 1il11na11 I)ody." Grra.t I3assa11: is cnlletl by Hecquarcl the ''I~':~t~l~erland of Smiths." Tl~r Ma,ntli~~go in the Nortli\ve!st arc rem:~.rkal)lr workers in iron, silver :tutl gold, v.e are tolcl by Mungo Park (18001, while t,l~erc, is a mass of tt?stiln~)ny as to the work ill the ~~ovtl~wrst of Africa in gold, tin, weavi~~g R I I dyeing. ~ Caille fou~ltl tl~o Negroes iu B:~l~~ba~ia. mn~~ufa~t~oring gu~~powtler (IR94-8), antl the H:~nssa iua.lre s0a.p; so, too, Xegroes in Ugantla an(1 nt,ller part,s hare made g1111s after seei~~g Eurol~ea~l models. On the \\.l~ote, a,s Her1n:111 Soyaus says: in art and i~~tlustry tl~e accomplishlne~~t of t,l~e African Ntlgro is in inmy resl~ects fa.r I~eyo~rd Co~nillg dow~r to Inter writers. wo find R,:~.tzrl testifying t11a.t: hlnol~g i~11 the great groups of t.he '' t~atural'~ races, the Seproes are t.he Iwst and keenest, tillers of the yrouutl...\ u~inority despise agric-ulture and breed cat,tle; maug c*r~~nl)ine 110th oc~111mtious. AIIIOUS the genuiue tillers, the whole life of the family is ta,kcl~ ul~ iu agriculture; aiid 11e11c.e tl~e Inon ths are 11y prefereuce c:rlltrtl after the operatious wl~ich t11ey tlemautl. (~'oilst:t,nt clenriugs change forests to fields, and the ground is lnanuretl wit11 t,he aehes of the burntthicket. 111 the ~nitltllc~~f tl~eficltlsrise the light watcll-to\\,erz,fro~r~\\-llic.l~ a \v:ttctll~n:~n wares grai~l-eating I)il.tls a~id other thieves, AII hfrie:~~~ ccl1tiv;~ted lanrlsvape is iuilnmplete without t.);rr~~s. The rapidity with 1vl1ic.11, whe11 uetvly imported, the n~ost various foruls of cnlti\-ation al)reacl ill Africa says mucli for the attentiol~ w1iic:ii is devoted to this 11ra11cl1 of econoiny. Iudnstries, again, ~vl~icl~ 111z-y l~e c:alled a,vricult~iral, like the prr1~ar;rtion of 1nr:11 from millet autl otl~er c!rops, also from cassava, the fal~ric:rtioli of fer~neuteti drinks fro111 grain, or the niai~ufact.ure of ccttou, we widely k~lowti a d setlrtlol~sly fostered. t Hiicl~er says : That travellers have often described tl~e deep iulprrssion made upon tlie~n \vhell, on con~inp o ~ of ~ the t dreary primeval forest, they happe~~ed s~tddeuly Ilpou the well-te~ltletl fields of the natives. In tl~r more thickly l)l)]~lllated parts of Africa these fields often stretch for 1n:tny a mile, aud the assiduous care of tlic Negro women shilresil~ all the brighter ligl~t when we consider the innec~~ritg of life, the col~st;mt fends aud pillage., ill whicl~ no one knows whether he will iu the end be able to harvcst wl~at he has sow11. Li~iugston~ gives solnewliere a grapliic der;cription of the devastations wrought by slal-e hunts; the people ax lying ahout sl:riu, the dwellings were tlemolishecl; in the fields, ho~vever, the grain was ripening and there was none to harvest it.: The economic orga~~ization t,hus i~lclicated is moreover arranged fur purposes of trade. Riicl~er says : Schnetder: C!ulturfael~lgkeit des Nrgers. t Ratzel, II., 380-:Ml. 1 Buecher (Wlckett I, 11. 4i.

15 16 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans TraLrellers have of ten ol)served this tribal or local developmeut of indnstrial tcchniqiie. "The native \-illages," relates a Belgian ohserrer of the lower (~'ungo, "are oftell situated jn groups. Their activities are l~ased upou reciproeality, and they are to a certain exteut the comple~iieuts of one another. Earl1 group has it.s inore or less strongly deliuetl specialty. One carries on lishing, another produces palm wine; 14 third devotes itself to trade and is 1~rolic.r for the others, supplyimg the community with all prodncts fro111 outside; nuother has re~er\~ec\ to itself work in irou and col)per, innking weapons for war ai~l hunting, various utemils, etr. None nay, 11(1werrr, lnss 1)eyoncl the sphere of its own specialty without esliosiug itself to tlte risk of being ~~niversally proscribed." Fro111 the Boaugo ('o:tst, Hastian tells of a great uumlwr of similar centres for alwcial l)roducts of tloinestic industry. Loaugo rxrcds in mats and fishing Ixwketa, while t.he carving of elel)l~:int;s' t~~slis sl)ec:inlly followed in Chilu~~go. The so-called "AIafuoka" hat3 with raised llatlern* are drawn chiefly froin the I)ord~riu~ country of Kakoligo aud Rlayyiinll~e. Iu Raknliya are made potter's wares, \vl~irh arc iu gre:~t deln:ui~l, iu Has:uiza excellent swords, in Basnntli espwially I)ea~~tiful ornan~entcd cop per riugs, and the Zaire clever \vot)d aud talllet carvings, iu Luaugo oruzinentetl clotl~ei; mcl intricately tlesipetl i~l.zt.s, iu h1ny111nl)e calotlling of fiurly woven mat,-work, in Iiakougo enll)~.oiclered liats aud :rlsu I,urut clay l~itc:liera, and amoug the Bayakns aucl hiautetjes stuffs of wove11 grass.* A recent native African writer illus debc'ribrs tlie tratlc: organization of Ashwnti : The king of Ashnuti knew mostof t.hese mere1i:uit princes and His AIn.jesty, at stutrcl times in t.he com~nercial year, seut s~~~nie of his 11e:~l tradesl~~en with gold (lust, ivory and other prutlnrts to the coast to hi:: merchant frie~~ds in exr11a11gc for Rlauchester goods aud other articles of E~llrol~e:~il ~llanufa(.ture. Iu (me visit the caravm cle;~retl ut'f severi~l hnntlretl 11alrr: r ~f cotton ~ootls w-hicth fouucl their Kay i11t1) t.he utmost prts I J Suutl:~n. ~ It was a payt of the state system of Asliauti to ~'ncoi~rnge trade. The king o:lrc in csvery fort.y (lays, at the Atlai ~usto:n, rliitrilr~tt.ecl among ;I nriniher of ehi?fs various sums of gold dust with a c11:rrgr to tnru the same to good :tcro~i~it. 'l%ese cnhicfs the11 seut do~vu to the c*:irnvans of t~atlesuien, some nf \v w~)uld he their sl:ives, scinieti~ncs some l\vo to three I~untlretl stronp, tu I~:uter ivory for Europe:u~ ~ootls, or huy.quc'h good* with g<~lrl dust, whitnh the kiug ol~tai~lcd fro111 tlie royal :illurinl \v~)rliiiigs. Ihwn to 187 a const:mt slrcnnl of.kalla~~ti traders niiglit be aecu tl:tily wenrli~~~: their way to the ooaat nntl b:wk ag:rin, yieltli~ig inore certai~i \~ealt,l~ anrl ~lroslwrity to the ~nerc-lm~tts of the (i~)lcl Ctoa,st ;rnd Great. Hritaiu tl~:iu 11l;ty he expected for so~~~etime yet to come Ero~n thc mining iutl~lrtry ancl railway devclol)~~:ent put tugrther. The trarle chiefs would, in due ti~nr, rc,ucler a faithful n(:(*ol~iit to tlir kiug's stewarcls,i~eiug allowed to retail1 :I 1:rirportiou of llie protit. In thc Itiup's hr~uselioltl, too, he nould have special :lieu who rlirecatly trntletl fur him. 11nlx)rtant rliiefa carriecl ou the same system of trading will^ the Iru:trt, : ~s tlitl the king. Thus everj~ rne~nl~er of t,he state from the kiu~ tlownrvartli;, tmk an :~~:tive in terert iu t21ie pru~notiou of ir:~rle and iu the keeping upell of tr;~clt: 1~11tes into ilre interior. Nor w:i$ tht: Fanti petty tr:itler left ix the 1nrc.h; f(>r, wl~ile the inerc.haut prinves clrore 111:~gnitireut,ratle with the caravans frc~~n akslr:~i~ti, the native petty t.rntlur h:rwketl his goods to great aclv:ultage in the interl~letli:rte to\vus and rill:qcs, his cvnstoniers heiug 1)rivntr sperulatorc; from tl~e ii~teriur. Uueolrer's 11i~lustrl:rl 1~:rolution (Wickvtl 'I, pp

16 Africa 17 Often the inrll in the cwst tc)wi~s acted as niitltllc-men t)ct\\-wn Inen of tltr ill terior tril~c~s ci)~iiil~g tlown to tl.:~tle \vith the nicrchaiit houses, autl gained ;LII honest itleaus uc ti\relil~oocl in th;~t \\.a?-. Sollle of the cl~iefs ill tlie int~rnitrliatc districts would soiiir:t.i~~~es 1)rovt. ol,st;elwroua tu the 'aravans coniing do\vn, which 11ew1ne a prit!vatice to His Alajwty, the king 01' Ashanti, wlroae r~itned tcinper \voultl ofteii I)e sn~outl~erl dowu Ijy tliploina.tic inrssapes at111 all cxch;~t~ge ot presents. T111is all \ve~;t merrily md the c:o1111 try prosperetl rlnt il the d:~wn of th;~t e\~il clay when its protectors, instead of Ic~tt~ing wrll elio1lg11 lone, l)ega~i 1 ~ meddle ) xvitli nnscie11tid1. hantls in tllc \vorkiiip of it* state system.* l'li'p perinaueiit cxrav:l.u roads (.:ill for special attention. The\- are of the prcatest iiulwrtaiice 11) the culture of 'lfric-a. at large, sirivr they have long furincd the cltt~ni~els tl~rolyh whivlr el-rry?tili~~~lus to ('111ture f(111ild its \\.a? froin foreign c.oiri~tries into the ii~terior. l'l~e illoat iinportxiit of :~ll(*ollrt3 iu fro~n theeast,siner tl~ey leatl ilire(rt1y iutu the l~eart of tl~e N(?g~.o(.o~intrit~s. The a<)utlr :ind west, tou, arc Ichs fil\0i'cbtl in this respect; only the Port~iguese road to (':isenrl-te's coiii~try had x c.rri:~iu in~portauw here. The uurtl~ern roatlt: tl~roi~gl~o~~t thr dcsert to the Sou(l;iu, however, do not leatl ditectly to the Segrow, hut a t ti rst into the rnisetl st:ttes of the Cauouris, Ful tres antl Ar:~trs. \\.host: iutercourse \\it11 the Negroes to tlie sonth iiuhal~pily resnlta, :w in tllr C:LSe of the old Egypti:tlls, ill slavery. 111 the east, Iiowe\-er, not foreigners but the Negroes theti~sel~ez have Iwen active iu the caravan trade. Herr is tl~e true seat of the trade in Kegrue*; ' Huyfo~,d, pp.!is-97. f Ratzel, p. :lie;.

17 18 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans here especially the porter system is organwed. It was for~nerly far easier to rearh Uganda or Ujiji from Bapalnoyo than Stanley Pool from the n~outh of the ('ongo. The Wanyamwesi, those tafented,keen tradersand e~lonists, have made their roads to the roast from time imnlenlorinl. When one was closed t)y war or a hlood feud, they ol~ened up mother; I~uthe caravans p~ope:- called Safari iu ICiswaheli, Lugeutlo in Iiinyan~nesi-lor long ~ollsihted only of hlretl porters from the roast. Burton atates that it was only shortly befure this tin~e that the inhabitants of thr coaht bepn to go on this I~usine.s.* As to money Itatzel says: &'liere LAfrican] trade with.4rabs or Europeaus l)rqins, ht.:rds are alnlost iutlispensable in auy trade trans:~rtions. The quality in demand is notalways the same, bnt is in a crrt,ain degree governed 11s the f:~sflio~~. Even in the sixteenth c~litury beads Iixtl n cburrenc:y val~ie anlollg the inhabitant,^ of bhe Augola coast, and t,he old \re~letjim 11eads which nre foo~lcl, quit,e worn down, ill graves, point to t,he st,ill greater anliq~~ity of this teodeucy. But exressive im~,t~rtat.ion has everywhere caused a, rapid fall in value. {:lass I)eacls dellreciate more and more every year, and now serve only the ol,jrct of fenlinine v:mity ; it is long, says Schweinfnrth, since they were hosrclecl as trcasores and hurietl like precious stones. The l~reference for cowries sho\vs more persistence. These have spread, especially from east Africa, as mouey; bnt even in t,he sixteent,ll century they werein we on the west roast. They mere hc~wever given up, as too heavy, in l~laces where thry no longer had a high value. Cowries are also used as dice. In Nyanpwe, I~asitlrs the cowrie^, slaves and goats were generally currrnt in (:alueronjs time. On tl~e upper Nile copper and hxss have commonly taken their place, and in the form of riilps have a money value t,hrouphout Equaturial Afric;~. Besides these iron-axes and rings-i~l.e in cir(!ulation, also pieces of iron sl~nprct like hurse-shoes or hoes On La,ke Hemha three iron hoes were the fare :~sketl of Livingstone for putt,iug ten persons across. Cotton c:lot,ll in uiclessly narrow strilrs passes as motley in the Roudau to heyolid Adamma, while in Bornu money eveu t,:tkra the fc~rm of "tot~esl' or shirt,s,never intel~tietl for wexrilly. Catt,le arecurrency :Imong all 1):rstoral races; Imt, wit11 t,hr rxceptiun c~f.lhgssinia aucl many ]'arts nf the Sahara autl t,he Sontlan, where sulns :ire reckoned iu Maria Thewail dollars, coins have e~ta1)lished tlielnselves only ill the 1no,5t ~~rogrensivc nuti prosperons districts, like Rns~ltolancl or the eqwbtorinl east coast ; I ~ W t,c.w,olr, the Iviger.t Section 3. The West lndles From SIIC~ an r~~vironment a5 we have very in~perfrctly i~~dicatetl, the Kegroe8 were sutldenly matched autl firought first to the West Indies ant1 afterward to the Ainericat~ coi~tinent. 111 this change a great deal of tho past orpallization was tlestroyetf. Still the transition co~~lcl not utterly hreak them from the past. a,nd srveral institutio~is ~.c>~iiai~~etl. The first was, of conrw, tlle rrligio~~s ii~stit,ntio~l which sllo\vetl itsislf in the hvgin~iing ot the Negro chlirch. This was especially man if^-t in the organization - callptl Obe or Oheah worsl~ia:.. co~~siclera- hle collertions were made of money and kind by thcl Ohi 01. Voodoo p~iests; still the c~rgaliizatiun was scarcely one which one could call econoillic.

18 The West lndies 19 A second survival was that, of polit,ic;tl organi~at~ion. This could I)e seru, of course, ill such revolts as tl~at of the Maroons ill Ja~naira, \vho set up x l~olitical orga~~ization and ~i~a.i~~taii~c,d t,l~e~nselrc~s for ycl:lrs; but it can he see11 illnrr instr~~ctivc.lg the Pl't1gr.o governors of New Etiglat~d. Most perso~~s have look~cl upon this survival of lwli t iral organization alnolrg the Negroes as siinply an imitation of the whites, alld a rather Ir~diorous one; but rc~rtain ones havr noticed tlrat it was not wllolly an ~u~itation and we find moreovrr that tllr organiz:itiou llad solrle power. Senator Platt, for iu.;tanc.e, ill his researches tells ns that tl~r Negro governor and other offic-~als in Connecticut I~ntl IIO lcpal puwer, and yet esrrcisecl considc,ral)le control over the Negroes tllroiigllout the st,attl. Tl~e black govrrilor directed the affairs of his p~ople and hi?; direvtions wcre obeyed ; tlre black justices trietl I~otl~ civil and crimina,l, and re~~dered jutlgrneut,~ a~~tl executed p~111isl1-111e11ts. Tlre icl(~a of the Negroes tl~~i~~g this origina,ted with tl~e htt~groes tlic3~nselves, it seelns, for P1al.t says: "'L'lirp co~~ceivetl the l)ro,iect of i~rlitati~lg tlle whites t~g est,;ll)lisl~i~~g a subortlin:~tc. jnriedirtio~l and jnrisllrndence of tllrir I)\VII. Tl~e old Nctgrues aided ill tl~r plan but not \vit,hu~~t tlre approbation of' tl~ei~ Irlw.strrs, wl~o foress.~ that a sort of police 111:11ln.ged wllolly hy the slaves would be more effectual in keepillg tire111 \\.ithi11 the I~ounds of 111ori:lity tha,~~ if the same authorit,y was exercised t~y whites.'' He goes on to say that the ji~tlicial cleprt- ~~~(~ntof this pvt.r~~~ne~~t. witl~i~~ a gover11111e~1t co~~siste~l 01' tlie governor ml~o sol~~rtitnrs sat a.t jutlglnrnt in cases of al)peal; the otl~er magistrates A~ICI judges txiecl all cliarges brought agait~st, any Negro by anot)i~er or by :I wllite persot); mastrrs colnpla.inrc1 to the- governor and the magistratcls of the deli~~clnc~r~cit!~ of their slaves, wlio were tried, c-ouclem~ietl a.11d ~)u~~ishetl at tlie discretion of the court. The p~unisl~~neet was sometimes quite severe, aud wllat unade it tl~e more effectua.1 was that it wa.s tl~e jntlg~ne~~t of t,heir peers, ~)eol~le of t,heir own rauk and color. 'l'1111s we fiud surviving ill New E~~glnnd for :L 1o11g tirne a sy~teia of povel.n~r~ent which inust go~rr far enougl~ to have some control over the as a. workman. iurd was tc) some extent ecwtnoinic in its effects. * It is. I~owever, ill the West I~iclies tl~at we find the most direct snrvivill of African econoniic custo~~is. In Jamaica, for i~istnnce, the practice preva,iletl of givi~~g tl~c! Ncgrow la~itl t.0 cultiva.teand expecti~~g tli~ln to ~naintain t11~111srlves fro111 tl~c, product of these lands, giving most of their lal)or, of course, to the master. The Negroes arcluirecl, therefore, sornelittle property of their owl1 and on holidays RIICI Suuda.ys and ou oi~e week day each fortnight they went to market. Tlley took to inmliet not only the things raised on their part of gro~lrid, hut also some of thein made a few coa.rse ~nai~ufactures, sucli as rna,ts, bark ropes, wicket chair8 and I~askets, eartlien, pans, etc. Of course tllese things were relics of their African trade; they could not he as well made 1)rcanse the Negroes did not have inore tl~aii about sixteen 'Co~npnre Papers of thenew Haven Colony Hlst. Yoc., Vol. VI.

19 20 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans L11)rlrs a week to cultivate their gal dens and to do work of this sort. Etl\vards says: "Sunday is thftir ~narkrt day a ~ it ~ is d ~vo~~rlerful wl~at nalnhers are then seen basteniug from all parts of the co~~~~try toward t l towns ~ ~ and shippilrg places lntle~~rcl with fruits antl vegetahl~s. p~t's, xoats a~~tl po~~ltry, tlleil ow11 propc-rty. In JHIII;L~('H. it is SIIPLIOS~L~ that npwartl~ of ten thon-and ass~111l~lr every Sunclay Illorllil?g in t.l~e ~na.rket of Kingston, w11et.t~ tl~ry Ixi.rter tllcir provisions, etc., for si~lt~(1 I~eef awl pork or fine li~rr~ls f~)r their wives antl clliltlre~r."* We l~a,ve here, tl1~11. :t pecu1i:i.r surviva.1 of African ecouon~icusto~ns it1 tl~r Ilew \vorltl. :I.II(I we sl~nll fi~~tl that iu t.111: cwnt i~~r~~t,;tl colonies tl1e1.e \vtrl'e tl'a.ces of the s:mlr thi~~g. Section 4. The Colonies tio~~ r7,11d swiety was ~ nntl more lost sight of. 'l'l~e Srgroes l~ad Iwcon~e Ainericv~ns, spra,liilrg mothrr l;~ng~~a,ge al~d forget.ting rnucl~ of t11e past,. The plot of grn~~litl mllicl~ they c.nlt,ii-~.tetl fur tl~emselvrstill rem:li~~rtl in most but it was st~ppl~n~e~~trtl by reg~rlar r~tio~i~ fro111 tl~e sfore-honse of t,l~e master. Tentleuries toward po1itic:ll a,r~tclnlirlly st.ill slrowrtl t,\~~~~lselves in thr insurrtctio~rs that hok p1:1ce fron~ t,irnr to time, hut thew were sternly suppressed ;LII~~ o~~ly in :L few (; did thtry ga,in n wide following. Religious instit~~tions re~~~;~,ined ; I I I ~ tl~r ch11w11 for itself a. wid^ aird ever wider followilrg. h ~ ~ i its r:co~~omic a,ctivit,ies were st,ill very 1nnc.11 curta,iled. tinlct of sl:rrery. Wr are told, for inst:t~~ce: The I~istur~: of the Yegro insura~~ce exte~~dr far heyo~~tl the clays of Iris frcedo111 ill this country. While thc,re are 110 ~w:c~rr\etl tl:~l.a av:~ilal)lv, yt:t from reli:~ble sources we lenru that more t.h;~n srvcx~rty-live years ago there existed in?very city of auyizr in TTirgiuia org:~uiz;~rio~~i of Negroes haying as iheir ~ulniec:t tlrc- rari11g for Ilrr sick an(] t11(, Iburying (11 tl~e ~drad. Iu 11ut fe\v in- -it;r~~c~s did the,societ,v ~~sist.oprnly,;~s the 1au.r irt' the ti~~~t~c.n~~c:e~.~~ing Negrues wenh si~ch :is tc~ rrrtrkc it, irnl~o~~il~le t'<)r t11is to 11e (1o11e witliont wvitrus CUII<P- Iluenccxs to t.l~i: ]fi~rti<.ipauts. Hi;itoryr;ho\v;i tli:~t, I:O matter Ilowtl~r olrl)rcwetl ant1 enslavtd Insy Ir:ivc 11er11 w:~tchetl :~nd lrmlgetl iu, tl~ere W:I* al\\-ays l'o1111i1 :L wny hy which they could get togetlrrr, a.nd thi,+ hnr: Iwen 110 less trur I J ~ the Yegl.o in 11is attelnl~t to (:o~ul)ir~e for mntual j~r~~tv(.tion I.OI~I the rw~rlts of siclcness and tlca 111. Altliuugl~ it. n:ls r~lllanful ~ I JNrgroes I to aase~i~l~le n-ithou~ tlw prcsenre of a white m;rn, ;mtl.u IIIIIILWIII~ tu al101v a rougrega,tion of -;laves 011 :L plantation withont thr cwuscnt of the Inaster. t1re.w ~)rgnniaation;. existetl aud held these rncrtiug.~ on tlic "lots" of sollle of the law-makers thern~clves. The ge11er:bl t~lan seerus to have hren to selt.c:t son~t. one \v110 1:o111d "rc~ail and write." ~ L Ilnake I ~ hi111 the secretary. The nierting place having I~rrn srlectcd, the n~ernlwrs wc1111tl rurne 119 "ones ;ind twos," rnnlct. their l):ty~neutr; to the secretary, sud quietly \vitlitlmw. The I>ouk of the secret;lry was ofteu kept covered 111~ ou t,lit. Ijed. 111 rnnrly of the awietips earl1 ~iie~nl~er m:~ known hy nun~l~cr m~d iu pyilig si~nply auuouuc~el his nulnl~er. 'rlre 1~reciclt:nt of such a society \\.as 11su:~Ily a privileged slave who hntl tl~e

20 The Colonies routitle~icp of llis or her nlaster and 1.ou1d go and (:nine at. will. Thus a for~u of comlnnui(:arion ctol~ld lie kept up hctween all men~bers. In eveut of death of a ~ncnlher pro\-ision was nmde for decnen t ln~rial, anti all the members im far as possible oht,ainecl permits to at,tend t,hr fuuer:~l. Here a,nd again their plan of getting t,opetller was I)rought, into play. In IZichnloud they would go to the c11urc.h by onc.6 xntl twos and there sit a6 near toget,her as convenient. At t11~ dose of the sc!rvice a liuc bf nlarch \vould 11e formed \vheu sntficiently far fro^^^ the cllurcbh to ~nake it safe to do. It, is reported that the me~ube~c; were faithfnl tr) each other ai~tl that every 01)ligat,io11 was fxithfully carried out. Tl~ir wn6 the first form of iuauraucne known t,o the Segro froln wllic*h Ilis fanlily received a l~enefi t.* As so011 tts slaves b~jia.11 to be enlw,~~cipated such be~lefioiid societies bcgan t,o he oprnly f'orni~tl. Oue of the earliest of these becaune, eventually, tile grea.t Africa11 JIethoclist Cllurol~, a.nd its s,rticles of a.ssoriation, made April 12, 1787, arc. of especial interest: Preamble of the Free African Society I'HI I.AI)ELI~IIIA, 12t11,4th IIIO., IW. \\%ere;w, Ahsalo~t~.Jones antl Ric:liard A\llcr~, tn.0 1ntn of tlie African THC(., \vilo, for t,hcir religiuw life antl mu\-cr.;:ltion have ut)ta,ined a good report arnoug men, these person*, from a love to the people of Lheir con~plexion whom they 1)eheltl \vit,h sorrow, t)eoausr of thcir irreliqio~~s ant1 ~~ncirilizetl st:ltz, ofttm comm~~ned toget,l~er upou this paiuful autl important silbjwt in urcler to form some kiutl of religions society, bnt there 1)eillg too fcv to tw Y O I I U ~ under like concern, a11c1 those who were, differed ill their religions sentin~ruts; with these rircu~~rst~nces the? l~boretl for soule lime, till it \vas prolbosed, a.fter a serious co~~~rull~~ic:~.tion of rentir~~cnts, t.11a.f a society s11onid be Tormecl, \vitllol~t. regard to religious tenet,^, provided the persous lived an ol.1ter1.v and so1,er life, in orcirr to snpport one another ill sickness, aud for tl~e benefit of their widows and fatherless chiltlren. The follon-ing persolls were the chart,er ~ne~nt~era: Absalom Jol~es, Rioh:lrtl Allen, Sam~lel Boston,.Josel)ll.Johuaou, I'ato Freeman, C~asar ('ranahell, James potter ancl 1ViIli;~m \Vl~it,e. Artlcles ITt,h, 5th Ino., lye, the free Africans ant1 t,heir drsccndauts of the City of Philadelphia, iu bile state of Peunsylvauia,or elsewhere,clo uu:~niinously agree,for the henetit of each other, to advance one al~illing iu Pe~insylvania silver currency, a nlonth; and after one year's snhs~ril)lio~i fro~n the date thereof, thcu to llanrl forth to the needy of this societ,y, if any should require, the sun1 of three shillings antl nine pence per week of the said rl~oney ; provided, this necessity is not brought. on them by their own i~nprutlc~lce. Aud it is further agreed, that no drunkard nor disorderly persou he admitted as a member, aud if any sllould prove disorderly after having hcen received, tlie saitl disorderly person shall be disjoined from 11s if there is not an alneudment, hy heiug informed hy two of the n~c~nbers, without having any of his subscription returned. And if auy one sho~~ltl uegleet payiug his subscription for three moutlls, and nft,er having been inforir~ed of the same hy two of the meu~bers, and no suificient reason appearing for such neglect, if he do not pay the whole the 'Hnm1)tou Negro Gonference, No. 8, pp

21 22 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans nest eusning meeting,l~e sliall he tlisjoiucd from us I)y being inforn~etl by two of the u~en~herd as i~n offeuder, wit,hout haviug any of his s~tbscriptiou money returned. Also, if any person neglect meeting every monbh, for every omission he rl1:tll 11:lve to pay three pence, except, ill case of sickness or any other rorn- 11laint tliat rhould require the itasist,ance vf the society, then and iu such case, he shall be excrnpt fron~ t,lie fiues a,nd su1)scription during sairl sickness. A~~IJ, we apprehen(1 it to he just and reasonable, t,hat tlie s~~rviving widow c ~ f the deceased ~uen~ber slioultl enjoy the benefit of this society so long as she remains his widow,cc~nlplying with the rnles thereof,excel~ting tlie sul)scriptiolls. Arxl \ve apprehrud it to 11e liecessary that. tl~e children of our deceased meln- Irrrs lie uucler t,he care of the society, so far as to 11ay for the etlncation of t,heir csl~iltlren, if they aau not attend the free school; also to 1)ut them ont as ap- ~~~-eutic.cs t,o snita\)le tratles and plaws, if required. Also, tl~r~t uo me~nl~er siii~11 convene the society together; but it sliall be the sole )m~inedr of the con~n~ittee, au(1 that. only on special orc.a,sious, and to clispj5e of the money in hnutl to tlie Iwst atl\-autage for the use of the sccietv, xfter they are granted the liberty at a 1no11L11ly meetinp, a,nd to transact all q~t11t.r I~nsiness wliatsoever, escel~tlmt of clerk and t,reaaurer. And we unanimously ;lgrt?e to choose.jorel)h Clarke t,o l)e our clerk aud trraa~lrer; ilud \\-lirne\'er i ~u~tlle~ shonld succe(%d I)inl, it is always nntlerstood, tl~at one of the lwople c:llled f.)ua,kers, belonging to one of the thrre u~outhly r!iertinga in Philadell)hia, is to I J rhosen ~ to art, as clcrk and treasurer of this 1wrfr11 iustitution. The followiug persous met, viz: Ahsalorn Jones, Iiic11:~rd -kllrn, Samuel Bust,ou,.Joseph Johnsou, (.'at0 Freernau, C':r$ar Crunchell nud J~llle~ I'otter, :~nrl a,lm William White, whose early assis1,aorc a1~1 wef1~1 re~n:~rks were found trnly profitable. This evening the i~rli~~les were reatl, i~nd after some 1)euefic.ial remarks were ~natle, they were ayrt~d 1111to. * In 17'JO t,his society hat1 42 9s. 1d. OII c1rl)osit ill the Ba~lli of Nortl~ Xmrrica. At. about, tl~isa111e ti~ne secret st~ciet,ios bt,gil,n to arist.. TI]? origi11 of tlie Negro Maso~~s was a.s fullows:: On March 6, 1775, a11 army Inclgr i~.tta~il~~l to oae of the re?i~~~e~~ts stntiolir,d r~~~tler Cieneral Ci;lge ill or near Ihston, Mass., initiated Pri~~ce Hall and fourteeu other colored mell into t11e mystcries of Frer~r~asonry. Ii'ro~n this begiu~~i~~y, with sma.11 additions from foreign cour~tries, syraug the Ma.so11ry alnoug the Negroes in An~erica,. These fil't,eeu hrethreo \\'ere, accordi~~g to a, cast,o~i~ of the clay, anthorized to a.ssemhle as a lodge. "walk on St..John's Day" m~cl bury their deatl "ill 1rlrl.nner amd fo1.111;'' but they did no 'Lwork"-~natle 110 Masons-1111til after they had been regularly warranted. They applic-d to the GL':LII~ Lotl~e of ICugland for ct warrant RIarrh 2, It was issnetl to them as '.African Lodge, No 459,'' wtl~ Pri~~ce Hall an Nabter, Septe~nber 29, 1784, but-o\ving to various vexatious ~~~isrtdrentr~res-was uot ~eceivecl ~liltil April The lodge was orga~~izrd under tl~c war~ant May 6, It rrmainrtl upon the English registry-occasionally contributiug to the Grand Cl~arity Fuucl-until, npo~~ the amalga~nation of hl'nctt's Budget, I!jOi, PI). 93-DI. t Upton: Negro h f~bllll~~.

22 Negro Masons 23 the rival Grand Lodges of the "R.IOLIPPIIS" a.11~1 tl~e LLA~~~ients" iuto tlie l~esent United (3ra11d Ludgt! of England, in it, anti the otl~er English lodges in tl~e Vnit,rtl Sta.tes \\.ere era.sec\. Prince Hall, a inan of escu1)tiona.l ahility. served in thc A~nericall Anny tluri~~g tlle Hevolutior~ary Wa,r a,ncl, 1111til his death, ill 1W7, wa.3 ~sceetlingly z~;l,lous it1 the (:;ruse ol nlaso~~ry. As early a,s in e was styletl "Grand Mmt~r," arlcl from tl~at da.te at, least, Ile vxercised the functio~is of a (;~'a.ntl Master or l'rori11cia.1 Grant1 Rl;~st,er I I issurd ~ a li~~ensr to tl~irt,een black lnpll WIIII Iiatl bee11 rnatlr MASOIIS ill Eugland a~~tl Irelitud tu ~'asscl1111~1le a.nd \r.orli" i1.s a lodge in Phi1ndell)hia. Al~ot,l~er lodge \%-;IS ~ rga~~izetl Ilp Iris a~ltl~ority ill l'rt~vidtnce, Rl~ode Zsla,nd, for tllr acc~onm~odation of nle~~~ber:: of Afri(*a~~ Lodge \vho resided in tha.t, vicinity. This was in ~~'(wrda~~ce \vit,h RII old 11sa.g~~ the v:~.litlit,v of wllich had t,hr.n hut rwent1.v Iwen co~~fir~netl hy the Grand Lodge of these tl~i-c:c lodges joil~etl ill for~ni~rg tl~e ',Afric?rrn(+rant1 Lotlge" of Hoston. subsecj~~c~nt,l,v styled the 'LPrinc..e Hall Lodge of 3Ia.ssacI1usetts." ;\Tai;o~~ry yradunlly sl~rerltl over tl~e land. Tl~e sc,co~~tl colo~.ccl (ira,nd Lodge, called tl~e "First IntI~~l)e~~tlcnt Alricar; Gwnd Ludge of Kortli A~nerica. ill i~i~tl for the j.;olr~n~o~~%\-ea,lt,h of Pen~~sylrania.." was org-~.uizecl ill 1815; and t'he third was the hi ran^ Gra~~d Lotigc: of Penl~sylva~~ia~." T~IHSP three Crm~itl hotlies fully recog- ~~izrd vach ot,hrr in 1817 hy joining in fornli~~g a National Crra~~tl Loclgt., itntl pra,cticaliy all the Negro lodges in the United States a,re drsce~itletl fro111 our, or t,he ot11~1. of tlwse. The original wa.~.rant of Yrince Ha.ll Lodge rr?a.tls: To dl ant1 every onr right IVt~r~l~ipf~ll. :md loring P,I-etllren, n-p, l'11olna.a Howartl, Eicrl of Etlingham, Lord IIon-wd, et,c.,eto.? act in@ (;rand hiwter under the authority of His Royal Highness, Henry Frederick, Duke of ('~~~i~lrrrlal~rl, etc., et,~., (il.xnd Master of t.he Most hncieut and Honorable Societv of Free and Arc-eptetl Alasous, send greetiug ; linow Ye, That \ve, at the humble petitio~i of our right trusty ant1 \re11 hrloved Bretliret~, Prince Hidl, Rorton Sn~it~h, Thomas Sai~dcrsou and sever;ll other I:rt:Cl~reu resitliug ill Hostol~, New E~igland, in Sort11 A~~~erica. do herrkt>- constitute the raid Brethren into a regular Lodge of Free and Ai.c,rpted N:~son~,u~irlc-r tl~e title c~r de~~ouiir~atiou t)f the African Lollge, to he ol)ened in Boston aforesaid, :111d do further, at their said prtitinn, hereby apl)oint. tht. r:~itl Prince Ha11 to 11e Risster, Hoston Smith, Senior U'arrlen, 8utl Tl1oina:-: Hautleraou, Junior \\'arcten, for the opcuir.g of tlie said Lodge aud for s11c11 furt,her Lime only as slii~ll Oe thoupl~t proper by the hretlireu tl~ercof, it heiu: our will that this air :~l)p,intmeut of dl~e above ofiic!ers shall in no wise affect ally fnt~~re electiol~ of ofticcrs of the Lodge, bnt t1i:l.t s~wh elect~t~u sl~nll he regulated agreeable to sucli l),y-l:~ws of said Lodge as shall be consifitcut with t,hegeneral 1:t.x~~ of the soriety, co~ltaiuetl in the Book of ('oustit~lt,ious; aud we hereby will ant1 reqnire you, tl~e said Prince Hall, to take rspcria.1 care Ll~at all and every olle of t,he said Llrethre~~ are, or have heeu reg11l;~rl.v ~uade Ala- ~OUS, and that they do observe, perforni irnd keep all the rules and orders con- _ tained in the Book of Co~lstitutions:mtl further, tliat )-ou do, f~om t,ili~e time, cause to be entered in a I~ook kept for the purpose, an account of your proceeding6 in the Lodge, t.oget.l~cr witli all sucl~ rules, urclersand rcgnlat,ions,

23 2 4 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans as shall he made for the good government of the same; that in no wise yo11 omit once in every year to send ns, or ollr successors, {:rand Mast,er, or to Roland Holt, Esq., onr Deputy Graud I!Iaster, for the tilue heing, an account il~ writing of your saiclproceedings, and copies of all snch rules,orders and regulations as shall lx made as aforesaitl, to~ether wit11 a list of the members of tlle Imdge, and s~~ch a sun1 of money as may suit the circumstances of the Lodge nud reasouat)ly be expected toward* tlre Grand C'hwity. JIol.eorer, we hereby will and require you, tlle said Prince Hall, as soon as roureniently may he, to sent1 an account in writing (~f what may be done I)y virtne of t,hese prt?aents. ifi~en at London, 11nder our hand and seal uf Rlasoury, this 29th clay of Septe~ntwr,.A. L, 5784, A. L). 17%. Ry the G?,,ci~fI :lfrratei.'s C'omwt rt~t(7. V7itness : WM. WHITE, G. S. It. HOLT, 1). G. Rf. Part 2. The Development of Co-operation Section 5. An Historical Sketch A sketch of co-operntion arno~lg tlle Negro A~nerica~ls begins uat,urally wit,l~ t,he Negro c,tlurch. The vast, power of the priest in tlie Africall state w-as uot fully overcome hy slavery mlcl trausportation; it still remained on the pla,~ltation. The Negro priest, thereftrro, ea.rly became a11 importaut figure and "fonucl his function as the int,c:rpreter of the supernatural, the comforter of t,he s~)rrowin,v, and the one who expressed rrldely but l)ictr~~-esquely tl~e longillg, tlisappointnie~lt and rrsentrne~lt of a st,olell people. 'ram such hegi~~~~inys roseand spread with ~narrel. loua rapidity the Negro church ill A~lterica, the first. distinctively Negro A~lierican socia,l institution. It wa.s not a.t first by ally mealls a Christ,ian cli11rc11, hut an atlaptatioli of those heathell rites wllicli we rougl~ly designa,te by the term Obi worship or Voudooism. Associtttion amd ~nissionary cffort soon gave t,llese ritvs a velleer of Christia~iity a ~ gr:~d~~aiiy ~ d after ~,WO centuri(>s t.11~ CIILI~~II bwi~~ne C!hrist,iitn wit.0 a. C:;~.lvi~listic. creed a ~ mit,ll ~ d rnany of theoltl c!usto~n still cliuginp t,o It is tllis historic fact, tllat tlie Negro c11urc:ll of t,odxy bases itself on one of t,he few surviving socia,l instit~ltio11s of tile Africa,~~ Fatherla~~d, tl~nt ac~couots for ifs ext.rn.o~'dina,ry growth ancl vitality. We 1n11st re~ne~i~her that ill the Irnited Sta,tes t,otlay tllc~re is a church organizatiol~ for every sixty Negro families." Thin institution therefore nxt.ura,lly assumed rna,~ly f~lnctioiis nrliicl~ the other I~a,rsl~ly su1)- pressed socia,l organs had to surrei~tlrr.,a~id espec:iih.llg the cl~u~~rl~ 1~1rcame tl~e center of eco~lomic act,ivity as well as of :~in~~se~nrnt, et111cat1011 a~ltt socia,l intercwurse. It was it1 the cli~wch, too, or rather the oryai~izatio~l tllat welltby the naine of c,tlurch, that Inany of t11e insurrect.ions alnong the slaves fro111 the sisteellth ceutnry down hail their origin; wcl must find ill these insurrcxc!tions a heginning of co-opemtion \vllich eventually endetl in the ~~encrful economic co-operation. A full list of these i~~surrections it is jnipossiblo to nlalre. but if we take t,he larger and Inore significa.nt ones

24 Historical Sketch 2 5 th~y mill slrow ns tlie trend. The chief Negro ii~surrectiu~is are as fullows : Revolt of the Maroons, Jainaica. Uprising irr Da11isl1 Isla~rils. New York Cato of Stolio, Sout,lr Carolina., Krxv Torli, Sa,~r Ihmingo, Ga.briel, Virginia., Vesey, South C:trolina, Nat Turuer, Virginia., Bot11 Vescty :ind Turner were preachers and used the church as :I, cellter of t,heirplots; Gabriel a.nd Cato may I~a,ve been prewcliers, alt~liongh this is uot kl~own. These il~surrections fall into ttlree cat,rgories: unorganizrtl outbursts of fury, a,s ill ti10 nanisll Islaride ;tnd it1 rarly C'arolin:~.; ~iiilitary orga~~ixations, as ill t h case ~ of t,he hiarouns; nioren~c~~its uf small knots of conspirators, as in Ne\v york ill 1713 alid 1741; a~~tl careiull~- ~) efforts at mitle.;preact co-ol~eration for l'retvlo~ri, as in the. caw of S~II Dolllingo, a~ltl the ~~prisi~~gs 1111t1er Citto, Gabriel, Vesey al~tl TII~II~I.. Tt wits tllesc: latter that in ~l~ost. cases grew out of the CIILI~CII organizations. It was the fact thiit tl~e Negro church t,l~us loanetl itself to insurrrction and plot t,hat led to its pa.rtial snppressio~~ a11(1 ca,ref~11 ov(:rsiglit, ill the latter part of thr s~venternth and again in the eigliteenth andearly 11irleteent11 centuries. Nevertliel(~ss there arose o11t. of the church ill tl~e I:tt,ttlr part of the eiglit,eelith itrrd early in t,lie nineteenth centuries the beneficial society, a slnall a~~cl usually clandestine orgnnizatic~n f~jr huryinp tlre (1ea.d; this development ~~sually took place in cities. Fro111 the be~ieficial society arose natrira,lly after elnancil);\tio~i the otl~cr cl,- opera,tive ~novements: secret societ,ies (which lllay date ba.rli creu beyond t,he c.11111'ch ill some way, altho~~yi~ there is no tangil~le proof of this), :t~~rl ce~neteries which began to be buught and arranged 01' vrry early iri t.l~e I~istory of t,he church. The sa.lne sort of Inorelllent that sta.rt,ed the cel~letericls bro~~ght the hospital ill tl~e 1at.ter part of ~ I I P ~~il~eteclnth century, a.r~tl from t,he vxret societies mrne the I~lunes a.nd orphanages. Out. of the beneficial soviety also cierelojrecl late ill the ~iinet~enth crr~tnry tl~r first attempts at co-operative 1)11siness, and htill later the insurrtnce societie., oiit of which 'anie the Im~ilis in the last ten years. ATeantime, however, tl~e spir~t of insurrection and revolt had found outlet earlier than by this slower derelop~nent. Thore was early discovered an easier method of a tttti~~i~ig lreeclo~n tl~ali by i~isnrrection autl that wa? by flight to tl~e free states In t11- West Iritlies this safety valvcl was war~tillg and the result was Snn Dolilirlgo. In America f~eedo~~~ clectrecl a refuge for slaves as follows: Vermou t, Massavhusetts, ITSO.

25 2 6 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Pronsylvrtnia, New Hampshire, Vonnwticut, Rhotle Island, Northwest Territory, KenT York, New Jersey, Cons~quently we find that the spirit of revolt which tried to cso-opera.te by nleans of insurrection led to organization for the wscue of fugitive slaves among Negroes thrnrselves, antl developed before tl~e war in the Nortli and cluri~~g a~ld after the mar ill the South, int,o various co-operative efforts toward economic e~nancipa~tiou a,nd la,ntl-buying. C+ratlually t'hese effort's led to ro-operative business, buil(!iug and loan ;tssi)riations a.nd tra,rle unio~~s. On the other hand, tl~e ttrrderground Railroad led directly to various efforts at u~igra.t~iori. esp~cit~lly to Cnnacla, a.nd ill some cases to Africa. These migra,- tions in our day Imve led to certain Negro towns :mtl settle~nents; and finally from the efforts a.t u>igra,tio~h l.)egan the various colrventions of Kegroes which have endeavored to organize them into ollr nationnl body, ant1 give tllem R, gronp couscio~~siit~ss. Let 11s 11ow i ~otic~ in tletail cert,ain of these steps towa.rd oo-opclra tion. We Ilaw xlrea.tly spoken of ii~su~rect.ions and C~III now tir,ke up t,l~e Uutlergrountl R,ailroa,cl and tl~e co-operative efforts during e~nanciptat.ion. a.ntl tl~e various SCIIHIIIF)~ of migration. Section 6. The Underground Railroad From tj~e beginning of the ninetrelith cwntury slaves brgan to rson,pe in consitlera.ble nl1n1ber~ frorl~ t'hr rrpio~~ south of ma so^^ antl Dixon's line and the Ohio to the Eorth. Even here, L~owecer, they wew 11ot. safe from the fugitive sl:t~e laws, and soon after 181'2 tl~r Negro soldiers and sailors tliscovrretl a surer refuge in C'anwla, and tl~r tide set tl~itl~er. (+ratl~~ally bet,weer~ 1830 and 1850 t,here were signs of rlefinit,e concertetl eo-operi~tion to assist fupit,ires which ram? to Ire know^^ t1.s tl~e 1J11tl~rgroul~tl Railroatl. The orga~rizatio~i is best kuomn from tl~e side of tl~c n-l~ite a.lmlit,io~~ists wl~o aitletl and sheltered the fugitives at~tl furnis11t.d them Inrans. Hilt it must not be forgotten that bac,k of tliesr hell~ers Inust ha.vr. lain a Illore or less couscious co-operat.ic~n :~nd organizat,ion on tj~e 1)art of tl~e colored people. In t,he first plarc, the rnnuing away of slaves was too systcn~a,tic: to he xccitlenta.1; witl~ont clo~~bt tl~ere was witlcspreatl kl~onletlge of paths i~ncl places ant1 times for going. ('onsta~~t COIIImnl~icatiou betwee11 tl~e lancl of frc?etlon~ a.r~tl tl~e slave fitates lnust be krpt "1) by persolla going tr~rd c:otni~ig. a~ltl th~brr cba,tl be no ~loubt but that. t,he Negro crryanizntion I~ack of t,he 1?11tl(~rprr11111tl i:ailro;~d was wiclc, and very effect,ive. Rctlpath. writ,ing jllst befor? the \var. says: "111 the Ca.nadian provinces there a1.2 tl~~nsan(ls of Sngitive slnvr~s; they a.1.e.tl1r: picked lllelr of t,hc! Sout,l~rrn stat~9. III:III~ of ~ I I ~ I I I are intelligent and rich and allof them are deadly ene111ii.s of t,he Sout,h ;

26 Underground Railroad 2 7 five Iru~rclretl of them at least aui~uallg visit the slave states, passing from F1orid;t to Hiwl~rr's Ferry on I~eroic errands of mercy a ~ cleliv- ~ d eratlce. Thry have cttrrird the Underground Railrot~d a,nd the Unclerprour~tl Tt31egrapll into nvarly every Southern st,ate. Here obviol~sly is a.power of grwt importance for a wa,rof libera,tion." Siehert says that in the Soutl~ 111nch srcret nit1 was rendered the fugitives by persons of their own race, and 11e gives instances in numbers of border states whert! colored parson..: were in charge of the rana.waye. Frederick no~~gla,..:..:' c.onnt?ct,io~l wit11 the U~~dergrouuci R,ailroa,tl began long l)esore he hi~ns~lf left the So~~th. 111 the North people of the Africau race would he Sou~~tl in 111ost co~nmunities, ancl in Illany cases tl~ey hecame energetic workers. Itwas natural tl~at Negro settle~nents in tl~e free st,ates should be resorted to t~y fugitive slaves. The colored people of (:reenwich, New Jersey, t'he Stewart scfl.lemer~t of.jnckron coul~l?;, Ohio, t.llr V1)per and Lower Ca~nl~s, Rrow11 CUUII~J-, Ol~io, nut1 thv colorrd s'ltlt.mrnf, Hamilton co1111 ty, Indinun, \vwe ac!tivts. The list of to\vn$ autl citie.~ ill whicll the Neprues heca~ne c:n- \vork?rs wit11 white persons in II:LI,I)~I,~II~ nn(1 vo~~(:e:~lil~g r~~unways is a long one. Ol~erlin, J'orts~norltl~ ;tnd ('i~~cinnati, Ohio; l)et.roit, Xiicbign~~ ; l'l~iladclpt~ia, I'eunsyl\-nnia, ant1 Boston, ~l:~s~a~~ll~~set.ts, will suffice a,?; exauil)lea. Negro settlr~nents in the interior of thc fren st,ates, ax well as along their southern froutier, soon canle to form i~~lportant links in the cl~aiu of stations leatlilig froin the tsoi~t,l~(~r~~ states to C'al~ada.' In the list of ITntlerground Railway operat,ors gi\-t?~~ by Siebrrt tl~err RI.~ 1% Ilamrt; of Negroes, and Negroes were OII the vigilant co111mitkes of inost uf tl~e larger towns, ir~clutli~~g liuston, Syracuse, Springfield and Pl~il~delphia. The largest uunlher 01 al)ducntion caacs occurred tl~rongt~ the activities of thosr well ciir;l)oserl towards fugit,ives hy the attaoh~nents of race. There were ~nany Negroes, ensla\-ed :wtl free, along the southern Imundaries of?jew dersey, Pe:insylvania. Ohio, Tudiaua, Illinois and Iowa,whose opportunities were Ilunlerous for rwnvej-ing fugiiives to free soil with slight risk t,o t,l~en~selres. These pcr.wn.i io~~~rti~urs did sea.rcely mure t,han ferry runaways across strealns or tlirec't them to the Ilo~ne of friends ~'esiding near the line of free st,ates. In tl~e vicinity of Martin's Perry,Ohio, there lived a colored man who frequentad the Virginia shore for the purpose of pcrs~~ading slaves to rlln away. Hc was in the habit of imparting the rleceasary inform~tion and then displaying hi~nself in an intoxicated courlition, feigned or real, to avoid suapicion. At last he was fou~~d onl.,but c ~~ped hy 1)etaking hinlself to Canada. 111 the neigh1)orhootl of Portsmu~tlll, Ohio, sla\-es were couveyed across the river 11y one Poinrlexter, n barher of the towu of.tacksou. In Ralti~nore, RIaryland, two colored womeu who eng:tged in selling vegetables, were etficieut in startiug fi~gitives or, tl~e way to Pl~iladelpl~ia. At Louisville, Kentucky, Wash PpraiLley, a shrewd Negro, was instrumental iu helping many of his enslaved brethren out of bondage. These few instances will sutiice to illustrate the secret enterprises cr)ndacted by colored persons on both sides of the sectional liue once dividing the K0rt.h from t,he South. Another class of colored persons that uudertook the work of delivering some of their race from cruel uncertainties of slavery may l~e fouud among the

27 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans refugees of ('al]ada. Deicribiug the early tlevrlopmeut of tl~e ~novenlent of il:l,-es to ('allatla, 1)r. Salnuel C+. Iron e says of these prrsons : " Solne, not contrllt \ritll persul~al freedom aucl l~appiness, weut secretly back to their old ]l,,mea aut] IJrougllt an-ay their \vives awl children at nua all peril and cotit." It Ileell sai(l th:~the nunlher of these persons risitiug the Soutl~ auuually wa-; allout tire htln(lr(!d. MI.. D. B. Ht~djie, of Lloydsville, Ohio, gives the caie <,f 2 Segro tllat went to (':~natla hy way of New,,\then~, and in the wurse of a vr:;,r rctur~lt.ti over the same route, went tu Kentl~cky, and brought away his rvife alld t\vo children, lllsking hi.< pily~'inl;ige llol'th\vi~rtl ag:l.iu after' the latlhc ~f :~l)~ut two ~nontlrs. Auotl~er case, reported I J MI.. ~ N. i:. Buswell of rrt'uiiset, Illinois, is as follo~vs: "A slave, C'lrarlie, 1)elonging lo ;I Missouri ~)I:LII~V~ li\-ing near Qnincy, Illinois, ewaped to ('anatl:~ I)y way of one of the ~~~~dergrouutl routes. Ere long he tlec.idet1 to returu :u~d get his wife, Imt, f1,und that she had heen srrld Soutli. \\'hen m:tlting his second Journey eastw\.:~rcl he I ~~ou~lit wit11 him a family of.zla\.es who prefcrrctl freedom to reu~aiuiur: as the 1.11attt.l~ of hi.; old master. This was tl~e first of a nulul~er of s11c11 1ril)s nl:~rlr I)y the fugitive. CI11:~rlie. 3tr. Seth Liutuu, who \vn3 familiar with rhe \vovk on D line of this ro;ttl runuil~g t11rottp.h (!lintou couuty, Ohio, reports that :r Fugitive that 11ad passed a1o11g the rotlte returned af tor some monfl~s, sayiug he hat1 rome hack to rescue l~is wife. IIis ahsenw iu tile slaw state (v>xtinued so loug that it was fezwed he had heen c.t~pt,~~red, )rut after some weeks lie rt,appe;rred, 1)riugiug hid wife and her f;lt,her with hi~n. He told of having soen Inany slaves iu the coluutry :LII~ said they would Iw along as soon ;I* they ccrnld escape."* The stations at hiecl~auical~nrg were among the most witlely known iu wulral and soi~thern Oliio. They received fngitivra from at 1e;tst t,llrer regule,r rolltea, and dolll>tless had Iosmitc!h c'olluectinl~a" with other lilies. P:lsseugers were take11 uortliward over ouc of the tl~ree, perl~:~l)s, fotu' rontls, and as #)lie or two of these 1:~y through pro-?lavery neipl~borl~ootls a Ilravr and rxperirncetl agent was almoat iuclispeusalrlc.. <:eorge W. S. Lur:Ls, ZL (:oloretl nlan I I Halvnl, ~ C'olu~nl)iana county, Ohio, 111adcs frequent trips \vith the closed carriage of Philip Eva~ls hetween Harnesville, Ne\v Plriladelphia ;uid ('atliz, and t.\vrr statioi~e, As11lnl)ul:~ ai~d 1';tii~esville. oil the shore of T,:~ke Erie. O(.r:liioually RIr. Lncas (v> 1i:rrties to ('levelarrrl ;LII(I Sanc111~ky ill111 'l'ulrdo. h~lt in surb rases he went on foot or lsy stage. Ilii trips wcrc nometimes ;I ~UII~YECI nriles and u~orc in lengt,h. l4eorge T,. Uurroughes, :L (wlorcrl IU:~II at (:niro, Illinois, liec:i~~lt. all ngeut for thc I:ncler:~rr~ul;rl Ho;td ill 1857 while nrttinp as porter of asleeping ccar r~~unin: (111 t.11~: IIlinoisC'entral K;~ilrr~ratl lwtweeu (:airo and ('hicngo. At Alhan~, Nen York, Steplleu 3[yers, :L Segru, w-a;; an nyent of the I1ntlrrgr~)~~nc-l Ro:~tl for a wide extent of trrrit~~ry. At 1)etroit. there were scl-era1 ageuts, among thein tieorge DeH:~ptiste :mcl George Dolars011, t Tt~e most uclehratetl of tbese abductors were Harriet Tulrinan aud Josiah Hellson, who are said to have beell the meamof releasing Inany l~undseds of slnve~ from slavery. Outside of this general co-operation these was, however, evidence of real orga.~~ization among' tlie Negroes. Hintol~ SitYs t,lla,t Jol~n Brown kmw of this secret orgmization ant1 sought to hake advantage of it. Gill also t.eatifies to t.he same organization ; extracts from tl~eir writit~g will show their knowledge of this nlore secret co-olrerntion: Slehert t.slebert, ill.

28 Underground Railroad 29

29 3 0 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans i:~n ronte in her efforts to aid eacnpiag slaves. "htores," as Mrs. Tubrnan was mlletl 11s her own l~eople, was a most, remarkable hl:rck woman, unlettered anrl very negrine, hut wit,h a great degree of intcllige~ice auil perceptive illsi~l~t, arnazi~~g courage and :L dimple steatlfastnrss of devotiou \vliich lifts her tvnrrel' into the raults of heroism. Herself n fugitive slave, she devoted her life after Iler own freedom war W~II, to the work of aiding others to escape. Pirr;t ;lud last, 1I:~rriet I~rough t out. several ~IIIILI*RII~ $la\-es. John 13rown :ll\vnyc c;+lletl her "(+eurral," aud once intraxlnre~l Ilcr to R7endell Pl~illips by sayiug, "I Ijring yo11 OIW of the hest :111rl bravest persons on t,llia continentc:c~~cral Tul~iuan, as we call her." Williani Lambert. who died in Detroit :L fen. years sinee, heiug very nearly oue hundrecl years old, was ;tnr~ther of those nf tlic ra<.ct who devoted tlie~nselves to the work for \vl~irl~.loll~l Hrown hoped 1,) strike a culmi!~atinp blow. Between 1WQ a~~tl l*~istliirt~;-tl~reeyearc-\villinm is rq)orterl to have aided ill the escape of 311,liOo slaves. He livrd in Ikt~wit,and was one of the foreuiu%t represe~~tativc of his people ilr Iwth hlichi- #;LII a d 0nt;wio. Il~iderground Kailroatl oper;ttio~is cnliniuating chiefly at, ('levela~itl, S:uiclnsk,v and Detroit, led by I>roatl and defined routes through Ohio to the horcler of Kentucky. T11roupl1 t,t~at ststc in the heart of the (' Iwrlaucl ~nountai~~s, nortl~rrn Georgia, enst Teunrssec :~utl uorthrrn Alal)ama, tl~e li~~wstnue ci&\-es of the region sen-<.(i a ~~stsl'ul pnq~r,se. Ant1 it is a fact. that t.l~e colorctl 1)eople living in Ohio were ofteu l)oltl~:r and marc determined tl~a~i w:ln the rule rlsenhere. The Ohio-lientn~:ky routes prr11~1ably serred more fu:itiven tl~;ru others in the North. Therslley of tlie Rfirsissippi was the. nus st wwtc?~ly cl~aunel ~uitil J<ausas opened a 1)oldcr way of escape from the Snuth- \rwt ilnve sec:tion..john Rru\vu knew whatever was to l ~r know^^ of all this II~~rest, :~ud he :~lio inltst have kuowll ot the FCI'I.~~ urgauiz:~lio~~ \vl~i(:h(:eorge H. (+ill ~n~utions in his in teresting paper. 7'11i;i organiza tion served a purpose of sowe \-alue to the govel'nlnellt j l ~ t,he ruliev garti of the ('iril \\'ar, a Cart that lies within my o~vu knowlc.dge, and t,lien fell into clist~se as the hours ~;~ovi-tl s~viftrr t,o the oue in whic~li thc gateway of I.11e I!~~iou an.nng aside, nntl the p:tthway of the law opened, to all11w the to reach rlllaucipatiou anrl ~:itizeusliil). Dr. Alesi~mdei. Milton Ross, in a. lrtt,~~.j;~,nuary 21st. 1X93, wys: * Xow ill rcfere~~c~~ to the "Lit)erty IJeitguelf' I \\-:IS one of tl~eir I ~ ~ I I I I I C ~ at S 1:rrge; (:errit Sniitl~ ~11x1 1,cn.i~ T:II)~LI~ \vere tllc: or11rl.s..\s ta) tl~r nctoal 1l1rml1el.s I hati I-e?y little a~:quaintanlnt~. I kucn. of (:cwrge.l. Reynolds of l-i:~~uiltou (vanth~sky, also), George M-. h'on.u arul l:lovcl. II:i;:.iaon r~f thi? vit.,v (Toronto). The l)rsnch of tl~e League iu 17pprr('anaela lind 110 col~iiection with tlie armed and drilled Inell alou:: the stat^.^ 11orrlt.r. ~vl~oae duty it was to help the slaves toer~rape to (~!:watln. Of (wurie I kuen- nltlny of them- Lil~er;ltors, 3s they were called,-fro~n Erie to Santl~icky xntl ('levelntlcl. The list' of the inrn who mct Jo111l 13row11 in t,llr crlrhra,tetl Chatlmn~ col~vt.ntion n.lso shows the large 11~11nl)cr of co-\\-orlrrt~s, wholn hc tried to get t,o ht?lp him at Harper's Ferry. Tl~r na.lnrs of the ~l~e~nbrvs of t,lr~ Chatt~an~ co~~vention were: Il'ill;um C/tnrLc.s Jlo~rroe, 12. J. Rey- ~~olda, J. C. Orunb, A. J. Smith, Julnes il1on~~)c.j017c8, (;rorp R. (+ill, JI. F. Bccilcy, 71v~;llia,~t~ Lamheri, S. Hvnton, Jo/~n J. Jc(c~.~oIL, O~bor11e P. dnde~son, Alfred Il7hhippcr, C. W. Moffett. Jui,ies,If. Bcil, W. H. Lehl~~an, Alfred M. Ella~vortb, John E. Cook, Steuxrtl Ta.ylor. James Hinton : Jolm Brow11 mid His 3Ien.

30 Underground Railroad 31 If'. f'roviell, (ifoiye Akin,,9/cphcn Deffitb, l'hu~l,ns IIickcraoi~, Jvk~i C'tr?~,r~el, Rol)iit.wi# illv:rc~~~(ler, Il,ic.l~a.rtl Realf, Thoinus P. C1co.,ij, Ric./turrl Riclrcii~2soii. 1,ukr lp. t';irco~~s, Tlros.,+I. lcen7rcci~7,.jei.e, rludei.sojt, J. H. D(hrrry, 1Zohm.t I'un I'uul~r.~~. 7'ho.s. N. Striiifje~.. Charl~s 1'. 'I'itltl, Jolri~ A. Thoiiicis, (:. I17hipl)le. Alias A:L~OII D. Stevens, J. I). Slictdcl. Robert iv~wi11cri8, OWPII Hro\v11, John HI~I~II,.7. H. IJrtr~*iu, C'hrrr.l,,s Sijriill, Ainiou t'is[i~~, Iscrne Ifoltle~, Jrcwzes Sjnitlr, H. K:~gi; t l~e sec.retarg. BY. M. A'. Ucltii~t~y, \\.as ;I c:orrt:spontli~rg. 111e111her. Thr nlrlnhers wl~os~ llitllles ill it:kli~.s \vere colored 111~11. Iri addition t,(~ the etl~ic:~.tiu~ri~~l CiL~ilitirs tl~e colored folk of C~I:I,~~I:I.III thrir 0~11. R 11t-wspaper co~~cluotetl ill tlirir i~~trrest by hail C~IUI'C'~I~S I I ~


32 Emancipation 33 gradunllj- openvtl hy 111' aclva11c.e of r,rir armies in lmth \7irgi~~i:~ ~ncl Nc1rt11 C'arolina. Herc~~ning ;I qu:~rter~n:{ster wit11 tlre ri~~il.; uf (.:lpt:~iu in 1Xli4, he,f!lr opn-arc1 of t\vo year.;, suprintr.ntlerl tl~e ~~oor, I~ot,l~ white i~ud hlack, ill that repion. IIc grouped the refugec> ~ Is111:111 I vill;~ge$, ant1 clilip~!tl!- aitcntl~d 10 t i i11111ties i d to t i s l 1 1 Enliste(1 nien \\.ere hir first teact~rr.:: theu followetl tlie Iiest ot I~ly tracl~crli fro~n the Sortl~, and stlecess cru\\-nc4 his eftorts. 111 t'el)roary, 1Sci4, tl~rrc? were RIJOII~ t,\\.o tl~o~~s:~nrifre(.~l IIVCIIIIC in tl~e vill:~gt>.; outsirlcof tl~t. New Berne,Xurth (":~rolin:~, intrenclr~neuts Lots \r-rrt. now :issigneel nncl st~~ot eight. I~uutlrrcl I~ouse? ere~~tetl. which at ctur tiu~t chr~ltc~retl nnlrie threr tl~o!isa~~cl e.;rral.~cd sla.\-es.* Ji~t~e %, ISIi", Rrigadic?r (ieurral I~II~II; S:~xton, with heatlql~a,rteis :it 1:earifort, Houtli (!arc~li~~a, :~ss~~nletl t.lie p,vei.nnient imtl colltrc~l of all pl:~ces nlicl person.; in the I)op:~rt~neut r~f the Soutli \~lii(!li were not en~hracwill the er;~tionsol General tluiury A. (~il~iiore,co~nrnantli~ig tlledep:wtniei~t. (:enernl Saxton, a.: n~ilitary go\-el.nor, al~poiriterl t,l\rre division ~uperi~~tendrnt.i, ei~cli hs\-iiig vharge of ue\-era1 of tl~p Sea ISI:LIICI~. Mwket houses werie rsl:~,l,lial~rtl at Ilillou 1Ir:tcl :~ud liesi~f~rt for. Ilrrr ssleof the ~)rotliiw from the plaiitariuus, a~~tl Scgrocs rot tt, work, llie 1:tr~er scttle~ncnt I~rin~ I'ort Xu,y:~l ISI:LIIII a1111 Iirxr the to\vi~ of ~~~~~~~~~~t. Colored meli ill tl~:lt vicinity \vew SOIIII enlisted as si,ltliersai~el :in erfr~rt w:;r lnacle to ca:lose thc 1;~l~o~c:rs lcft OII ei~cl~ ])Inntation, ulitle~~ pl:~,nt:~tioi~ sl~perillte~iclent,s :~l~l~ointed for t.he purlwse, to raise s~~tficient wtlou aud corn for their (J\\-11.iilppor~, rillio~ic heiug givci~ froin the Cc~~~lmissionary Ihpartment, only whtfiu neccsssry 10 prevent al~rol~ite sti~rr;ttiun. Ttic5e eontli~irjus \vc:rr, \vitll baldly sn interruptio~~, 1wnliun~11 ~~ntil tlle spring 01 Itifis. (:rs~it's amly in the ortcul~ietl (;r&nrl Junction, bliss.. t ~y Sovc.~nl~cr, I8(iO, '1'11~ usual iri.egl~lar 110st of s1:ives t,ht'u sw~rniecl in fro~n the SII~I.OUU~~inp r:orlut~,y. They heggerl for. l~r'~t~rtit)i~ xyai~rst recirl,ture, and tl1t.j-, rjf course,neetltwl tootl, clotl~inq a~~tl sl~elt,~:r. They co~~lcl uc~t IW\V be re-e~~slsvid thro~ipli ai.11iy airl, yet IIU 1)ro\.i;ii~111 had Iwen 111atle l ~y :11iylioc1~- fur their RIIStcnnl~w. A few were e~nployrcl ;is teamsters, servants,?or~lis and pionc?rrs, yet it sccmurl >is tl1oi:fih ll~e vast ~n:~jo~,ity niwt 1)e left to freeze :~ud nt:wve: for \\.II~II rlie srornls calne with tl~e \vint,rr rnon t,hs the \\-e:ttlier W:IS of gr~iit severity. lit'nrral Graut, with his 11~1~1 geutler~ws toward the nerdy :III~ his Ievtilit>in P~1)~(li1211t~! iiitroil~wed at OIIC~ 8 pl:~~i of relief. He selrrl.etl sfittin:: s111wrilitt~~i(l~~it,.j~)l~~~ Y::~to~i, ~11:~pl;i~n of il~e 'l'\vt~~iiy-seve~~tl~ (.)liiu\~olu~~tc(!rs,!v11<,.cuiiii p;.~~nwted to tl~v c~~louelcyof :L c:i~lored reqi~~ie~it, a!ltl later for Initn:; years was :I('c,~n~~~issio~ierof tlle tll~ited St~tt:li Bureau of Etlu~.:~li~)l~. He \\-:I* the11 (:u~~slituted Chief of the Sepro hff:tirs for tlre e!itire tli,~trir.t untltr (Gr:t~~t,'s jurisdictiou. Tht- plau wl~icli <+Y;III~ (!oii~eivc!d, tlic, {lev s~~perir~ten(!- ell1 ;11~1)- (!:trried [rut. They wvre a11 aro1111d (;i.antl J~tnrtiorl, \\-hell our r,llel.::- tiom ol)euccl, lazpe c:rc111s of rwttt~~~ and corn ungatheretl. It T\-as detr:r~ninetl to h:rrvest tl~c~se,sel~tl illem Norilr for ~ l r ant1, place the rereipts ~ Itllc I credit of the Qoverii~ne~~t. 'I'l~e army of fnpil iveu, willinply gc~iug to work, l,~.otl~~~.rd a lirelj: sceue. The children lent a Iiaurl in gatheriup the c<~tto!~ and coru. The s~~periutenilent, confcrriug ~itl1 the gener;d I~ilnself, fixed ilpoli f:~ir \\-ages for this intlustl.y. I!utler si~iiilnren~~irreration \vootlc:nttcrs \\-ere set :tt \vorli Supl11)- with fnel uolnerous gover~~n~ent steamers CJ~I the river. -4fter insl)eciion ol :~ccou~~ts, the money was paid for the lalwr!~y the clna~'terurnates, - EIxlwuld: Vul. 2, li6-7.

33 34 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans llut ne\-er directly to the fugitives. The superinteurlent, coutrc)lling this Iuoney, sa\v to it tirst that the men, wonleu and children sho~lld havc s~ifficient (:lotlling and food, then Colonel Eaton built for them rc~n~fi cal~ins aiid provitled for their sick and aged, managing to est,eild to tllelil luauy unespected rolllforts. (:enera1 Grant in his nien~oirs snggeets this as the first itlea of a (6Freetlnlei~'s Bureau?'..... Ere11 heforc the close of lhi2 Illan) thonsauds of blacks of :111 ages, clad in raps, lvitll no pos.sessions except the i~ondeeoript Lnncllcr of all sizes whit-h the adults carried on their \laclid, 11:~tl come toptlrer at Sorfoll;, H;~~nl)tou,.\lesa~itlria ancl Washington. Sickness, want of food :~nd shelter, soinet~imrs resiiltil~g crime, apl~ealetl to the sympathies of evrry feeling heart. L:~i~dless, holnrlese, helpless faruilies in multit~tder, ii~clutling a prolwrtiou of wretclictl wl~ite people, were flocking northward froin Tcrlncssee, lien tucks, Arkansas a~lrl hlicsotiri. They were,it is t,r~le, for a time uot u111-y relie\-eri liy arlny I-%- tious, sl)as~nodirally isruerl, but were inct most ki~~dly I I \.arious ~ vo111l1 teer societies of the North-societies which gathered their III~~IIS Pro111 churcl~es and iudivitluals at ho~ile anel ubroatl. During the springof 1HG8 nlauy cliffere~~t groups md crowds of freemen and refugers, regular and irregular, wrre locat,ed nrnr the lo~~g ant1 1.1rokeu liue of division Iret,weeu the armies of the Nort.11 a~itl South, ranging from Msrylaud to tlie Kansas bolder and aloug the mast from Norfolk, ITa., to Sew Orleaus, La. They were similar in character anil t:ontlition to those :~Ireatly ilewril)etl. Their virtues, their vices, their povcrty, their sicnlincssea, their lal),rrr, their idleness, their exi:cl;s of joy i~~lil their estrelnes of suffering were told tcr our 11uu1e peol)le Ily every returning soldier or o;. 1.1~ the ~l~iesionarirs who weresoliritiug the n~raur of relief. Soon in I.he Sort11 an estraorcli~~al'y zeal for Iir~~nauit,y, quit,e universal, spr:lng u)~, ant1 a C:lrristi;~n sl)irit \vl~ii:h wa;.. uever hefore exceeded begau to prevail. 'I'l~c result was the o~.g:~niziup uf I~III~~(~IYIIIS new I~orlies of associated workers \vho~e infiueuc!~ lcel~t our cimn try free fro111 the ills atteuclii~g elnancipation el~where; it saved 11s fron~ Neyru insi~rreclion, nn:~rcl~y ant1 I)loody Imbssacre, with w11icl1 the pro$l:l~-~ry n1e11 :u~tl eve11 the couser\':~ti~c readers of hisl.ory had t11re:~ianetl t,l~c. land. The secretary of the t.reasurg, Salin~~i~ 1'. C'ha~e, :~l\v:ijs anxious fur s~iccersf11l e~n:~ucip:~tion, h;ld had bro11g11t to his atten tion e:~rly in Jsi'?tl~e arcitu :it~iour of the Iwst cuttu~l on ~lu~icluuetl sea islanil l)l:~ntatiu~~s; tl~rrc \\-as the opport~~nil,v to raise Inor?, autl the Inally al:~ves ill tl~e vici~~ity pr:~ct,i~;~lly set. free :~nd uutler goverurne:it:~l ctrut,rol c-o~~lil Iw w~~rkcd to :~tl\.ant:ipr. 'I'l~e <*tit ton \i-:~s to 11c nc)llet:te(l by tl.easwy agents autl thc. frr~tlu~vu hc-uctitrtl. Dnring the slllniller of 1Hli4 \I'm. l'itt F'rssr~iclru, \v110 Iintl replncrcl ('hase ns secretary of thr treasnry, iua~pnr:ite~i :I rrew IJ~:LII fur the I'reeclrnen :~nd al~autlouctl Isntls. IIe apl~ointed autl snl~errisil~g q)eri:tl :lyeuts of his ilcl~artment ill tlitfcrent portions of the So~ltli \~-liicl: \\-t,rc u(iwsrce I'ro~ir t:ol~ftderatc~ troops. These apcu ts had charge of t,he freeilnien. l.:ac~h was t,o fur111 here a11d there settleuie~~ts ou ah:~ntlouetl est:~ter, c3ac.h tlo~ni~~ntetl ;I '6Freetl~~~nn's 1Iolne t'olou,~," and sitllt~tetl in I~is c~\vi~ tli~trict, nilel he Inllst. :~l~lrri~i~~t ;I sul~ervisor for snc-h cwloniel; as hr ~;houltl A 11nn111er of sii1.11 cwli~iiiez \yere for~i~etl. The cnl)erviaorl~roviclc~tl h~~iltliugs, nlrt:~iue(l work ;tni~n;~ls :LII~ i~nple~nentsof 1111nl):tntlry aud otl1t.r c.wc~itial rupplies; 11c kept a I~ook of rrrortl which nlentionetl the forlner owner of the 1:111tl, tl~e uatlle, aye, :csitlcl~c:e and trade or oc.cnpntion 111 e:~c:h coluui.-.t ; all I)irtl~s, tlc~:~ths :~l~cl Itjarri:~#es ; ll~ colninp :lad goiug of e:wh einployec niill other like rl;~ra. These agents aucl sl~l~ervisors were son~etilnes t;\kr~l 1111rler ~nililary co~~trul Ily tl~e lot.:~l i~o~ii~u:rntler il~~tl so~ncti~nes ol~er:~ted indel)ei!ilel1ti3~.

34 Emancipation 3 5 Unfler this plau the freed 1)eolllc \\ere classitietl for lised wqes \-:trying from $10 to $2.5 per mont,h, accordi~~g to 111~ class, :~nd ~vhetl~er mitle or fe~nale. There was a colnplete and clet,ailed SJ-stem t~f elnploymeut. Food autl c~lothing rvere guaranteed :~t cosl, a11c1 all parties concerned were pot under written c:ontr:~cts. For :L time ill sulne l1lar:es this system worked fairly well. It nras a stuppiug-stoue to indrpentleuc~v. The \vorkiug people osnally hacl i~the r.upervisors and t,reaslu.y agerlts fricudly counselors; a11c1 wheu co~rts of all)' ~ort \r-ere eatat)lislled ~~utlcr tl~t:~n for 11e:iriug co~nplaints of fraud or oppres- ;ion, these olfici;lls revie\\-ed I,he cases aud t,lleir clecisious were fina.1. These were r:tlher sllort stells in the ~J:L~\I uf progress! They were experinlcuts. From the time of the openiug oi New Orleatw iu lw2 till 18!j5, cliffcrcnt SJ'Sterns of raritlg for the escltl)ect slave,* :LII~ their fami1ie;i were tried in tile Sollthwest. C;eueral.-j Rntler ant1 I<auks, eac11 ill his tnru, sought to l~rovide for the thousauds of destitute freerl~nel~ ill luetliciues, ratious a.nc1 clothir~g. Colouies were soou forlned anrl scut to al)a~~tlol~etl ~llallt:~tious. Asort of ycnera1 poor farm Ivas cstahli..-heel and ~~allecl "The Iro~nc ('olony." Mr. Tl~o~nas W. ('OLI\WL~, when iirst put iu rharge of the wl~ole regio~i as " Snperiulencient of t'l~e 1:rlre:~u tif Free Lalwr," tried tu i~nprcss ul)un dl freedman who c.:1111e ullcler his charge ill these II~III~ t!ol~~ni'~ t,l~athey IIIILS~ work as I~nrtl as if tlley \\-ere rlll]~loyrtl I,y contract on tllcs pla,~ltatiuu of 21 privat.e ~:it.izcu. Iris a\-owtl olljcct, :~m1 indeed that of eve1.p I(,c8al suoeriut,encl(.nt, to rentler the freetlu~en self-supporting. Oue bright freerlmau said: "I ;~lw:i~s kept InRFter and me. (+IIP~S I em keel) me.'' Two at. first uut nn1(*1in :L(~~:LLI<:I~ ctf s1aver.v were used: one was to force the lnl)urr;.s to toil; a.od the scr~)nd, when wages were paid, t,o lix exact, rates for tl~eln t)g orders. l+;acl~ c:olony fro~n the ti rst Ilacl :L superilrteutlellt,, a t'h~-si(.izuu, a clerk ;uld an instrnctor in farming. The primary ancl Suuclar schuol* were not \vantinp, a.nd c1111r(!11es were eucouragerl. Early iu It!li:<, (:enera1 Lorenzo 'rho~nas, tile :~cljutmlt general of the army, was orgallizing c~~lored truops along the Rlississippi ri\.er. After con~ultiu~ Valiolls treasury age~lts autl del~artn~eut comln:~ldera, iucludiug Gallera1 Grant, ;III~ haying also the apl)rovul of Mr. Liuc:oll~, he issued from Milliken's Bend, La., A11ril lsth, a lengt,hy series of i~~strur~tious covering the territory t)ordering the Mississippi a.nt1 il~clutliiig all the iul~ahitauts. He al)1111intetl three coul~~~issioners, I\lessrs. Field, Shiakle autl Liverlnore, to least. l,l:tntatious al~l care fur t,he e~n[~lo~.res. He a.rlroitly ancour:lgecl prirate enterllrinc iust,eatl of governnleut c:olonies; but he fixed the wages of able-l~o~lietl lne~ ove~ iiftec~u g~nrs of age at $7 per month, for ablehoclietl women $5 per ~nontli, for cllil~lren twelve to fiftee11 years half price. He laid a tax for revenue of $2 per 400 poand-. on cotton, and tire (tent6 per hushel ou corn autl 1)otatoes. This 111:~natnrally did not work well, for the lessees of plaiitatioiis l)ro\-ed tohe for the nlost l~art adreuturcrs and spemlators. 01 course such III~II look advalitage of the ignorant pec~ple. The c~)mmi~sioners the~nselves secul to have doae more for the lessees thau for tl~e laborers; and, in fact, t,he wage.+ were fro111 the begiuning so fixed as to 1renefit.alld enrich tl~employer. Two dollars per lr~c~uth was stopped agaimst each of the employecl, ostemibly for 1nedie:tl attendance, h ~~t. to ulo.c;t plailtations thus lea.sed 110 physicinu or rnedicine ever came, and there n-el,e other ntteutlaut crueltied which av;~rice contrived. On fifteeu plantat,icms leased by the Segroes themselves in this regiou there Was a uotable srlccess; aud also a fe\v inst;tnc:es among ot,hers where Iinmal~ity and good sense reigned, t,he aontrac~s were generally carried out. Here the

35 36 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

36 Emancipation 3 7 the freed people regarded themselves for more than six months as iu permanent ~mssession of these al~andoned lands. * Taxes oil the freedmen ful-nishecl most of tt~e'filnds to run them first experiments, and also, Mer, t.he Freedmen's Bureau: CIII all plant,ationa, whet11t.r owned or leased, where freedmen were ernployed 2, taxof oue r:ent per pourid on cot,ton and a proportional aruount on all othcr products was to I)e collecte(l as awntribut,ion ill support of the helpers among the freed people. A sinlilar tax. varying with the value of the property, wa6 levied by the governineut, upon all leased plantations in lieu of rent.+ Eaton eq)lrtil~s inany det.ails of the oporntio~~s uuder him: As to the management of property, both government and private, the regulatiou of wager wild all geueral disciplinary Ineaaures, the following statements should be made: (he of my officers, Lieutenant R. K. Johnson, was assigned t.o duty as acting assistat~t quartermaster and acting commissary of aubsiste~ice of freedmen. IIe a.ccornplished rnnch for thr ecoucrr~iical mauagerrient of property, rendering satisfactory reports to Washington, as usually required of otficers of t,hose dep:~rt,niet~t,s. All otticers l~nndlii~g supplies rrceived from the governu~eut adfustecl their metlrods of hirsiuess, forms of reports, vouchers, rtct., to ariny regolatiun;;, nhicl~ rcquircd them to keep careful records of every t~.ausaetiou. Not a cent of uiouey was ever clra\vn from the porcriunent for the freedme11 ou ally account. For thc support of the sick and thofie otherwise dependent a t,ax was temporarily required (I1y Orders No. 63) on the wages of the able-bodied. It was thought at tirst that the Negroes would submit wit11 re1oc:tance to the collectiou of such a tax. But. in this we were mistaken. Being a t,as ou wages, it compelletl the employer aud the employed to appear, one or tloth, hefore the oficer charged with its collectiou, and this officer allowed no wages to go nupaid. The Negro soon saw ill the measure his first. recwgnition by goyernment, and although t.he recognition appeared in the form of a hurtlen, he responded to it with alacrit.~, fillding in it the first trssurance of any power protecting his right to make a bargain anti hold the white man to its fulliln~ent. This comprehension of the affair argued a goad seuse of econonlic justice t,o a people entirely unused to such responsibilities. It was most interesting to watch the mora,l etrcct of the taxiug ex-slaves. They freely acknowledged that they ought to assist in hearing the I)urden of the poor. They felt eunw hled when they fountl that tl~e goreru~nent was calling upon them as men t.o assist iu the process \)y which their natural rig11 ts were to be secured. 'I'honiauds thus saw for the first time ally inoucy reward for their lalwr. The places R-here the tax was least rigidly collwtetl were farthest hchind in paying the colored lnan fo~ his stxvi(es. This tax, together wit11 funds accruing fro111 the 1)rofits of labor in the tlepart,nrent, met all the incidental expenses of our widespread operations; paid $5,000 for Itospitals; the salaries of all hospital stewarrls and medical assist:~uts (as per Orders No. S), and enat,led us to supply implements of industry t,o tl~epeople, in addition to ahaudoned propertx. The same funds secured to the beuetit of t,he Negroes, clothing, household 11 tensils, and othcr articles essential to their comfort, t.o t,he aulount of )103,W. The Negroes conld not themselves have secured these co~ninodities for less than 4350,000. The mauagement of these funds and su1)plies was regulated I)y t'l~e erigeneies of the people's condition, and was ad:tpt,ed ns f:w as necessary t'o army methods, requiriug a rigid systcm of accounts, nlonthly re1.1ort.s covered - 'Howard: Vul M, IK3-91. f Enton, p. 117.

37 30 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans hy certificates and vouclters, followed by careful inspertions, not only from my ottice, hut from the gcnerals comniandiug. According to Orders No. 9, issued Ily General l..thornal;, certain officers known as pro\wst nxtrshals were selected from t,he men of the Freedmen's Ikparttnent t,o discharge toward the Negroes scattered on plantations the daties of superiut~eurletit of freedmeu. These ollicxrs mere appointed by the ~:uulinaiidiug geucrnls, autl themselves appointed assistant provost marshals, who patrolled the districts assigned to them, correctiug abuses on plantations autl actiug as the representativesof the law as upheld by the military power. There was so~ne difficulty in ulaint:~iuing the i~lcorruptibilitg of these oflicers, and the territory which had to he covered by each individual was too ext,euded, INI~ the system, nevertheless, worked extremely well.' In 1864, July 6. Eaton reports: Thew freedmen are now disposed of as follows: In military service as soldiers' lan~ltlressew, (woks, officers' servants and lahorcrs in the varions stafp rle&)artn1elits,41,150; in cities, on plantations and in freedmen's villages and raared for, 7'2,500. Of these, 62,300 are cnti rely self-s11pl)nrting-the same as any inrliridual class anywhere else-as planters, mechanics, harbera, hackmen, draymen, etc., conclucctitlg on their own responsi1~ilit.y or working as hired laltorers. The remaining 10,2(MI receive subsistence from the go~ernment Three t11ons;uid of them are inein1)ers of families whose heads are carrying011 1)lnutatious and have iinrler rultivat,ion 4,OW acres of cotton. They are to r~;iy the government for their suhsisteuce from the first incomt? of the crol). The other 7,100 iuclude the paupers, that, is to say, all Negroes over and ~uider the sclf-supportii~g age, the crippled a11t1 sick in hospital, of the 113,61$ and those engaged in their care. Instead of heing nnproductive this class has now under cultivation 503 acres of corn, 790 acres of vegctahles and 1,500 acres nt cotton, lwsidea working at wood-choppiug and other indnstries. There are rel)ort.ed in the aggregate over 100,IX)O acres of cotton ~~ndercultivatiou. Of these ahout, 7,W acres are leased mid cultivated hy blacks. Soltie Negroes are managing its high au 300 or 4tM acres. t 'I'11is same year a report from Chaplain A. 8. Fiske says: Tl~is illsl)ection has isuvered ni1)et.y-live places leased 1)y wl~ites &tic1 lifty-six plats of laud worked 1)y the lrlacks for themselves, iu the tlidtricts of Nu'atchez, Vickshurg and IIelcna. In these districts L liave left but few places without esaminatiou. : Tlie experiment a.t Davis Bertd, Miss.. was of espechl interest: Late in t,he season-in Novemlwr aud Decemhyr. lbca,-the Freedmen's Departincut was restored tn full cont:wl over the camps and plantationson Presitleut's Islanil and Pal~nyra or Davis Rei~d. Both these points had heen originall,? occnpjd at t,he suggestion of General Grant, and were among the moat snvcessful cd'our eutcrprises for the Negroes. \J7ith the expansion of the lessee systern, privnte iutere3ts were :~llomerl to displace tlte interests of the Negroes wholn \ve lind esta1)lishetl there nnde~ t.he protection of the government, I~iit orders issued by General N. J. T. Ualia, upon whose syn~pathetic and intelligent co-operation my officers could always rely, restored to us t,he full ~.~)utrol of these lauds. The efforts of the freedtneii on Davis Reucl were particularly encouraging, and this property lmtler (>olonel Thomas' able direction, Iwr'ame in reality the "Negro Paradise" that General Grant had urged us to E~itc~n, pp Enton, p t Eaton, p. 157.

38 Emancipation make of it. Early iu 1863 :t syst,em was :~rlol)td for their govern~neut in wlliclr the freetilnerl took a col~sitlcrat)le 1):irt. 'l'tle Bend was di\.idctl illto districts. each having :L sheriff arid judge spl~niirletl from alnoilg the more rc:li:rhle autl intelligent colored Inen. A geueral ovc.~'si,nht of the l~roceedings was nraintaiuetl I J our ~ oflicers in charge, who co~~fir~ned or motlitled t,he tiutliugr; of thv court. The shrewtlucss of the colored jndges was very re~narknl~lc, though it was aomet,irnt.s necessary tu (lwrealir t,l~c severity of the pnni~l~~nents they pruposed. Fincs ant1 puual service ou t,he Ilo~ne Farm were the usual scutenccs in~posed. Petty theft and idleness \\.ere the most frequent c'anses (JE trouble, hut my oilicers \\'ere al)le to report that exposed properf)- wns ns safe on 1)avi. Bend as it. \voultl be ;~ngwhere. The community tlistinctively de~nor~stratc,tl the capacity of the Negro to t.ake care of himself and esercniso under honest aud com1)etent direcatio~~ the fuuctious of ;iclf-~o\.er~~~nent.* Finally came t,he Freed~nen's HLII.~RU. Its work \\.its tli~s qtlmmarized hy General Howard, it,s chief, in 1869: One year ago there were on duty in rlli6 I>~~:.eau oue tiuntlrecl and forty-ouc. (141)cornmissiol1erl oflic:ers,four llundrctl and t\\.el\-e civiliau a.gents,and tlirer huudred ant1 forty-eight (348) cslerli.;. At prcsel~t tl~ere arc tifteen (l5j commissioned officers, sevcuty-oue (71) cirili:~~~ agent+, ant1 seventy-two clerks.... The law estal)lishiug a 1iure:lu oo~nmittecl to it tlic c.011tru1 of a11 sni).jects relat,ing to refugees and freeclrneu under sn(:h regnlatious as uiight Iw prcscrihed by the heail of the Bureau and apyrovcd t)y the President. This alniost unlimited authority gnvc me great scope a ~ liberty ~ d of action, hut nt tl~r inme t,ilnt. it imposed upon nle very perplexing autl responsible duties. Legislatire, judicial and exemti\-e powers were coull~ined in 111~- c:on~lnission, re:i,aliing all the iuterests of four millions of people, scattered over avast territory, liviu~ iu the midst of another pcol'le clai~ning to be superior, and kuo\vu to Ire uut altogall~er friendly. It. was i~npossible at the ont'set to do more than lay dowu geueral principles to guide the officer? asaigued as aasist,nnt comlnissior~ers in tliesevcralstatcs The iirsr information received from these officers prceentrtl a sad l~icture of want and misery. Thongh large su~m of mouey 11:~l heen coiitriiruted 11-f KeUerOLln Xortheru peo1)le; t.liougl~ mauy 11ol)le-hearted men and women, with the spirit of true (!llrist,iau inissionaries, had engaged zealollsly in the work of relief and il~struatiou: though thc heads of the clepartn~ents in \Vitsliiugtou and ~nilitzry co~nmauders in thc field had tloue all in their power, yet the 6rcat.1uitss of thecolored people,just freedfro~n slavery, had not heen ~.eac:hetl. In every state illally thr)usalltls were fo~~ntl witl~out e~nl)loy~ne~~t, withour homes, withoot means of s~lt~sisteuce, crowdiug iuto towns aud al)out 1ni1itu.y posts, wl~erc they hoped to ti~rtl prot,ectiol~ aurl tiul~plies. The sntlden collapse of the rebelliou, niakiug elnanc~ipation :ui act,nal, universal fact, was like au ea-tlltluake. It shook and sht~tterecl the whole previously existiug social syiten It broke ul) the old industries and threatened u rcign of auarcl~j-. Xren Well-disposed and huulaue landowners were at a loss wl~ato do, or liow 60 begin the work of reorganizing society, and of reh~lildiup theil. ruiued fortllner;. Very fern had any knowledge of free labor, or any hope that their forlner slaves would serve tlieni faithfully for wages. On the other II:LIIC~, tl~e freed people were in a state uf grcat t~x'rcit,~nlent and nncert;~iuty. They could llarclly heliere that the li herty proclai~netl was real and pernlanen t. Many \\'ere afraid to remitin on the same soil that they had tilled as slaves lest L)y 'Ent.on, p. 165.

39 40 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans sorne trick they might find themselves again in bondage. Others supposed that the Government woulcl either take the ent,iresupervisi~n of their tabor and support, or divide among them t,he lands of the conquered owuers, and furnish them with all that might be necessary to begin life as independent farmers. 111 such au unsettled state of affiirs it was no ordinary task we undertook to inspire hoscile races with mutnal cor.fidence, to supply the immediate wants of the sick and starving, to restore social order, and to set in motion all the whrels of industry.... Surely our government exercised a large hcuevolence. We have under our care no less than five hundred and eighty-four thousand one hundred and sevent,y-eight (.Wl.l'iB) sick and infirm persons, for whom no provision was made lry local autl~oritieu, and who had no tileaus thernselvesof procnriug the attendance and coinforts necessary to health and life. It has not heen posxsi- 1)le to provide for the proper treatment of t,he insane. For some of this unfortunate class admission has been gained by earnest ~wrrespondence t,o state asylums, hut the majority have been of necessity retained in the bureau liosvitals, anil all that could be done for them was to sulrply thein wit,ll food and ctlothiug arid prevent them from doing injurg. For more than a year our principal aim has been to relieve the getieralcovrrnment by transferring to the civil authorities all thesedependent classes for future cure and treatment. To this end medicine and hospital stores have heen furnished as an outfit where state or municipal governments have ronsentd to assume charge of dest,jt'ute sick and disabled freedmen within their horders. Hy means of this aid, and by patient an3 persistent effort on the part of ~ny oflicers, the hospitals, at one time nuln1)ering fift,,y-six (5(i), havc heeu reduced to two (Z), and one (1) of these is about to he closed. In ;~rldition to the sick, Inany ot,hers \Yere destitute and required aid. To relieve t,l~is destit,ut,ion without elwonraging pauperism and idleness was at. a11 times a difficult problem The wonder is tiot that so many, hut that so few, have ~iectled help; that of the four nill lions of people thrown s~~ddenly upon their own resources only one iu about two hundred has heen an object of pnblie charity; ant1 nearly all \vl~o have received aid have heen persona who, by reason of age, iufirmity or disease, wo111d be objects of charity in a.ny state at auy tinie. It ~voulil have hccn irnpossiblu to reat:l, such sat,isfactory results and reduce the issue of supplier; to so siuall proportions had uot elnployn~eut been founrf for a, great inult,itude of able-hotlied Inell and wolneii, who, when first free, knew not R-here to look for remunerative labor.... They were uniformly assisted by us iu fiuding good places and in making reasonable bargains. To siwure fairne~s and inspire confidcnceon 110th sides, tllc s-ystein of written contracts was adopted. No cornpnlsion was used, hut all werr idriserl to into written agreemetits and submit them to an olfire(. of the 13ureaii for approval. The nature and obljgations of these contracts were c:rref~illy ex1)laineil to the freedmen, and :L colby filed in the ottice of tliv agent approving it; this was for their use it1 case any dittic~ilty arose Iretween then^ :~utl t.hcil. e~nployers. The lal~or ~mposetl upoil my ofticaers slid agents 11y this systelnwas very,as evineecl hy the fact tlmt in n single state not less t1i:in tifty tli(~ns:incl (50,0(JIl) snch cvutr:~cts were rlrwwti in duplica~te and Lilled "1.1 \vitl~ the names of all the parties. But the result has hsen highly wtiafactory. To the freednien, the Hurenu otfice in this way Irecame a school in which lie learned the first 1)r~ctic;tI business lessons ot life, and frotn year to year he has made rapid progress in this important trrn.nch uf education.

40 Emancipation 4 L Nor can it Ibe doubted that much litigation and strife were prevented. It could not Ibe expected that, such n vast and complicated machiuery would work without friction. Thc interests of capital and lahor very often clash in all con~rnunities. The South has not been entirely exempt from troubles of this kind. Some eml~loyers have heen dishonest and have attempted to defraud the freedmen of just wages. Some lahorei-s have heeu unfaithful and unreasonahle iu their demands. But in the great majority of cases bronph t before us for settlement, the trouhle and inisnnderstanding have arise11 from vague verbal 1)arpains and a want of specific written contracts.... In spite of all disorders that have prevailed and the misfortunes that have fallen upon many parts of the South, a good degreeof prosperity and success has alreadv been attaiurd. To the oft-repeated dander that the Negroes will not work, and are incapable of taking care of then~selves, it is a sutficient answer that theirvoluntary lahor has produced nearly all the food that suplrorted thr whole people, besides a large amount of rice, sugar and t,ohatrc:o for export, and two millions of Ixiles of cotton each year, on which was ])aid into the United States treasury during the ycars 1H(X and 1M7 a tax of wore than forty millio~~s of dollars (.$40,000,000). It is not c1:timed that this result is \~11olly due to the care autl oversight of this Burea~~, hut it is safe to say, as it has bee11 said repeatedly by int,elligent Southern white men, that without t,hc Rureau or some similar agenry, the material interests of the country would have greatly suffered, and the (;overninent woold have lost a far greater anlount than has beeu expended in its maintenance.... Of the nearly eight hundred thousand (W0,000) acrcs of farming land antl ahout five thousand (5,000) pieces of town property transferred to this Bureau by military and treasury officers, or taken up by assistaut comnlisr;ioue~~s, enough was leased to produce a revenue of nearly four hundred tho~~sand dol- lars ($-l(fl,000). Some farms were set apart in each State as homes for the des- titute and. helpless, sud a portion was cultivated by freedmen prior to its restoration.... Notice the appropriations by Congress : For thegenr erirllng July 1, $ iJ 1x1 For the year endlng.july 1, lnw.... I,LMB.:#IU (YI For the rrllef of the destltute cltizens In District of Culull1 biii ,WH) ((11 For relief of the destltute fteedmen In the same ,KKl 011 For expenses of ])ngilrg hounties LII !2l4,Wl(V For expmsea for frrnline In Southern states and transp,,rtatlon.... I,w, Fur support of hospitals *1 1x1 -- hlaklngn rottrl, recelvrd frwn r~ll sou~'ces,of... $I?,~Hi1,: Our expanditnres from the heginning (iucloding assumed nccounta of tht: "r)epartrncnt of Negro Affairs"), from January I, lm3, to Augnst 31: liifi'l, have been eleven million t\vo l~undred and forty-nine t houeand and twex ty-eigh t dollars and ten cents ($11,21!~,0'~.10). In addition to this cash expenditure the ~ul~sisteuce, medical sulrplies, qitartermaster stores, issued to the refugees and freedmen prior to July I, 1866, were furnishcd by the commissionarr, medical and quartermaster's dt:part,meut, ~ ~ accounted n d for in the current expenses of those clepartn~enfz; they were not chargcd to nor paid for hr In- officers. They amounted to two ruillion three hundred and thirty thousand seven hnndred antl eighty-eigh t dollars and sevcnt,y-two cents ($2,5:~0,58H.'i'L) in original cost ; but a large portion of these stores baing damaged and ct,urleulued na mfit for issue to troops, their real value to the Government \vas prol1ahl)- less than

41 4 2 Economic Co-operetion Among Negro Americans ollc millinn of dollars ($1,000,000). Adding their original cost to the amount exl)euded from alipropriations and other SOllTCeP, the total enpeuses of our (;orerument for refugees and freedmen to August 31,1&!3, I~ave been thirteen lnilliolls five Iiundred and seventy-nine thousand eight hundred aud sixteen tlollars and eigh ty-twocents ($13,579,81R.82). And ded~irting fifty thousaud (101- lars ($50,000) set apart as a special relief fund for all classes of destitute people in the Southern states, the real cost has been thirteen millions tnenty-nine thousand eight hundred aud sixteen dollars and eighty-two cents ($13,- 029,Slb.n"). * Th~t the economic co-operation of the freedmen under outside leadership nlttde the Freedmen's Bureau thufi possible goes witho~it. saying. Not only that, but there is much testimony as to inclepentlent co-op~ration on their part: In a few instances freedmen have combined their lneans and l~urchased fsrmil already uuder cultivation. Thejr have everywhere manifested a great desire to become landowners, a desire in the highest degree lauclal,le and hol~efnl for their futur~ civilization. The Negroes were also showing their capacity to organize labor and apply capital to it. Harry, to whorn I referred in my second report as" my faithful guide :ind attendal~t, who had done for me inore service than any white man could render," with funds of his own and some h0rrowt.d money, hought at the recent tax sales a small farm nf three hundred ancl thirteen acres for three hundred ancl five clollars. ITe was to plant sixteen aud a half acres of cottoil, t,welve and a half of corn, one and a half of potatoes. I rode through his farm ou the tenth of April, u1.y la81 day in the territory, and one-third of his crop was then in Harry lives in t,he house of the former over- bcxr, itlid delights, though not l)oastiugly, in his positii~n :IS a 1:rncl~tl proprietur. He has promi8ecl to write me, or rather to dictate a letter, giving au :recount of the 1)rogress of his crop. IIe has had ruucl~ charge of Government l)roperty, and when Captain Hooper autl (Senern1 S.i;iaton's staty was vo~nin,~ Nortli last nutuiiiu, Harry proposed to accolnpny him ; hut at last, of his own nword, gave up the project, saying, "It'll not do for all two to leave togctller." Another c'aseof c:y)acity for organization shoultl be noted. The Goveru~nen t is I,niltliug twenty-olic houses for t,he Edisto lwopl~, eightt.en feet by foluteeu, with two rooms, each ~~rovitletl with a s\vingi~lg-boarti window, and the ruof p~ojecting a little :ts a protection froin rain. The jourueylnerl carpenters are se\-entee11 colored men \\rho have fifty ceuts per day withont rations, working tcn hours. They are uutler thedirectiou of Frank Harnwell, a freedtnan, who receives twenty dollnrs a 1n011th. Rarely have I titlked wit,l~ rt more intelligent cuntractor. It was my great regret that I had uot time to visit the village of improved houses near the IIiltou Head camp, which Gener:iI 3Iitchell had este~nl~orizvd, xncl to which lie gave so much of the nuble enthusi:~snl of hie last clays. Sext as to the development of n~nnhootl. This has been shown in the first lace, in the 11revaleuttlisy)osition to scquire IantL. It (lid not al)pear upon our tiret introduction to t,hese people, and t,hey did not seeln to understand us \\-hen we used to t,rll the111 that we wanted them t.0 o\vu 1:i~i~L. I3nt. it is now a11 active desire. At. the recent tax sales, six oilt of forty-seven plautations sold \vere bought 11g th~!n~,co~uprisiny two thousand five 1itintlrt.d aucl ninety-

42 Emancipation 43 fire acres, sold for twenty-one hundred aud forty-five dollars. In other cases the Kegroes had authorized the auperintcntlent to bid for them, but t,he land was reserved by the Vuitetl St:ttes. One uf the purchases was that m:~dc hy Harry, uoted almve. The other fire were ~natle by the Negroes on tlle plantat~ionsconll)iniug the fui~ds they had saved from the sale of their pigs, chickens and eggs, and from the payments made to them for work, they then di~iding off the tra.:t peaceably among the~nselves. On one of these, where Kit, hefore mentiouctl, is the leading sl~iril, there are twenty-three tirltl hands. They have planted and are cul tiv;rting sixty-three acres of cotton, fifty of corn, six of potatoes,with as many more to 11e planted, four and a half of cowpeas, three of peanuts, and one and a Ilalf of rice. These facts are most siguilicant. The instinct for land-to have one spot on earth where a man may stand and whence DO h1~rna.n cau of right drive him-is one of the most conservative elements of our nature ; and a people who have it in any fair degree will never be u111nac1s or vagabonds.* Some velief and co~npensati~~n were given hy the act of Congress approved June 21,1866, which opened for ent,ry, by colored and white men without distinct,i~m, all the p~tl~lic lands in the stntes of Alabama, Rlissisnippi, Lonisiana, Arkansas %lid Z"loric1a. Inforination was pnbliahcd through Iny officers and agents respc,cting the location and value of these l:r~~cls, and the mode of procedure ill order to ol~tain l~osaession of thcm. Surveys were made and some assi~t~ance granted in transporting fanlilies to their ncw homes. Wont of teams and farmin:: implements, as well as opposition from their white neighbors, prevented mxny fronr taking the benefit of thie l~o~nestead act; but, abont four thousand families have faced and orereorne these ohstaoles, have acquired ho~ncs of their own aud con~~nenced work with energy, huildinp ho11.i.e~ and planting. In a few instances freedmen harecoml~iued tl~eir nleans and purchased farms already under cultivation. They hare everywl~ere rnanifest.ed a great desire to become landowners, a desire in t,he highest degree laudal~le and hopcfiil for fheir fnture civilizatiox Next to a proper religious and intellectual training, the one thing needful to the freedmen is land and a home. Wit,hout that, a high degree of civilization and moral cnlt.ure is scarcely possible. So long as lie is merely one of a herd working for hire, nud living on another's donlain, he must be dependent and destitute of manly in-.divitlnality and self-re1iance.t South Carolina appropriated last Fear $ZOO,OOO to bny land in the upper part. of the statv which has hecn sold to freedmen for 11omest.eads. Upwards of 40,miO acres of this Land have been actually sold during the year to poor men of all colors. The Goveruor says he intends this year to reconl~nend f~)r the same purpose an appropriat,ion of $40, The freedrnen are very eager for laud. The savings they have placed iu our banks, and the profits of cottou this year, are enabling them to make large purchases. In Orangeburg county, South C'ardina, hundreds of colored Inen have boligh t lands and are building and settling upon t,t~em. In a single day, in our Charleston Savings Bank, I t,ook the record of seventeen freedmen who were drawing their money to pay for farms they had been buying, generally forty or fifty acres each, paying al)out $10 per acre. I met at a cotton merchant's in that city, ten freednten who had clubbed together with t,he proceeds of their crop and bought awhule sea island plantation of sereti hundred acres. The merchant was that day procuring thcir deed. He told me that the el~t,ire Freedmen at Port Royal. pp. :10! Report of Breyet Major (:el~eral Howard, October 20,1869,)~. 1R

43 4 4 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans l~urchase price was paid in cash from the balance due t,hetn on the crop of the season. Here, then, besides supporting their families with provisions raised, these men had each. hy t,he profits of a single year t)ought a farm of seventy acres. What northern laborer could do better? I found on the islauds other clubs formit~g to do the same thing, and this in ;t season when the caterpillar had destroyed one-half their cotton. A 1eadi11~ t'otton hruker in C!h:uleet.on told me t,l\at he thongl~t nearly half the cutton on rhc islands belonged to t,he colored men. He had himself already 1% consignments for tl~ein, and the amount of his sales on their aceoi~~it had reached u\-er $:30,000. As I learned, tlre average of the freedmen's crop, or share of,arop,of Sea Tsland cotton is from three to six hni~dred pounds tmt out of the city is asettlernent of ahoutone hundred families-something like tlre N:lrry farm at washing to^^-where small homesteacla have been purt~hasetl and are being paid for; average value of each from $100 to $500. Thcsr f;nniliec; are Joyo~~sly cu1tiv:~ting their own gardens and 1)rovision grounds, :~.lso ti~rtlirlg work in the cit.~. The Rurean has erected for the111 :r conveniei~t house, now wed for nsehool and chapel. Further in the interior t,he freedrneu are I~uying or renting land and raisiug their own crop.;. A communit,y of such families, ahol~thirty lnilea ont (in South Carolina), came in, a few days since, to market their crops for the sea- I. The)- had chartered a railroad car for $140 t.he round trip, and londing it with cotton, corn, etc., exchanged the same for clothing,furuitnre, iunple~uents of huslbadry snd supplies for putting in their next crop. They came to us ou returning and begged very hard that a teacher might he seut to t,heir settle- ~ueut,, prornisiug t <~ pay all expenses. These are t,he inclic-ations of the drift of these l~eol~le towards independent home life and protit,al>le labor. hlt hvuglt the savinpw I,auk I~ew is one of the nlost rerently established, it has had tlelmsitetl o\-er $li0,1)00, of which $31,O(MJ is still t,o t,heir credit. I fillti tile following history of the Freedn~e~i's labor: The tirrt year they worked for bare sulrsistence; second year they boughl stock-mules, iinplement,s, etc.; t,hird year many rented lands; am1 now, the fourth par, large uui111)ers are prepared t,o bny. This is the record of the most industrious, ot.l~ers are following at a slower pwe. 111 t,llis procaesw ditlir;t~ltics h:tve Iwen enconntered-low wages, fraud, ill tre:~t,nlent. etc., sonle Ile- I - ~ I I I ~ diwo~~ragetl, I I ~ IJII t the mujority : L w detcrnli~~ed to rise. As illnsl rat,ions : Several freedtnen in Houston county 11:lve I~oltght. from 1IK) to t3ki acrrzof lal~d ench. One luau is uow plautiug for rift'y I)ales of cutt,on. A colored coillpany (~.:~lled Peter Walker's) own l,5ih) acres. Two 1)rothera (\i' saved ill the II:III~ $t$l(~ aucl with it ohtained a title to 1,RIU acres, having credit for the bal- :Illce, aud Imth are now Lnilding 1lour;ea and prey:tring to lnalre a crop wl~icl~ tl~ey especlt will clear off their whole clel)t. In A~neric~~s fr~lly oue hnudretl huuses and lots beloup to the colored people.* Last 160 Negroes banded together, rhvst. one of the s~nartrrt of their IIIII~I~:I~~ :LS s~iperinte~~tlent and coul11lr.ncet1 work. Now they show yo11 with pride 2511 acres of rice,250 :lc!res of corn, llearly the same amurunt of pe:l.s(i,ea~~a we should call them), 1)esides many acres of s~naller vro1)s. Thi~ joii~t A ~ W % c~mpany is working not ouly with energy I~ut with pcrfect I~annony. Thus it was that t h Negro ~ emerged to i sen11)lancr uf econon~ic frretlom only to be mrt 11y the Black Codrs am1 politicnl rc~rol~~tio~~. We \\ ill now turn back to the alternate way iu whicli both tl~e slave J. W. hllurd: Lt2ttrrs from the South.ctc., pp. 5, (1, 10, 15 nud 1!1.

44 Migration 4 5 and the freedlnnn sought a tmmtler clls~~ce to live and develop, nalnelg, migration. Section 8. Migration As early as 1788 the Negro IJnion (11 Newport, R. I., wrote to the free Africa11 Society of Philatlelphia. prol~osing :I. gclneral exotlusof Kegrow to Africa. TO this the Free Africa.n Socint,y soberly replieti: "With regard to the ilnn~i~txtion to Africa you r~lention. we have at prcsellt but litt,le t'o c!orntnu~~ica.t,n nit that head, apl~rel~ending every pious III:III is a, gucd citizen of tl~e wllc~le world." Hut the desire to brtter their conditic~ii by going t,o some other coui~try hacl taken root aulotlp the best New Euglar~d Negrcies. Tlie Cubes, Tor instm~ce, Jol111 and P:iul, petitio~~ntl for the rigllt t.o ~ote in 1780, and in 1816 we fi~ld t,h:bt, l'a.111 Cuffe, the yollnger, who wa,s :L 111t-rchant tletwe:,~~ A~ncrica. and Xfrira, had st:~rtrd to t,ake acmltrny to Africa,. Thus nil e:~.rly att,enil~t at. African It was c'o~~ctuc*(cd by E':LII~ (~'liflc, who wa.s 11or11 in NCW Bedford, hiass., I J ~ :LII Africx~r f;rt,her %lid an 11i(liii!11110tl1cr. He h:~d rise11 fro111 al,ject poverty to wealth ;~iicl respectability, nut1 was 1:~ryely cugayed ill navigatio~i. He hekred tl~:~t ouly in Afric-a cc,~~id. his 11rople fiutl civil and religionn 1il)el.t~. AL acloat to 11ii11self of four t~honsand dollars, at~d in his o\vu vessel, 11e took out from Thstou a colony of tli irt.y-eight parsolts, which la11dec.l nt Sirrra I,eoi~r, nncl inight hare resulted iu so1n~thin p'ruiaue~lt ant1 v:~lnahle but for the death of (:use in thc folloni~~g year, and t,lie cxcliisiou of Ainerivau ressrls from Hritish colonies. The ilext, yc?:ur the (:c~loiiization Sociel y I~egaiits work. The first iulporta.nt niovc~~tent of tlle C:oloniz:~tirm Society was t,o aen(1 out, oil borrowd nioney, Sal~inel J. ~Iilla ail11 Eltenc~zcr Rurgeds to select a suital~le site for :L colony. They sailed Noveinber 16, 1817, R I I ~ itrrived t,l~e 3tl of the followiug R1:rrch. Tlluy p:ussetl tlo\v~i theco:~st some one hundred :mrl t,\rcuty miles tu the islaud Slierl~rv, at the n~r)~~t,l~ of ;L river of the stme u:lme. Here tlic:y fttuntl a smnll hut l)roal,erous cc~lony l~ntle? t,he tlirec:t,ion of John Kizzel, \~lio 1r:ttl Iriiilt :i church 011 the islal~tl and \\-as prenclling to the peoplc. Iiizzel hcl Iwru carried from Africa \\-he11 a cliilcl utid sold its a $lave ill Rcmth C'arolin:~, Ilut liatl joined the Briti~h during the Revolutiotiary WILY, and :~t its close had sailed from Nova Scotia ~vith a coli1l)niiy of colored lwol~le to resiclv iu hfric-a.6 The tirst tell years \I-it,urssrtd the struggles of it no1)le halid of coiured peolile, who col~glit a new Iioiut: on the edge ol a cwntine~it given over to tl~e idolatry of the lieatheu. The fntids of t,lie Society were not as ln,rge as the nature :~nd $cope of the work tleinnnded. E~iiigrants \vent slowly, not al-eragiiig tilore th:tn li(~ lwr anu\~~u-ouly 1.W ill ten years: 11nt the arerape from the tirst of ttanu:rry, 1848, to the l ;~t of I)ecei~~l)er, 1852, was 5W yearly; and, iu t,he siuglr year of 1863, ihl emigrnuta arrived at hionrori:~. In the popitlittiou of hlonrovi:~, nud Cape Palums h;td reached al~out 8,OUO.., lhe ('olouizatioi~ Hociet,y foniid Inany eminent Kegroes to lir.111 theiii :llld Lil~eria wa,s in it,* 1-ery for~ntlatic~i~ ail esati~l~le of Xegro c!o-operation. One \\-as htt Cwcy, who was 11ori1 a. slave ill Ti! yiuin., n\,ont, His father wab :L Baptist. In 1804 Lo~t rctnnved to Ricliinond, where he worked iu a to-

45 46 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans I~awo factory and froin all acconnts wtts very profligate and wicked. Iu IY07, Ijeing converted,he joi~~ed the first Baptiat C'hl~rch,learned to read, made rapid sdv:tncelnet~t as a scholar, aud was shr~rtly afterwards license11 to 1)renc'h..ifter purchasing his family, in 1813, he organized, in the African hiis- ;iouary Society, the first misai~~nnry soriet,y in the country, and u'it'hin fitre years raised $700 for African missions. Tl~at 1,ott Carey was evide~ltly a mau of sllperior illtellect and force of char- ;t,.ter is to bc evidenced from the fact that his ~e:~rlin# took n wide raugefro~l~ l)olitic;~l economy, ill Adam Smith's \Veal t,h of Nat,il~l~s, to the voyage of t 'aptaiu (:oak. That he was a worker as well as a prewher is true, for when hc decided l,o 81) to.\fric:a his employers oiferetl to raise his sali~ry from $800 to $I,OOU il year. Re~nemher that this was over eighty years ago. Carey was not seclwed by bur11 a flattering offer, for he w:~s determined. His last sermon in the old First Baptist C'hurch it1 Kirll~uond ~nunt have )wen escecxtlingly pomerhil, for it \%-as vo~~ll):~)'etl hy au eye witn~sn, a residrnt of anutlrer stal'e, to the hurning, elo- (1uent peals of c:eorge \\'hitetield, lhllcy hiill as 11c stauds there in that I~istoric huildin# riugiiig the changes on the \vord "freely," depicting the willinplcss with which he was ready to give np his life for i;cr~ice in Africa. He, as you may readily know, was the leader of the pioneer colony to Lil,eria,!\-here he :~rri\-ed eveu before the agent. of the C'olouizatiolt Society. In Ilis new home his abilities were rt.(v~guized, for he w:lr n~atle vire goverlror :III(I l~ecan~t? #overnor, in fnrt, while (:orernor Ashinun was 811seut from the vvlony ill this co~iutry. Carey did not. allow I~is pusition to twtrny the callse ot' his people, for he [lid uot 11etiit;tte t,o expose the tloplieity of the (.'olonizatinu Society iturl even to clef)- their auth~)rity, would seem, ill t,he intc~redts of tl~e l~eople. While c:~sting caltxiclg~s to tlefend the colonists against. the natives ill IH'L8, the :~vriclcutal upsettil~y of a candle c.anse(l au explosion that resulted in hia de:tth. (':trey is described :is a typival Negro, six feet in height, of massive antlerect f;.:~me, with the sinews of a Titan. He h:rd a square fwe, keen eyes ant1 a grave rnountenallcne. IIic n~orelnents wtrre ~~ie;~suretl ; i11 short, 1)e 11:irl all the \:c:~ri~~gs ant1 t1if;nir.y of ii 1)rincc. of the 1)loocl. * r, 111e first Nope collegc gr;, also we~rto 1,iheria:.John B~IIWII 1<11+~\~111~11-1 \\.>IS horn in IiLW Port A+~~tt~~~iu ill the isla~id of.j;~umi(.nof ;I ('reole mother. \TThen 8 years old 11e was put nt sc'hool in Quel)er. Hir father n~eanwhile wnle to the United Stat,es mtl married in the District of Alaine. Mrs. Russwurm, Irue wife that she was, on learniug tile rrlittiouship, insisted t,hat John Brown (as 11ithert.o Ile had beeu rallecl) should be scut for mltl slioulcl theuccfort~li be oue ut' the family. Through his owu exertions, with aotne help from others, he tvas at length enahled to enter college autl to ~wtuplete the usual course. It 6h0111d be remembered, to t,he credit of his fell,,\~ studeuts in Hrun;wicli, that pcmli:~r as liis pr~sition \vas among them, t,hey were carelrll to void everyt,l~ing that might lend to make th:~t, l)oriiti~)ll ~~iple;~:~t. From college he \vent to Sew York :~ud erlitetl au abolition paper. This (lid not last long. HI! wron Ixcau~e iutercstetl in the r~~lot~iz;itiou <:;\use, aud engaged iu the srrviee of the society he went to Africa :IS auperiutender~t of public sc!llools in Liberia, aud engaged in ~uercantile 1)ursuits in AIonrovia. From 1830 to 1834 he acted as eolonial sccwtary, superin- (!runiwell, 111 The Negro Church,

46 Migration 47 tendjllg at, the same tilne rtlitiug with tle~:itlrd allility the Lihc,rir* Hevrclrl. In 1$?6 he was appointed Go\-eruor of the Maryland Colony at Cape Palmar. and so coutinued uutil his death in Wilh \vh:rt fidelity and allility he disrl~arged the duties of this rcsponsil~lr post may be gatherecl fro111 the following renmrks of Mr. La.trolre, at the time tl~e presiclcnt of the Rfarylautl Colonization Society. He was atltlrersing the Hoard of nitlnapera: "Noue knew hettcr," he said, "or so well ;LS the lioa,rti under what daily reslio~~siliilities Governor Russwur~n's life ill Africa mns l~asserl, and how conscientil~usly he discharged them; how, at lreriuds v.-hell tl~c vrrjr existence of the tl~el~ infant colouy depeutletl upon its relation* with surrc~~uirliug (rilles of exciletl natives, l~is coolness ant1 admirable jurlg~ne~~t ohviatccl or averted ilnpeildilig perils; ho\v, \vhcu tlrr al~tl~orit,~- nud dignity ot the colonial goverulneilt were at stake iu lamei1ta1,le controveraicis with civilized and angry white men, tl~e calm tlccoru~n of his col~rluct hrough t eveu his opponeu ts to his aide ; how, popu1:w ol:lu~or alnollg the colo~lists calling upon him 21s a judge to disregard the forms of law atltl sawitice of oflentling i~~tlivid~~ala in the :rlrsencsc. of 1eg:11 proof, he reh~~ked the angry 111u1titndr 1,) the ster~~ i~~tccritj- oc his co~~tlurt ; and how, when OII his visit to I3altiu1ow in lsis he was th:~nl;etl l,erso~~:rll)- 11)- the ~nemhns of tllr? l~oarcl, he tlcp~wtntc!d the prniec. hc'sto\~-ctl i111ol1 hi111 for the performm~cc of his tl~~ty, :I nd imprcssetl :rll who -;:1\\- hi 111 wi tli the ~n~)dr,+t rnanli~less of his c.11:tracter and his ulr~st e~cellent i~ud ~YI~I~~I-JNP Iwrri~lg." * Most of the thinking Negroes of the U~~itetl Stat,es were, ho\vever. opposeel to ernig~,ation t,o Africn. Bishop Allell \vrot,e n strong letter ~ga~inst it in 18'27 to tl~e F~~ertEnrctr's.lout~nc(l. In the first Negro conve~~ticil~ I~vld a.t Philn.rlelpl~in in 1831, The qt~estior: of e~nigr:~tion to ('n~~ada West, aft+.). nil esliansti\-e tliscusrivn which conlinued cluriug the two days of tlie con\-en tin~l'sessious, was recolrrmended as a measure of relief agaiust the persecut,iol~ from whi1:11 the coloretl A~neriran suffered ill Inmy places ill t11e Nnrth. Strong resolutions against the ~ n~eiio~n ~.!c>lonjzatioii Society were atlopted. The formstiou of x llareut moiety with anailiaries in t,he different localities represented iu the cx~ilveiition, for t,he purpose of raising Inc1ne.v t,o defra.y the ohjeot of purc*hasing a coloiiy ill the pruvince of upper C'auacla, aud Inore definite il~for~nation, having beeu effected, the coi~reutiou adjouruetl to rear~einl~le on tllc first Monday in.june, 1831, dnring wllir'h time the order of tlle convent.iou respectiug the org:~uizatiou of the a11xili:lry soc'iet.ies had been carried illto operation. t Again at n second convel~tion in The questiuuesoiting the greateat intcxst was one whicl~ prol~md the pluchase of other 1:~1~ls for settlemeut iu Cauads; for NIC, ;tcres of land had alrcad~ beell eecuretl, two tl~ousancl ii~diriduals had left the soil of their Ijirth, crossetl the line and laid tlle fouudatiou for a structure ml~iclr promisetl an asylum for the colored population of the United States. They 13 ad already erected t\vo hundred log 1111uses and tire hundred acres of land had I~een I,rougl~t i~nder cllltivation. Hut hostility to the settle~nent of the Segro in tl~at iectiou had her11 manifested by C'auadiaus, marly of w11o1i1 would sell no land tu the h'e- Rro. This msy explain the hesitation of t,he cc1111-ention anel the ap11ointr:leilt of an agent, whose dut,y it was to make furtl~er investigation a~itl report to t,lle subsequent convention. 'Atl~nta L~nlrersiiy Publlcn~tlun. No. 6,1111. $2-8. f :twrrknu Nrgm Academy, occaslont~l p;apers, No, 9, g. 0.

47 4 8 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Opposition to the colonization move~uent was etnphnsized 1,y a strong protest against any appropriation hy Congress in behalf of the Arnerica11 C!olonizatiou Society. Abolition of slavery in t,he l)ist,rict of C'olnmhia was also nrged at the same cnnvent.ion. This was one year hefore the orgauiestion of the American Ant,i-Slavery Society. A cc~nvrntion at Rochester, N. Y., in 1853 protiou~~cnd against rmigra. tion. Unt those who saw only in en1ipr;~tion the solutioll of the evils with which they were heset,, immediately called another convention to cousitler and tlecide upon the subject of emigration from the I:nited States. According to the call, no oue was admitted t,o t,he convention who wol~ltl inbrotlu(-e the sohject ru~igration t.o ally part of tlla eastern hemislrhere, aucl opponents of e~niyration were to 1x exclr~detl. Bishop Holly of Hayti, writ,es: '' The convention was accordingly held. 'pile Rev. \Villi:~n~ Mnuroe was president, the Rt. Kev. (William) Pad (Lninn, vie-e- 1)rc;iident. Dr. Ihlaney, cl~nirtnan of the husiness committee, ant1 I was the secretary "'Phe~~e were t.11ree parties in tlli~t emigrat.ion couve~ltion,ra~lped accorrling to the foreign fields they preferred to emigrnlr t,o. Dr. 1)elaney headed t,l,e party that desired to go to tlie X'igrr Vallcy in Africa, \Vhitfield the 1,arty which preferred to go to Central Auteric::~, :~nd Holly the party which 1weferret1 to go t,o Hayti. "All these parties were recognized sutl cmhracetl by the eonrentio~~. Dr. Delaney wa* given a comulission to go to Africa, in thct Niger Valley, 7\-11itfield to go to Centvxl A1nerict>h, and Holly to lhyti, to enter into negotit~t,ious wit,l~ tlre authorities of these vario~rs countries for Negro emigrants aud to relwrt to fubure conventions. IIolly was the first to execute his ~nission, going rl~nvn to Hayti in lti56, when 1)eenterrtl into relations with t,l~ehiinister of tlre [uterior, the fnther of thc latc I're~itlrnt llypl~wlite,alicl by Iiim was p;ene~l+ed to T31nl)eror Fanstin I. The next en~iyration convention WRS held at Chal~hanl. Cmnda West, in 1866, when t.1~ report 1111 Hay ti wa6 ~nade. Dr. Delaney went off on his ulissiou t,o tlre Ni~cr Valley, Africa, ria 15ugl:~ncin There he cwnc:lutlc.ll :L treat,p aiguerl I.)$ hinlsrlf and eight Irillgs, ~~ffrl.illy inducements for Negro emipra~lts t,o their trrritoriw. \Tliitfic.ltl \vel,t tu ('aliforuia, intenrlin% t11 go latcr from tsl~enc.t. to ('e:~trnl.\lueric:~, lmt died iu San Frnnrisco befort, lle conlrl do so. h1e:inwhile (J:~~riea) Hed1)ath \vent tu IIsyti as a.toll ~w~1ist ;~ft,er the 1I:~rl)er's 3'err.v raid, sntl tl~u fint fruits of Holly';; nlissilrir by Ireiug kippoiuted Hsytiau C'ontulissi41ner of I<n~igratiou in the 1Tuitccl Statex hy the Iiaytian Governlneut, Irut witlr the express injun(:t,iou that Rev. Holly should be rsllotl tcl co-opente witlr him. 011 Retipath's arrival ill tlw I'i~ited Statra, he tcude~ed Rev. Holly a conlmission from the Hsytisn (;ovrrun~ent:~t $1,0110 per :~ and tri~reling expellsei; to ellpage elr~igral~ts to go tu Hayti. The first shiplond of cmigrauts!vent from P11il:~tlelphi:l in 1,SCl. "xot no re thim one-third of t.he 'l,cn)o eulipr:~nts to II;~;vti receivetl through this nlo\.cnle~~t pertnanrntly al\ideti there. They lno\.cd to he ncitl~er il~tellec*t~~:tll,v, industrially nor fiuaurixlly prepare11 to untlerlnke to wriui; fro111 the soil the riches that it is reittly to yic.ltl lip t,o snch :I.S,sI~all Ire thus pw1); nor are the Governmtant sud intluentiul iudivitlual;; sutfic*i(~ntly il~strnctcd in soc~ial, iud11strii~1 amd fiua~lcial yrol~le~un which uow govern the \\.orl(l, to turn tu lwofi tal)le use willing workc~.s anlong t11c lalroring CI:LS&. "'l'lie (~'ivil war 11ut a stop to tl~e A2friran rrnigri~tioilrroject hy I);. Ilrlz~ney

48 The place wlrere its h.-iness is to Ile trana:wtetl i.; at Dunlap, in the ctmnty of RLorr~s, ntate of Kansas. I v The term for which this corporation is to exist is aft^ ye:trs. T" The nnrnher of directors or trustees of this corpor:ltion shall not be more than thirteen t Henry Atlalns stnrtrtl a11 even greater movrlurnt in Louisi~na. He said tu the te rorn~nittee : In 1870, I helieve itwas,nr abont that gear,&fter I lratl left tile arn~y-1 \veut in to the army in ItW, and calrle out, t.lre last of 1869-and went right hack ho111~ agsiu, where I went froin, Sllreveport; I elllisted thwe, and \relrt Ixrcl; there. I eulistecl ill the regular army, aid then I went haclc after I 11ad come OII~, of the arnly. After we had coule ont a pat.cel of we men that was in the artiry and other ~nen t,hor~ghthat. the wa\- our people had heen trent,ed during the t,imc t,liat wc were in service-we hrartl so 1n11c11 talk of how they hntl Ilccn treated sucl oppressed so ~noch and thrrr was no help for it-that ca~isetl me to go into the arnly at first, the way our pr~rple was opposed. Thew was so mwh going on tlrat I went ofs :~nd left it; when 1 ramc bnck it was atill going 011, part of it, not quite so b:ui as at first,. So a pa~rel of us got tt~gctl~cr and said t11:~t we uo~ild organize ourselves into a committee and look into aftairs Wltl see the true condition of our race, ~,II see whether it wss possihlc we corrltl stay uilder a people who had held 11s under 11o11d:~ge or not. Then \ye did so ant1 organized a coninlittee. Rome of the members of the corniriittee was orlered Iiy t.he c:ommittee to go iut.o every stkrte iu tlic Soutl~ where we hhd heen slaves there, and post one anot,her fro111 time to time shout thc true con- 1iiti011 of our race! and r~othing Imt tlre tr~~th. 'Anler~can Negro A(%drnr).: Occc~slonal gltpers,no.!i, pp f Nrgru Eloc\us from thr Southern States, Vo1. 8, gp. :Wi-M,3rd part.

49 50 Economic Go-operation Among Negro Americans rrhrll psmt: increasing outrages. This organizatiolr appealed to tile presitlent and Congress in Spptmnber, By 1877, however, ttie orgatrizat~on lost hopes of peace aud justice in the South. we fuul1d ourjelves in soeh condit'ion that we looked around and we seed tjlat, there WRS 110 way on earth, it seemed, that we conlcl better onr co~lclition there, anrl \ye tliscnssed t'hat thoroughly ill otlr organization along in hlay. \Ve saitl t,llat t,he whole Horlth-every state iu the Hont,h-had got into the halltls of the very men that held asslaves-from one thing tonnother-aud we t.houpht that the men that held ns slaves was holdiug the reins of governlnent over oor heads in e1.el.y reqwct alurost, even t.he c!onr;talrle nl) to the governor. We felt we had altnost as well be slave3 under these men. 111 regard to the whole matter that was tliscnsicd, it cnrne up iu e\-ery c'ollncil. Then we said t,here was no hope for 11s and me h:ul better go \Ye had several organizations; t,here were mauy orgallizations; I c:an't tell yon how ni~ny in~migratiou associatio~ts, and so fo~th, all springing out of our c~olonization cwuncil. \Yc had a large ~neeting, sr~~nc five thousautl 1)eople ~rreseut, and made l~ublic speeches in 1877 on immigration. Tlir cotlvention met April 17, 1870, and it de~lared: The fiat to go forth is irresistible. The c.ou.ita~:tly recnrring, nay, chver present, fe;~r 1vhic:h h:~rmts the minds of thwe our people in t,he tnrbulent paridlies of t,hr state is, that slnyery in t,be horril)le forlri of jwonagr is approaching; tlint the ;~vowetl tlisposition of the men non- in IJO\VeT is tt) redl1r.e the 1al)orer and his interest, to t,he rninjm~lm of ;rrlvantages as freemen and to al).wiolntel~none as c+itizens, 1i:rs l)rodl~ced so n1)solnte a fe:w that iu many c:lses it has 1)ecolne a panic It is flight from present slrberings and from the \\ ru11p5 to come. The committee Antls that tl~is rsodns owes ik effwtivenrrs to roc:iety orgauiz:ltions among p1;mtatiou lalmrerr; tirat it began with the persecutions aud the1)olitical niol)s of theyears Iti74aucl lxt,i,anri was organized asa cdouizstiou council in At~gust,, IX74, for enligratioll. Thi~ ol'gallieation hegiuuiug in C'acldo Parish, spread rnlritlly from 1mrial1 t.1) parish until it had pertl~ratetl the st;rte, and in rcctions lmrticularly Irlro\x-n as the cott,on belt, where lawlessuess and outrnges upou hlack lwrsouz :we most f rcqueut, the society 11a.s lwen lnoat 2.1. tire. Today this orqanizatiurl, as yollr l'onllllittc~t~ I1:l.s deliuitelj lear~led, nunllwrs 011 it5 rolls!v9,sllo naulies of IIlen,\volnrn and chiltlren 0~t.r t~vclvc year* uf ag?, iu Lor~isia~la, h-ortt~weslvrn l'cxas,.\rlunsas, Alissi<sippi %n(l Alat):~tru~; G!I$.MIO of thcse are rrpreuenletl iu the different parishes of this state. The cohc';iveness of this organizatiol~ in its sec.~.e<:y i ~ ~uan:~genie~ d t being entirely conuiittetl to the pl:rntat,ion lnlwrerl: and their dirw:t represeutalivc;i, has secured its l)otenc:y. 'l'he rcl)resentati\-e political leader wss lleithpr intrwte<l with nor inforl~iect uf its existence. Yem by ycsr since lsi4 t,he organization, as c~rc:roi~chtneut after etlvroac'hment w:is ruade on the rights of the colored pcopie, Krew and strengthened, %MI now when reduced to virtllal peoil:lge ant1 the thrc.atcnet1 tlej~rivatioa of all ri~l~ts :is freemen aud cibiacus is ilnluilleut, the exodus Ilas elirnetl and its corlscqncnccs are manifest.* Xytual tnorempn t of iunmiglwrl ts began I Alnhanlir the inn\ement tool; sl~ap in a labor conrention. at Mont~omery in 1872, which I~stet~ed to n report from it11 agent sent to Kansas. The comlnlttee on labor all([ wages declared :

50 Migration 5 1 It will he seen from thc al)ovc figures that the lahorer is rompelled to pay, ~n rouud nu!nl)rrs,40 per vent for all the capital 1)orrowed. \Ye sul~mit this Ir usury; the capitalist (nl~t~rgiug just five times the lawful interest: Recepitulatlon of a Laborer's Account Totul froul all sourcrs... PJn7 :+I Total outlay Oki.20 Out of this an~ouut ($, t>l~e laborer muht clothe himself and family, feed the littlrj ones, and furuish ~nedical atkendance for the same. IIcuce his inability to arrumulate propert)-. Mr. hlckic1 then introduced t,hc following resolution, which W:LS adopted : Whereas, the report of thc committee on labor anti wages shows a sac1 conditiou of affairs anlongst t,he cololwl citizens of Alabama, owing in a great, part to the fact that we are lanclless: Therefore, 13e it resolvcd,thut thin convention memorialize the Coupress of the United States ti) lrasa tl~e I~ill uow lwncling hefore that hc~noral>le Imdy! known as "A bill to incorporate the I"ree~Jureu7s Homestead (~'o~npally," tl~i~~kiilg as we do that anch a conlpany vi~~~~ltl du II~IL(?II go~d I)>- i~ssiiting many poor men to o11- tail1 homes, 1111.rehy rcnderiup l~im :L frev aud intlepeuilcnt citizen.* We hare, tlrerefore, orgauized an emigration associstion to give to them authority t,o t,ake stel)* as will Irest effect the earlv settlenleut of :L colony of colorctl knnilies in the far West, which, in case of success, Intry he a nucleus aro~luii which many t,housa~rds of the hard-workiug colored fa~nilieh of Alal>au~a may build for tl~e~i~selvea happy 11omas.t Lust.July we held a state conference; that is,i nwan the delegates,of whon~ 1 was one. This confereuce was held in the city of I-Iouston for the purpose of consulting the I~est steps to be takeu with regard to the migration of colored people, and also to their futnre elevation. I had the honor of bei~ig elected ma of the con~inissiouers on migralioi~ from the sixth Cougressional district,. I have heen trarrliug over the eonuties of my di.strict, ever diuce, lecturii~g to my peq)le. Since last July I have gone thrungh the following couutiw, end received the followiug amounts from each co~uutp : Hays euuut,y, $4.4~: (!aldwell connty, $l6.511; Custlalupe county, $fi.w; Conlel cnount,y, $3.30; Rlanco coonty,y;l.w; Kentlxll county-, $275; ICerr county,?$.5.5; Wilson county, $M5; (4ouzales rounty, $14.35; I)r\lTit,t couuty, $'!i.w; Victoria county, $21.20; Goliatl conut,y, $13.40, the total amounting to $ In many couu ties I have walked from thirty t,o forty miles, because the pmple were so poor they could not help me.$ North Carolinti had a n~overnent,in 1878: We, the untlersiguecl colored people of the second Congressional district of North Carolina, hav~ng labored hard for several years, under disadvantages over u h~eh we had uo control, to elevate onrselves to a higher plane of ('histian c~vilization; and, whereas, our progress has been ao retarded as to nearly Negro Exodus from Southern States, Vol. 8, p. 140,:irrl part. +Negro Exodus from Southern Stntes, Vol. 8,211~1 pnrt, p, 401. t Negro Exodus from Soutl~rrn States, Vul. 7, pp. 4SJ.

51 5 2 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans nullify all our efforts, after dispassionate nnd calm consideration, our delihep :~te convic:tlon is, that etnigrat.ion is the oiily way in which we can elevate or~rselves to a higher plane of t,rue citizcnsl~ig.~ This wafi signed by 168 N~groes. Soutl~ Caroliuii had a Charleston Colored Westeru Elnigr~tiw Society, which rntlorsed the N:~~l~vill~ co~lvention ill Fillally 8.11 tl~e 111ovement.s culminated ill a great conventio~~ at hta~sl~rillr. Trnii., M:ty 6-9, Here were 139 rrpresrli6atives fro~~l f!.la.halll:b, AI.~~IIIS:LS.(~~O~~~R. IlIil~ois, India~m, I<~I~Rws, Iit?l~t,~~cky, I,~~uixia~~w., Minnesota, Alississippi, Misso~iri, Nebtxska,, Ohio, Oregon, I'e~~~lsylvai~ia., South C'~.I~~~IIR. Te~i~~rssre, Texiifi, Virginia and t.11~ 1)istrictof Colu~nbia.. Many l~ot,ecl Negro lra,ders were there: :L forlner lie~~ter~ni~t,-gover~ior of Lonisin.u:~, a future bisl~op, illid [l~iited St;t,tes l)ay1naster, ant1 sac11 men a,s (3ihbs of Arlia~isa.~, Plrdgrr R I I ~ R. R. Wright of (+eorgi:i., Council of -4la.l)a11ra, 1i11os c~f I~itlixnil~ T. W, Hrncleuso~l of Knnsa,s, T.ewis of Lot~isia~~ii,, L3.11~11 of Missis~i~~~~i. Loudi~i of Oliio. Yt.ill tif Peli~~sylvania., R,&itlry of Soot11 Csrolin:~, Nurrur :LII(~ N;q)ier of Tr~rnrssee, Cuney of 'l'csas, a ~ Crou~wrll ~ d of the 1)istrict of Ci~lu~nl~ia,. This, the most r~pr~.;rntst,irr Nrgm ronvr~ihion t3ver assembled in tl~e Soutli, said in its a.titlres.;:

52 Migration 5 3 They should leave home well prepared witah certain knowledge of localities to which they intend to more; money enough to pay their passage and enable them to begin life in their new homes with prospect of ultimate success.* On the xort,hern side both Negroes R I I ~ whit,es organized iminigration aid societie~. Some of them simply spent money furnished by ot,t>ers. Others mere more extensive organizations. In Indianapolis, for imtituce : On Wednesday evening., December 3, 1879, a n~eeti~ig was held in the lecture room of +,Ire Second Bspti~t Church to organize a relief society to care for the colored elnigrants, as we learned that some of them wcre on their way here from North Carolina, and that they would arrive here destitute. After t,he preliminary organizat,iou of the meeting, the ohject of the same being stated, on motion it was voted that a society he organized tonight for the purpose of helping and caring for those people when they arrirc here, nin~iliir to a d in co-operation with the relief societ,y whicl~ was organized at the A. M. E. CII 11r1*11, Novenl1)er 94.t..... This committee collectrtl $29G.86. 'Fwo similar societies worked in St. Lonib: The c.olnretl inen of this city, who 11:ire been active in the orgai1iz:rtion of the a'l~ove nan~ed society to assist the colored immigrants from the South in finding local hahitation iu the rich antigrowing West,havejustperfectcd that orgauiaatiou, tvith the ahove rla~ued as president, secretary, treasurer and direct~~rs. Thc*e names int:lude some of the leading colored men of the plaoc and all advisory tro:~rd! to he cornposed of some of the most, public-spirited and heurvdent of our ritizena, ant1 these are :t guaranty to all who know them of perfet8t good faith, integrity atid trust\vort.hiaess in the distril)ution of such funds a9 may I)e contributed t,o then1 for the purposes indicated. Thc C'olorcd Refug~c. lielief Board cuinn~~tttre Found 2,000 emigrailts half clad, withont food or means, filling the colored churc.l~es, hajl+ st~d honsez, and I~egau at once an active canvassfor funds,and for weeks lihersl hands aclrtii~~isterstl to tl~eir evc3ry want, and tmxea of clothing autl baskets of food were given \rit.hout stint,; but still they c:tme upon every Ivmt from the lower biississippi, until the movement assnnled stupendous proportions, and the original c.ou~mit.tec felt the necessity of ext,euding their apl~eal. hlretdy the committee, through fiolivitatious, have issued.50,0m1 rations :mtl clotl~ing and trsn6l)ortatiou for 4,004 persons. The ~;wo~~cl society rai..;ed $:3,311.4Y. Thct r~,sult of t,his great x~~c~velnei~t was thus reported: Ihring the tir~t year in Jiausas the freedmen entered upon YO,Oc)O acres of land aud plowecl and fitted for grain-growing 3,000 ilcre6. They built ROO cal)ins and dugouts, all11 :~cc:umulatecl $30,000. In the month of Feh~mary, IMSII,.Tl~hn M. Brown, Esq., general superiuteudent of the 17rccdmen'* Relief.ks.+i~ciation, read an interesting report before the Association, from which the followiup extr.zc?t is taken: The great exodus of the colored lwople frorn the South t)epa~~ about the lirst of Pel)ruary, Hy the first of April 1,:XKI refugees had gathered around Wyandr~tte, Kans. Jfaug of them were in a suffering condition. It was then - 'Kegro Exodus from Southern State,. Vol. R, 2nd part, gp t N ~~IYI Exodus from the Bouthern States, Vol. 7, p

53 54 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans that the Kansas Relief Association came into existence for the purpose of helping the most needy among the refugees from the Southern states. IJp b date about60,000 refugees have come to the state of Kansas to live. Nearly ~,m of them were in a destitute condition when they arrived, and have been helped by our association. We have received to date $68,000 for the relief of the refugees. Ahout 5,000 of those who have come to Kansas have gone to other states to live, leaving about 55,000 yet in Kansas. About 30,OWJ of that number have settledin the country, sdme of them on lands of their own or rented lands; others have hired out to the farmers, leaving about W,000 in and around the different cities and towns of Kansas.* The census shows the following Negroes in Kansas: IWXI RZT IWO... 17, ,IVi 18M... 49,710 IW... 68,a)3 Since 1880 immigration to the North li'as gone on steadily, but there has been no large co-operatire movement. Part 3. Types of Co-operation Section 9. The Church The development of the Negro American has been as follows (see disgrarn): The Christim Church did but lit'tle to convert the slaves fro111 their Obeah worship a ~ primitive ~ d religion until the establishment of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts in 1702; this society and the rising Methodists a,nd Baptists rapidly brought the body of slaves into nominal communion with the Christian Church. No sooner, however, did they nppea,r ill the Church thm discrimination bega,~ to he practiced whict~ the free Negroes of tl~e North refused to accept. They, therefore, withdrew illto the African Methodist and Zion Methodist Churches. The Baptists eve11 among t,he shves ea.rly had their ~epa~rate cliurches, a'ncl t,hesa churrhes in the North began to federate about, Iri 1871 the hiet,hotlist Church, Sout,h, set aside their colored ine~nbers into the Colored Methodist Episcopal Churah, and the other Southcrn churches drove their menlbers ill to the other colored churches. The remaining Northern denominatiolls retained their Negro members. but orgai~ized thcni for the most part into separate congregations. Practically, then, the seveu-eighths of the whole Negro population is included in its own self-sustaining, self-governing c-l~urch bodies. Nemly 41 of the other aigh th is eco~io~nicallg autonon~oi~s a very hrge degree. Consequently H. study of economic co-operation among Negroes must. begin with the Cl~urch group. 'l'he most compact and powerf111 of the Negro chnrclles is the Af ricau Metiioclist Episcopa.1 Church. Tts membership has grown as follows:



56 The Church A. M. E. Church I Men~hrrs The l'ropertg held is reported as follows: 7alilatlun I I ~ Property! 1 KO. s Rlshopy - 'Churches and Parsonages. The property of 1903 was divided as follom-s: - To, -!a1 orclur Total churches, 6, $8,620, Total parsonages, 2, i&'3,yi8 41 Total schools twi,onl).w Grand total valuntlvn of property......$10.01y,q5.y:! The total income has been a,s follows: Adding in traveling expenses, we have for the last fow-year pericd :

57 58 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Mlnlsterial Su~~ort Torul support and trareling expenses per year $l,o4r,, divided as follows: Bishops...$ Z6.Mn.W $ 104,OC.W (fenera1 officers ; !1,' Bishops' wldows... 1;m.OO 4,8(X).00 Pmsldlng elders ,HfB.M) 707,472.M Ministers... BSO,d$Y).OO 8,.321,060.M Grand totals.....s 1,046,%8.00 $ 4,187,432.Kl Total amounts of money raised for all purposes other than reported above is: Per year... I 2,6'2,ti13.W Per quadrennlum ,580,~15'2.24 aeneral Fund ("Dollar Money" l (Rnlsed by a tax of $1.00 per mernber.1 Grand total... $?, ,64 The dollar molley, or general fultd, is divided as follows: Forty-six per cent to the tinancinl secretary,washington, D.C. Ten per rel~to the serretary of Church Extensiou, Philadelphia, Pa. Eight per rent to the secretary of Eduration,liittrt~ll, N. C. Thirty-six per rent retained by each Ar~nual Conference and used for local purposes. * Home and Forelgn RIisslonary De~ertment Total... I.: $ j 8 771, The African RIethodists had hnt a few posts in slave territory outside of Mary1:~nd end Delaware. William Paul Quinn, the pioneer of the West, t11,tzeii a path from Pittsbl~rg to St. Louis, iuclnding Louisville, Icy. Good,.;lit)stantial huildings were erected on slave territory at St. Louis, Louisville :md New Orleans, La., in the early 60%. lu the wake of the army the l~anner of African Methodism was firmly planted under the leadership of Cliaplairis Tnrner and tlunter in the East and Southeast, followed by C'arr and others in South Carolina, Bradwell and!:;tines in Georgia, Pierce and Long in Florida, Handy and John Turner in Imaisiana, Brook, Murray, klarly, Page and Tyler in Kentucky and Tennessee, Curter and Jeu~ter in Arkansas, Rivelo and Stringer ~n Mississippi, Gardner *.itnett's Budgett, 1!M, pp , 1'72-4.

58 The Church 5 9 a ~ Bryant ~ d in Alabama, Wilhite and Grant in Texas, Ward on the Pac~fic coast, Wilkersou in Kansas and the Rocky Mountains. Dove and Elnbry in hlissouri, Jameson in Virginia, Hnnter and others in North Carolina. All this will give some idea of the spirit, and the territory covered will show the scope of their endeavor.* This department has thus planted the church throughout this coontry, besidcts establishing 180 missions and 12,000 members in Africa and some work in the West Indies: South Africa 2 Conferences. 9 presiding elders..% ministers. 12,000 rnenlhers. Canada 1 presiding elclcr 8 prearhers. 3Hi meml~ers. Pu blicatlon Department 183CrlK4H W.... 1% lhu4-1hip IWlklHH4.... ln84-11rh... lh8h-19h W2-1HM... 18!4-1WO.... 1!100-1W... West Africa 2 presiding elders. 39 preachers. West lndies 1 presidiug elder. 15 preachers. South America In a report to the (:enera1 C'onference of 1SoU at Columbus, O., Rev. T. W. Henderson then the 1n;rnager. gave tlic following valuation of the property. Stcickbn hn,nd, etc..... Paver. ink. etc.... WN.W This val~~at,ion does riot include the amounts due for merct~mdise, printing and sut)scriptions to the Hworcler and R~V~CII:, whic11 would be $5, ol.e. This added to the actual valnation would malie the amount $67,0W.24. Tl~e liabilities tl1e11 were $ll,'%i3.(io; assets o\-er liabilitirs $55, $ The history of this departin~nt is thus give11 offlcia.lly: The tirst hook of Iliscipline was pnblishecl in 1817 hy Richard.411en, in :idvance of this act,ion of General Conference, and cont;tined the articles of religion, governrnetlt of the church, confessiv~~ of faith, ritual, etc. A Hymn Book, for the use of the church, was compiled and published. Aside from thi* and t,he publishing of the Conference Minutes, 11ut little was accornplishrd * Irni ted Negro, pp Arn~tt's Burlgett, l!?td, p. I:%. 1 TJnited Negro, pp

59 60 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans nutil the year 1841, when in the New 1-ork (:onferenre a resolutiou was made that a ~napilziue be 1)uhlished mouthly; but for the want of proper fnndw (~nil11 o111y be pr~hliuhetl quarterly. This gave promise of some considera1)le s~~~rcess for ne:~rly eight years. In 1848 t,he General Conference elected Rev. A. R. Green general hook steward nut1 ;tuthori~ed him to prirchsse a newspaper rallcd the "JI,yst~1.y," edited hy Alart-in K. Uelauy, aud to chauge it,s uatne t,o the ':Chr.intia~ HemLd," also to rnove 1.11~ Book C'oucern from Philadell~hia to Pittsbnrg ; which he did and wntiuuetl the puhlicatiou of the paper iuitil the (;enera1 Conference in 1K50. The ual~~r of t,l)e paper wns theu ~'llangetl to the " CI~vc'stin~~ ZZecwrtls~'." Tliii 11al)er was luoked Ilpon by the slavellolders of the Sonth and prosl;rvcry 11eople of t,he North as a very d:ru,gerous tlocnmeut. or sheet, and was \v;iti:hed with a critical eye. It. cuuld not be circnlated in t,he slave-holding stntc.s t ~y neither our ~~~iuiat,ers nor ~nemhers. Hence its citxulatiou was proscrii)t?cl I I ti1 ~ the l~reakiug out of t,he in Mil), wl~t?~~ t,hrough the aid of the (:hri.;tian (!o~nlnissiou it (lid v:~lunhle service to the freedmen throoghout t,he Sorcth. It followed the a.rmy, wnut int,u the hovels of the freedmeu and also the I~trsl)it:ils, placed in t,tle hands of soltlirrs, dpeaki~~g cheer and comfort to the law-abitliup a,ud lil.)erty-loviug slave whofie nlanacles were about to fall off. * The Reuit.1~~ aud are still published. Church extension The 1)epartlnent of C'hurch Extensiou of t,he African Rlethodi..;t Epiwopal C:hurcI~ \vxs organized ill 1H!U hy the Al~unal ('oufere~lce at Philadelphia. The revenue co~ni~~g iuto this sor:ict,y nonsist,~ pri~~cipally of savings from fiiutls that l~itllertc~ collecletl and spent without definite plrrpore. In It;?:! the c4euer:~l C'o~ifcrenve udopterl what is kno\vn :rs the l)oll,zr Jioney law. It was the i~~tc!utiou th~t one dollar from or for oar11 nleu~l~er of the church stlould ro\.or $111 the espensrs of the general conucxtiou for ~niasio~~ary aud etlucnt,i~~u;~l ~vorli, the supporl,of biah(lpa, general offirer;, srrpc~r;unnu;itrd prearhera; i~nd hell) the ('oufereu(aes to hell) t,hc widows of dt:ct?asc?d ])reachcrs,antl ansistinz ill making I I t,he ~ s~ll)port of pastors on poor fields. Iu our year we have.sec~irecl thr~~ugll thc e1'fol.t~ of o11r resiclent hishop $!>0,000 of i*hurch prop*t,v iu Sout,l~ Aifri(.n alvl~r, ~vl)ile word 'fro111 one of our prcsitline e1ilr.r~ in Lilwri;~ to the srr-retary of C'l~urc-1 1':xteusiou is, '' \Vr are 1)11slli11? into tl~e iuterif)r; stantl I I 11s." ~ 'l'lle ron$ti ~ Lt I ion pro\-idwl the rcvuulle* \vithou t ex t,r$r t:~xntiou on the $enera1 church, as f~~llows: Teu per wut of t hc 1)ollar Money ; lift,? per vent, of the Cl~ildre~l's Day; ad- I?I~.'S~I,U fees and :tnn11:~1 dnes to the \Volnen's Dopartrneut of C'hurc,h Ent.en-.siou: specinl collectinns, gift,* a ~~tl bequests, etc. \\'e Ilere\vith sul)mit I,hc result of onr savings for t,en years, or the money.; t~autllerl by this depart lnrnt. Fifty per cent of C!hlldren's I)ay to Agrll 23. l!<oy... $ 2!,.8lia.:2 'I'FII I)er crut of L)VIIILI. 3Ioney to April %:(.l!nyl... SH l22.5r IJI~IIS returned to the Ilc~~nrtnwnr :%3.!12 Ir~trrcst returned to the I)ep~irt~uent... 3.H17.W l:l'r~,nd total... $145,72?.6l We have dl>hursed In loans to ohi~rchrs... 9i Hura Aonntad to ueetly chu~'chru..... l?.ll!4.59

60 Receipts lti!42-1h!is.... 4,Xl'i.CV 18R I X9H.50 IX!,*l8! '5k3.12 lh!i5-18!4(i... 12:ll~.55 lh!w-lhf ,4!! !17-1~ I7 252 '19 lr!4k-l8!1! :405:k 189! , I Loans 1 Donnlions Total Tho secretary reports in 1907: Sunday School Unlan Reccipls lhtl2-l%w.....i 40,Lq1.72 IXSX-IW!~>... ~'?,r;r:<.!x 189-IH!IG... til X:A-lUO(I.... 7$%35.48 l?~l-i$l\ HI Total...$.7:31,25!1.05 Our real ertate line is \-allled at~$16, R.Iachinery, type, fixt.wes, etc., 1s B~OLI~ $3,0nO.(K). We cirtmlate atwut two milliou l)eriodicals per annuin, conaistillg of teachers' and scholars' quarterlies, (+ems, Juveniles, Little Ribk Seekers and primaries fur beginners, the S,c,,drrg A'ckool Afo71ito1., books aud Pamphlet+, et.c. Our receipt:; are ahout $-lcr,cu~o per,zuunrn: our pay-roll is ahout, $1,000 per month. United Negro, pp. SOti-7. SArurtt's Burtpatt, 1!W, p


62 The Church 6 3 Financial Support of Mlnlstry, I900 Presldlng elders support, per annl~~~~....$ 14A,7:%5.:3'7 Mlnlsters' support, per anuu M Trareling expenses. per an nun^ ) $ " , Bi3hr1ps' support, peiannu~n... ~~;(YxI.u) General offlcers support, per nnnuln... 5,400.W- 31, Orand total for ~ninlsterlal support for one year..... %1,012, The next largest Keglo church is that of the 'I'he growth in numbers of this sect is not accurately known. They are primarily small disassociated groups of womhippers whose economic activities were s~niill, exregt in large cities, urltil the individr~al groups un~trtl into a.ssoriatio~~s. Tt~e first of these assuciatiouq was tormetl in Ohio In 1836, followed by a~~othckr in Illinois in The growth of these iifisociated B:~ptists hits been as follows: Negro Baptist Total Income I891 Cl~ntributions for salaries and expenses... $ W,&6.14 (:ontributlo~~s for ~nlsslo~~s..... %, Contributions for education J,!63.07 C!ont.ributio~~s for mi8cellaneous , Total ctmtributlu~ls rel~orted... $ 821, Tutnl rnisrd... l.xlfi, I902 CI~ur~ll expenses... 8,OLH1,1W.71 Sundey school expense h54.00 state ~ulssluns... \I:HM.W Foreign l~~lsslons.... H, Home mlsvio~is and publlo~tjons..... HL,H.%.JO Educatlun ,941.W Total....$3,425.5%.11 Tlle most renmrkable department of the Baptist Church is the National Baptist Publication Board This organizatio~~ is so uniclue that, tt careful history is necessary. The propositioil to establish a publishing house wm adopted at the Sa,vann~h Co~~ventioti in In 1RI)4 at Montgon~ery, Ma., the qnestiou was agniu discnsaed, but many ~hsta~cles mere found in the way. Her. R. H. Boyd of Sau Antonio, Texas,

63 Economlc Co-operation Among Negro Americans offererl a set of resolutjon~,setting forth t,hat this publishing committee, board, proceed at once to the publicat'ion of Sunday School literaor of the ~nternational Lessons in either UeWsIIaper, magazine ture,,,r I)Hulphlet form for the benefit. of their own schools, which was adopted. the 15eh of Decernher, 1896, R.ev. R. H. Boyd, secretary and ~nanager, ol)ened ],is office in Nashville, Tenn., and seoored copies of the electrotype plates from the Sunday Schools of the Southern Baptist Conventiou and employed the Rrandoii Printing Conqmny, the University Printing Press of ~ ~ ~ l Tenu., ~ ~ ito lpublish l ~, for him ten t,housand copies of the il~~l'rrilced ten thonsaud It~lm-medinle! Q~cc~vte~lies, ten t,housalld I'?.imarY ~, ~ ~ ~, t ~ and,. two [ ; ~ thousnnd a copiesof the Trctchr~'~' ;1IcmthI.y, thus launching the ]orlg-talked of Negro Puhlishing C'oncern. At the next meeting of the National Baptist ('onvention in Boston, Mass., Seci-rtary Boyd reportetlliaving sent out cll~ring the year 700,000 copies of the periodicals, together wit,h song books, Hi hles and other religiom li * The Puhlishing Board is an incorporated gnhlishiug institotioil, it~corporatetl in ls!tx, n?~der the special provision grltutetl by the legislntnre of Tcuuesaee, wit11 l~eatlquartrrs ntnashville,domiciled in the Publishi11gHons~,6L3 Second :LVOUIIC, Nort11, 01. on t,he corner of Second avenue sncl Locust. st,reet. This P~itAisl~in~ Bot~rd owns or 11olds in trilst for the Natioual R:~ptist Col~vent,ion three lot2s with four brick buildings tl~ereon. Beaitles this it rents or le:ises tww other brick bniltlings. These nlalre up the domicile of the P~rhlishing Board, autl is known as the Ns~tjoual Ihrptist Pi~ldishiinx 1-11ouse. All the workof the Puhlishiug Board is operated under tl~e supervision of a gener:~i sccretirp, assisted hy a local Board of rr~:~nage~nrul,consisting of uiue men~bors. These nine meinhers hold monthly meetings, the second T~~es(lay in eacl~ unonth. In these meet'ings they hear and pss upon the repnrts, recoinmendatious, etc.., of the general secretary, and up to this tiine malie rluarterly ~qmrts lo the Execu1,ive C'nmn~it,tee of the Ilome h1isailin Bo:~rcl 1oi:aterl at Little Rock, Ark. Iu this way tl~e IIon~e hlissioil Hoard has beer] a kind of c1e:triup honse t,l~rongh wliinh tlris local comtnitt,ee of man:rgenicnt, Ixtter kno\vn ant1 styled as Roard nf 1)irectors of the N:rlionai Balltist Y~~l~lirlljug Roartl, could clear itself :LIK~ make its reports. Thc rlerical work of the Publishing Roartl is operatecl in three clivisions: First-'Pile C'orre<poi~clinc; Iearti~ient. This ])art of t.he clerir2a1 u.orli WJU- 5iats of tlic wurk of l'e:uiiu~ :mc\ ans\verin$ :dl letters, svuding r~ot geiicrnl informrltion tu B~inclay sr~hools, ~:hurclics :lntl nlissionnriea. In (rtler to (lo this v.ork nit11 auy degree uf suec3ess, it rcclnires the gr'ealerlrnrt of the time of the geurral sevrct:~ry, l~is czhiel' clerk :~licl a corl~s of six r;leu~qxn],l~ers.i grcat ;leal of this corre.;pnurienoc srisre from Lhe fact. that the I3al1t,ists tl~ruuylront tlie conut,ry have Iearuerl to make tlrc N;~tion;~l I?;nptaist I'nl~liil~ing Hoard a b~irea~~ of infornlation; l~euce they ask nucl expect auswers to great aud grave qnestions anti issues that arise among onr tienorniuation from time to tiine. Sccontl-The Uonkkeeping aud (~'ciunti~ig 1)~l)artnient. This clepa~tnirut couzists of a hookkocpel. nut1 froin fonr to tive asrihtimts, :tccording to the acrwmnlntiun of work. In t,l~ie departnreut:~~ acwnate account. milst Iw kept, first, of the i~lvoices of :~11 ~nnlerial purcli:~ed, t,l~e tiine of tlie clerks aurl ernl)lo)-ers who e:irn salaries here, rweipts :~nd tlisli~uae~neiits of all luoneys cor~~ing iirto the institution for job work dune lor other's, receipts frun~ salt~s, douatic~ns, gilts nntl Iwrlr~ests and other receipt? or tlisl)nrseinents. 1'hircl-M11ippin,rr and AIailiug 1,elnrtnneut. This tlrl~artn~eut includes the

64 The etlitnrial departme~~t cwusist~; of one ec1itori;tl secret,;~ry ant1 his stt>nc+rapher, five associnte editors and t,l~irt,y-six contril~ntors. The edit,orial secret,ary 11an the general o\-ersigbt of all 111a.tter wl1i~11 pes to malie up the vario~~:: periodicals that arc. published hy the inst,itution, lays ont t,he work to he performed by his associat,e edit,ors, ualncs t,he suh.ject,s upon wllicl~ the 111irt.y-six contributors are to prepare special ;~rticles. The Printing or Manufacturing Department of the Publishing Board The National Baptist Pnhlisl~iug Boa1.d is a tl~reefoltl i~lstit~ut~ion. It ii a pnl~li~hillg, printi~lg R I I ~ ~nissionary instil,t~tiou; and, t,l~erefore, :tcts iu a threefold c;tpac:ity. We c!onsicler that the first and greatest work of t,he National Ral~List Pnl>lishing Hoard is it,s missiou:try, SLIII~~L~ school and (-01- porterage work. All otl~er lalmr~ or efforts l'ut forth 11). the Ihard nre si1111)ly the Incans tr~ the enti of tloicg missiv~lnrv work. The Printill: or hiaunfa(.tu~~ing I)ol);~rl,~~~ent is tlivitlwl iuto divisions, and is operated t111tler the snper\-ision OC onv gcnc>ritl fore~n:~n asaistetl hy Olrrc. under i(1re1ne11. The tirst is kna>wn as the c:c~~rlp{~siup I)epattmeut,. In this depart111ent dl type is mt, proof is read, page': are m:itln II~, stneot,vpiug, and engr:tving is done; ~lao all ii~~posi~~g or making 1111 forms rrucly for the press room are coml)ltted here. 3. The Press 1)ep:~rttnent. We havc seven 111ac11ines in this clepartmeut: some of these OOF~ 11s in t.he neigh horllood of $4,000 to $5,00(l. 3. T11e Riutlery I)epartu~ent. Negro liookl,intlers were ;I nonentity uiue yearn ago when the Pul~lisl~ing Hoa1.iL I>eg:t~~ its ol~erntioua iu biudiny books. We made iucjuirie.; fro~n hiaine to Califoruia, a11r1 froin the Lakes to t,he Gulf, but f:riletl to tind one all-rol~nil Negro bool~hiutler. The whit.r hookhintling estal~lishtneuts persistently refwed to take Nc~gro lroys aa tmokl~iudiug npprentic*t!s, nud onr schools of terhnol~~gy 11:1\.e failed to protlnce au1. Hence there. was notl~iug left for us tu dt~ I~ut to ~~nclertake tl~e tedious and espellsive ta~k of n~auufact,uriug tmokl~intlrrs hefore we cnnltl n~anufarture 11oolis hy Negro itrtisaus. After teu years of ~xltient~,artluous ant1 expelisive toil, \ye I)oast,uf heiug prepared to torn out of our l~ookbiutlery, \vith onr 1,ookl)indiug n~acl~iuer)' and 1jookl)inding Negro i~rtisaus, well Iwiuld 1m)ks that \rill take a plare of merit among the \\-ork of the beat book p11l~lishe1.s of the country. This tleparttueut. turns out all grades of work from a comnloll, wire-stitched, paper covered pa~rlphleto a fine ~nachine-sell-otl, Inorocro c~~verecl, gilt edged, gold en~bossetl roln~ne of any size-fro111 a vest lj0cket hook to a tifteen hu~?dretl page folio hook. In giving these three divisions of the man~;fart,nring department, it is neceas:sry hne to sax that Ileaidea the above named skilled laborers, the Pl~blishing Board is required to operate 110th a steal11 and electric plant, and nlust, therefore, keep on huutl a corps of tiremen, engineers, machiuist,s and elmstriciaus. This inr;t,it~~rtion has heen ahle in the last t,en years to 11nsba11d nut1 organize ;tll tl~eae skilled laborers, composed exrlusively of Segro artisans, int.0 a harmonious, well drilled working force.

65 66 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans ~h~ publlshlng Department of the Natlonal Baptlst Publlshlng Board ~hjj. iuxtitution is not. only a manufacturing atld printing plant, hut is also I~llllisl~ing ii~stitution. It publishes nlilliona: of periodicals, tracts, panlph. lets, I~ooklets and I~ooks from the pens of the ablest and hest and 111r)at noted Negro Baptist allthora and editors t,t~e country has produced. It is scattering the111 lrroadcast throughout the length and 1)readth of the A~ncricau continent, in the islands, and across the great waters, in the (lark con titlent, of Africa, Asia xnd Europe. We are supplying more than 15,000 Negro Baptist Snuday schools with their literature, and uearly, if not quite, a nlillioll of yollng and old Negro Liaptists are reading from the pens and press of Negro Baptists. To give some idea of the circ~llation of our religious literature we present the following figures of our hunt la^ srl~ool periodivalfi: -- TPR(.~c~ I 111o11tlilyl... Sfmior Q~~ttrterlr....4(lrnncrd 0,unrterly... Iuterri~etilate Quarterly... Pritnnry Qunrtel'ly..... Lrssou I,ennrts, etc..... Leai~bn ('urds (weekly\... Dllnlr Picture Lrsson Weekly..... Bt~pri.;t ~ll11drv s(.b001 (~&t~~h16111~... (!IIII(I ~ll,le ~tirvtion Books.... Nntio~~al Bal~rlst Envy Lesson Pri~ners. Nt~ri~~l~al Bnj)tlst Concert Quarterly... Total The Book and Tract Department Besides the circulation of these!i,(r~0,0110 copies of Suutlny sc!hool periodicals :~nul~ally ;tluong the l5,ol)fj Negro Raptist Suutley school^, we sent1 OIL( lil),617 religit m~ c:ircnlarr;, 178,559 religious t,ract,s and Imoklets, the $Y,'AiIi.42 worth of Imoks :III~ l:ii>lestli..itriii~~ted freeof (:hxrge h3- ~niasiouaries, t~lie$&!kv.hx worth of hooks :111rl Hihles distrihl~ted I)y us, t,hrough the sixty-*is tield nlen that this institutiun is einplo~iug. Take :+ glanrc at the Oi\-irlencls arising from the sale of thou.~~ncl;i of song hotka, liil?les and uther staud:1.r11 religious Ii(~~nks tl~nt itre l)eli~p sokt and dist,ritmtecl Iry the tl~ousa~~tls throuph?ut the length and Irre:~titl~ of this country, :~ud some fi~i~~t idpa can II:L~ 11f tltt: magnitncie uf tl~e w<~rk that is 1)eing pe;.formetl by this N:~t,ional 13aptist Pulilishing hard, sl:~rtiug ten years ago froin i~ottling-1iot11i11g Init fait11 iu God and the jnstiee of its canse, going forth as a grcat giant strengthened with new \vine to Iiattle njiai~ist the opposition that is Iu~rled against the 8il)le, the C'hristian religion nud tl~c tr~~e Baptist tloctrin~. Letttrs ~-?ccived alxl ausweretl duri11g the first tell years: ISnr I,clte~a 1M" ,5ill IHBLJ.... I3,ltkl 18' BI,HIR INX)...!4!l.8% l!w)l I!KB... l:j!4,912 1! llll,yi4 1iYl ,131 1! DI.SfU l!luti... 1!6,4BR

66 Money collected and expeuded for the Kational Baptist Puldisl~iu;: Board in the 12tst ten years and repurted to the Conveutiun: For Misrions Receipts end Dlsburaements Heptam\)er I, 1905, to August 31, Receipts bp Mo?~lhs Beptrlnlwr 1, Mk5, hltlance r~n 11m11d... September. 1!U6...$ 11,48387 October n4 Noveulber, ,I.T NI- 21,379 [XI December. 1%... 3,110 ti1 Janunry, , February, 3, %O,1R? 41 Grand total from Husincss neportll~ent... $ l@2,4~ Hl'ought forward flwnl hlisslonary report on pnge J Y ~!ro L Grand tutal frorn receiptsnnd halm~ce on hnnd.... $ 152, Disbrirae)~~e~rl.v 1. For salary, wames printing lnat,erial nnd other incaidenta.l expenses in =this depn.rtnlent from Beprelrrber 1, 1W5, to August 31, I!WR....I 54,661; L5 2. For memhnndise, spegial ~naterlai, freight and other Incidental expenses uf thls depart~nent from Hcpt~~nbcr 1, 1W5, to August 51. 1! , Stamps. postage, teleyraols, telephone and other incidental expeusns from Hapternher 1, l(w.5, tu Angi~st $1, l!iihi... 6,5:W For edttol.la1 work ndrortislng trnvt?ling and othrr incidental expenses bi this deprtktment from Heptenlber 1, 1W5, to August 31, l!klci... 2, : 5. On rcul estate notes rents legal ndvlw Interest nrld orher 1 incidental sxl,ens&s of this departme;it from Yeptemher 1,1905, to August ;3l, lwj.... 0, Machlncry, repairs, insurance and other incidentals from Sept.elnber 1, l!k,fi, t.r~ August 31, IHOC Coal fuel eleetvlcitr, gas, Ice horse feed water tnr and 2, I otderinbidentn1jfi:ocrl ~rptedtber 1,1!~10, th iiugust:~~,lt~06. S,@W 225, To balnnee on hand... S,R50 26: -- Totnl... $ 102,~) cia Brought forward from Missionary disl,urseinent,s m 4R,@%1!lo Grand total.... $ 162,112 h*

67 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans


69 70 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Baptist Property Bo~th AflYCa One hundred acmn of land, Grand Oalre Mound... $ t;00 01, H411ile lor Dr. Soung,wortb (0 Other hulltlings reported by tliul..... (j~w(yj Chapel orgm CI] Lot fouudatlon and church furnlubiugs ill Cnpr Town..... hlidclledrlft church bullding Mission home for Ite~. Liuchnnan..... q10 rr) School houses rep~lrted hp him.... fjn0 W) Two hells IQ Queendtowu school house, aoi%h... ~SMO O(i vneorgl~n One bell (fi Two typawrlters... 1;s 00 1,esks curl~enter tools nnd hooks UO ~ol;r-h'urg,~rnnsrt~~l, church building lKl 00 CevIml d/r;cn Nlnetv-three acrrsof lund~nlued at..... ~uhsti~utlnl brick church house.... Two four-~ornn houses f~br 1111ssionarie.s..... OrgLIll... Holdlngs uncler Dr. Mwjol~ Agbebl rench quite... :YX) IX) 1,%M MI 1;21~1 w 40 1x7 S,mo rjj Georgetown-Bethel BqKist Ohurch.... 1,800 W) Ueorgrto\r*~~-Nozarrtll Baptist Church, ln course of erection. on whir11 we hare puld xbout m Orgnus nntl lwlls worth (Yi hlisslon House ill St. John's, Barhmlos... We give herc only what. is in the name of the L:o;lxl. 150 W Lhbililies To Ed\\-nvds Broa., Li~crpool, Englnlld... lilwl 01) To Mayrr Bl'inslcy, Kentucky... I;? 20 TI) Huyti Fond hlessrs. &. 5, Ikl.rre119 Co., New York, lor shippiug gwrds to ~~~isslonnrles Africn.n Lnkrs Porporatiou, Glasfiow, Scotl:md, to draft drnw~~ 1)s L. N. Chciell... 1,800 IW Total... $ The c~ash ac!cou~it of a single R~ptist clhnl'ch is of interest: P,(il!l O2 The Mt. Olive Baptist AIeuit~ers c-nntr~l)ulin::.l~t.cifietl sun Nashville, Tenn., ID02 tluriui,' the year : I<ecrl\-ed fro~~i 111~1uhe1.s... $ ~(::II 77 P\e(:eivfvl fro111 rewlar Sunday collectiolls... l.!l7a 3'1 Rrcd\.ed ~IY>IU ~ & d n school ~... Ill7 55 Krveired frum W'I~~I~II's hlisslon Hocirtg Kwri\.erl trim Youug Pcr~pltl's Svcie~y... 51

70 Zion Methodists The growth of t h Zion ~ hicthodists has heeu US follox-s: MJ dro (KUI I1 1IWO fw '.. Flnancc Properly Ificonae 1H21... $ 61;3,100.(X) $ 11,UliO.OZ 1Wl.... 4,865;MZ.DO law ovr.w.oo The income of this church is not easy to estimate. Some of its own estimates ~nakr the annual income over $2.000,000, but this is an exaggeration. The known items are: Foul' I'envs Rlshops... $ fil.370.7h Education General officers '77.07 Puhlicnt~loii Mtscelltlneous... 6.ltW.14 Four years... $!12,15o.W1 One year ,97 To this must bu added the following estimates: Pa.8tor.s' salarles... $ 503.OM1.00 Buildlng... ioo Current expenses M.M) Generalfund Total... $.!B It seems safe to say that the church raises not less thttn tl lnillioll dollars a year. Missiolls are maintained in Africa. the West Indies and Canada. and a report on publishiiig says:

71 72 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans We publish and send out The ~Ytccr of Zion to about -5,000 annus1 subscribers, Rev. John W. Smlth, editor. We puhlish and send outonr own Sunday school literature to about 4,000 Sunday schools. The literature published and sent out from the Publication House each quarter comists of Teachers' Jouruals, Scholar$' Senior Quarterly, Scholars7 Intrrlnediate Junior Quarterly, Picture Lesson Cerds for ow little people, Historical Catechism and Co~llulandrnent ('artls. We publish and send out the A. M. E. Zion Qtic~l'terly Revzelv to about 1,1H)0 suhscr~hers. * In 1%6 the Methodist Church South erected its colored members into a separate and independent church called the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church : The Colored Methodists This church, started in 1866, has grown as follows: Its property was reported in 1906 as $1,715,666. Its ge~leral church income was $145,707 for the fou~ years, It probably raised at least $350,000 a year in ell. The Methodists (Colored Conferences) 1902 Otiurcheu ,357 Value of chul-chhes ,jo(i,&51 Me~~>lwrs ,!454 I Money r~ived , ; the inembership had grown to 327,000. Other Denomlnatlons The follo\ving fiplres.for other tlrnomi~lat,ionu zre given b.?' I7ass:

72 Tllese associations holtl property wort11 at least )25U,UUU. Section 10. Schools Out of the cl~urchespratlp two differet~t lit~es of economic: cn-operation : 1. Schools. 2. Burial societies. From the burial societies tlevnlopcd sicknrss and death insora~lce, 011 the one hand, albd cemeteries, homefi R.II~ orphanages, OLI tht' other. From the i~~surance societies caille banks ar~d co-operative 1)usiness. We will first. notice the schools, for they stood back of tl~e larger economic developlnr~~t by means of the burial societ,y. Church co~~tributions t,o schools are est,iinated by Vass a.s follows: Baptist... A.M.E Total The early i~~terest of t11e Negrws ill etlncatioll and their \villing~les;, to work aud pay for it is attested to in many way-; 111 Ptlilatlell~l~ia I ~ I 1796 we have the following ininutes: To the Teachers of the Afrirnn School for Free Instructio~l of the' People: We, the Trustees of the African I\Iet,Irodist E1~iscopal (.:I~urch, callrtl Bethel,... being convened on mat,ters of importance relative to the edncation of the people of color, are desirous of a First Day school beiug held in our uieetiug house in EIIC~ n~~uner t.liitt it shn.11 not interfere with the time of our ineeting or worship. There has t~ecu a school kept in said meeting house last siilnmrr which was orderly atteucled by about sixty srhulars, under tlle care of Thol~iar Miller, deceased, and haviug seeu the good effects of thcl said

73 7 4 Economlc Co-operation Among Negro Americans 111 the city of \V:~shingtoi~ it was anno~u~c~d in 1818 that ''A School." I4~untlc~l 11y all ass<~~tintiou of free peol?le of cvlt~r of the city of Washington, called tlie Re*olnte l3euefici:rl, sihated near the Easteru Public Scl~ool :111tl the dwelling of Mrs. Teurvick, is now open for the reception of t~l~il[luci~ of free ]xwplecri culur antl others, t,hat ladies or grntlelllell lnay think i)r.ul>ey to *eutl t ~) be instructed iu ret~~ling, writing, arithmetic, 1':u~lisli gramni;lr or other 1)r;~uches of education ;~ppi)si te to t,heir c:~p:~cities, Ijy a steady, z~tiyt, and esperir111.et1 teaclrer, whose at,tentivn is p holly devoted to the purp's~:' clesc*rilretl. It is l)lesumed that free ~~olorzd families will embrace the ndvanti~ges illus prese~ited to thrnl, eit,her by suhscrihing to the funds of tlie sqeiety vr IJY seudiug their chiltlrell to the school. hn ilnprovei1lent of the intc*llect, :but1 ~no~.als of colored you t11 lreini: the object (~f this iuatitut,iou, the I):( [rollage of Irenevtsleu t ladies and geut,ienlen, 11y donetion or ini)scril)tion, is 1111nllrly solicitetl ill aid of the funtl, the demands thereou being heavy ilild the nienuz at present much tuo liuritetl. For tile eatini:lctiou of t.he puhlic, the culislitu tioll autl artic-les of association are printed and pul)lishecl,:~nd to avoid clis:lgree:r.l,lc occurrences no writings are to be doue by tl~eteachar for a sla\-e, neitlier clire~~tly nor iudirec:tlp, to serve the 1111qme of s shve on any accouul wl1:iterer. Furt.llcr lr:~rticulars may Ire knonm by applyiug to auy of the 111 Ohio a hard fight ~vas nlacle for aohools. In earlier times a few Nrgrcle~ attentletl the public schools: TVl~ntever privi1ege;i they nlay have enjoyed in t,he schools were Cut off in I)p :I 1:1w pawed that year that " tlle attentlance of ),laclr or mulatt,o per- SCILIS Iw qweiticallj- prohibited, but all taxes assessed npou the property of ~+tilr,re[l persons for school purpose.sshoult1 Iw al)propriated to their iustruction ant1 ffo~ no other purpose." The prohil,it,ion was vigorously enforcccl, but the SCCUU~I cl;iuse wan l~rac!tically s dead letter. In Cinci~rni~.ti,, i.j earlj' an ls3) a few earnest colored men, desiring to give their children tile I,e~~etit of a scliool, raised by suhsc.ripfion a s~~lall sun, of money, hired a

74 the state iuvrensetl till Inany c~tl~~r s1.ho111.~ ('~ti~l~lisl~ed. Kotu3tl1sta:~ding the tli-;ct~ura~ing rirc*~un~tsnces wl~i('l~ 1rn.e 111t.t \vcb Hnrl tl~at ill ls38 lhrrt. were coloretl sel~ools autl churches ill thr c-o~u~ties of (:vlu~~ibin~~a, Log~n, Clark, Gneri~scy,.Jeffer.cou, Hiphlancl, Bro~u? I)srlc, Shell>)., Oreell, 3lian1i. Hamilton, IVarreil, Uallia, KO?$ and, Mnakiiigum~. At the cnpitnl of the stnrv there \\-ere t\vo churcllc~s autl two sc:hools sul~portecl I?>- the colored 11rol)lr., In tlir no~thern sectio~~ the first school of m1iic:h I find ally re~:oml \\-as estaltlished iu C:lerclnutl ill IHX, hy John RIalviu, wl~o had formerly beell a free ~4.11- oretl preachcr ill Yirginia, ht, 11:atl come to ('1nvel:~ucl ill I W.\rl~el.e he rollt,inuetl his work, doing odd jobs to pay his: expenli~s. RIalvin had learned to ~'ead when a tx)y iu Tirgiuia, :~nd 11e at nllce triccl to interest the few colored families iu C:leveland to provicle some nlcaus for the educatioii of their rhiltlren. h snl~scril~tiou gl~arallteeing $20 per ii~o~ith was raised for R teacher's salary, and the school wan ~ll~er~ecl in 1h!92. Three years lat,er, Malvin, who hat1 prored himself an i~~clefn tipal)lc \rorlter. \\-as inslrumental in sec~~ri~i~ it couvautioil at ('oluiiiln~s of tlie rolorerl {~eoplr of the 8t;~te to clc~ise some way of illcreasing t h mesi~s ~ LIJ etlueatc their 11eople. Tlw outcome of t,he courontiou wan the orga~lizatioii of the Schod Fund Societ\, Whwc ol,ject was the er;t;~blisl~~nt?ut and n~aintr:usuce of rolo~wl sr'liools. 1Tntler a~~spic'es of tllis sorivty schools were opei~ed in ('i~~i.i~liiati, ('o1~111- ha, Springfield :and (', and werc ~n:iintainetl for twu year.<. * In the sc~utl~eru section of the $trite tlie iuvreasiug roloretl population svcllred an ingm?:lsing grou-th in the narnl>rr and eftificieucy of the culoretl schools, which were supported largely by tllc~uic.lves, thongh the out*icle I~elp was far greater in the cities t,l~au in conntry districts. In 1836 Cliu,*innati expended $1,000 iu s~tstniniug colored c_chools. of \\-iuch the colored ~~eople ga7.-e $150, tl~e rest hein5 contributed by their friends. ILI 1K39 tlie rolo~wl peol~le Paid $YA9.u:;, ant1 the self-sacrifice mar; not 11s great as ill 15.75, which sl~owetl a marked cconu~nic as well as intellectnal atlrancelncnt~. We ~nwt Iwar ill mit~tl that few emp~oyinents but (lay lahor were open tu the colored people ill the cities a( that time, ant1 \vl~ile in the rural section.; tlie man were ~~ioatlp im:tll lijclcok, pp. m g.

75 76 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans f;rrlllera, as a conse~~uenc~ there was a greater degree of independence and tlll.ift. \yherever there was a set,tlenieut of 100 or more, there we tiud a school for their c}lildrell. In a sina11 Settlelnellt in (hllia county a school of t,wentytive r;cholali was by colored people, who paid the tcacller $50 per quarter, rn 1%" we find colored s(:llools in nearly all t,he large towns in t,he southern part of the st'ate. * jqlnra,te scllo,,l for colored rllildr~n WR,S estctblishecl in Boston, in a,ll d wils llelll in tile hollr;e of a relmtahle colored Inan named Primus Hall. The teaviler ~ l i ~ Syl~r~ter, ) ~ a whose salary was paid hy tlie parents of the wholu he tallglit IU 1800 sixt'y-six colored citizens presentetl a petilion to srllool collllnittee of Hostull, praying that a scl~ool might be estal). li511eil fr)r their lienetit. A s~ll- initt it tee to wlic~m Ihe petitiou had heen referred, reported in fav,,r uf grantillg the prayer, llllt it W:LS voted domu at the nest (tj,~zll llleeting, Huwrer t,lle school t,auy 11t by Mr. Sylreeter did not perisll. T\,.~ yo,lng gelltleillrll fruln IIarVal'd L-niversity, hlessrs. Brown and Willi;tlns, colltilllleti the ~~'lluol uutil 18Uk During thi;; year the colored Baptints t)uilt, a church edifice in Bellcnap stl.eet,and fitted up tlle lol~erooln for it 3cllool fl,rrljlored r\lildreu. Elom the house uf Primus llall thelittle scllool was lllovetl to its ne,\r in t'lle Eelkuap Street Church. Here it, was,.olltillllr(l lllltil 1835, \vllen a school honse was erected aud mid lor out of a full(] left for the l,lu.puse hy Al~iel Hlllith, and was suharq~~ently called " Smith ~,.l,(~(,l H ~, ~ ~h~ ~ authurities ~? of kwton were indncetl t,o give $200 as an :lllnual appropri;rt,ioll, and the parents of the cllildren iu attent1auc.e paid 13% meek. ~t~~ school house was dedicated with appropriate exercises, H ~ \villialn ~ ~ fitillot, ~, delivering tthe dedicatory address.,pile ~ f ~ i ( SC.llo,~,l. : ~ in ~ lklki~ap ~ street was ilucler the tio~itrol of the scllool ~~,JullllitIeefl.oln lxiy 18.~1,audfl.u1n 1fi"l wss uuder (lie charge of a sl~ecial subl.olllnlittee. Lklllo,lg tile teachers mas.john B. Rm-:swarm, from lsal to 1 W, wllu putfred ~ ~, ~ ~ 1:01lege ( i ~ in i u the Iattrr year and afterward hecame govel.nor of the colo,lp of ('aptb Palnlas in southern Liheria. 1. solne fen- rcllools for Negroes existed here and there in the South before the l,istrict,df C~~llllllhia, as already meutionctl, uo leas thau fifteen,lirfel.el,t sclloole lmdwted here inaiulj- at the espeusr of the colorect lieol,l~ llet,vet,n ~KII(I soil lyil. In bl:trylal~cl, 81.. Fr:~urrn Arsatlelny for colored,\-as foluucled I, tl~e ~ Roman Catholics in lk!i. '1'11e convent originated,r.itl, tile ~ ~ ~ j,,,,,,inicn~l ~ ~ ref\l~rr'% (, l \vhu ~ came to linltiniore during the up-,.i6iug in tile \vest Indies. The sisters were colored. Another school, estalllirbe,l ill lx,5, ga,,e jllstr~rt'ion t'o free c8010red children. I11 N~)rtll Caroliua tilere llefore 1835 several xll~~ols lllnintainetl I)y the free Negroes. They liad nsllnlly,vllite teachers After IS36 tlie few cl:~ntlestine schools were tallgllt 1.)~ N ~ 111 C'harlest,oll,S. ~ ~ (:., ~ t,liere ~ was i~ ~ st!hool. fur Negroe.;l,,lIenetl ill 1744, wt,ic]l lasted som ten years. It war taught hp n Negro and w;l:' for free iyegrue3 mly, althoi~gh sunlc xlavcs \\-11u hired their time inanaped to sent1 tileiis childre11 there. F~~~ ~egrl,es ill c;el)rgi:~ usetl to selld children to Chnrlesto~~ for c4ucat~ion. ~h~~ yeturlletl nlltl ol~eued (!landestine schools in Georgia. 111 Sa~anrl;~h a preert, N ~ ~ ~ ~ Froimontaine, l i ~ l l ~, from Sau lhmingo, conduct,etl a free Ncsgro sc:f,ool fro111 1*lY t,o 18%alld secretly for soinetilne after. Pchovls w,..l.e stcj1lpetl nearly everywllei'e after 1830 and as slavery hecame more aud a (.i,lnlncrcial all attempts at Negro edncatiou \\.as give11 11y.l. ~j~l'~,l;, pp, H3-!ni. +tvlllialus, VoI. II,p, Ilia. Negro Oo~uu>on School, p. 21.

76 Schools To the Negro slave, freedom meant scliools first of all. Consequelitly schools immediately 111) ;i.fter ema~licipat~ion: (;EORGIA: IU Deaemher, 18135, the c:olored people of Savannah, within a few days after the eutrance of Shermnu's army, ol)ened a number of schools, having an c~~rolln~ant of 5l)O pul)ils aud contributed $1,000 for tile support, of teachers. Two of tlie largest of these were in Hrgaut';: Slave Mart. In.Tauu;~ry, I#%, the Negroes of Georgia organized t,he Georgia Educat,ionai Association, wllose ohjrct was to intlu~~c the freeduleri t,o establish and s111)- port sct~ools in their own couuties and neighborlloocls. 111 lni7, 1!I1 day schools and 45 night schools were reported as existing. Of these,%i mere reported either wholly or in part snpported hy the freedniell, who also owned,57 of the school buildings. AHKANSAH: After 1865 they esta\~lisheill~e first free schools that ever mere in,lrkansas. This they did at Lit,tle Hock, \vliere, after paying t,uiti~n for a short time, tl~cy formed themsclves iuto all aduoat~ional associatiou, paid by suhscril~tiou the salaries of teaclierx, and ~nacle the nc:l~ools free. F~0~1r1.4 : Am011g t,hc v:irio~is i1,geur:ies eng:tyetl in the work of ttdocating t.he frerdmcu of the So~th are two, cc~nsisting of cc~lorecl peolde in she nouthern st:~tcs, and ~UIIWII respectively as t,he Africa11 C'ivilizat,iou Society, and the Home Miasiona.ry So~iet\~ of the African Rlethotlist El)isc!ol)nI C'hurch... Several schools wereopened atr~all:thassee and other places iu Fiorida shortly after the dose of the war. In Mi6 t.lre frecduien ercc:t,ed school houseti at their own expense, besided fro111 taeir scanty means towarcls the supl~ort of tea.che:s. They forrllccl "s~tl~ool soriet~ies" xud cu-operat,ed with tlie Rurea,u in furnishing 3cllool lots and erect,iug huilcliug~. KENTT:(.I~Y: Afbr the war, the tllirt,y scllonls which were established, in spit,e of great obstacles, wtare rn:~inly supported I.)~ the freed people themselves. NORTH CAROLINA: the St,:&te Superinteudeut.of Education reported that many iustauces had cume under his notice w-here the teachers of a selfxupportiug school had been sustained ~ l~til the last cent the freecllneu could eornmitnd was exhausted, aud where tl~ese last had even taxed their credit in the coming crop to pay thr bills necessary to keep np the school. DIPTRII.T OF COLUMBIA: The first school iu t.llia tlist,rict, built expressly for the etlucation of colored children, was erect,ed l ~y three men who had heen burn and reared as slnres in Marylaud a11d T'irgiuia? (4eorgr Hell, Nicholar E'rauklin and Moses Liverpool, about t.lte year Iu 181% the Bell school house was again taken for etlucat~iond purposes to accomrnotlate an association o~gituizetl by the leacling colored men of thr citjancl for the specific pnrpose of promot,ing the educatioll of their race. This scl~ool xvas clstal~lishetl upon the prir~c:iple of receiving all colored childre11 who should come, t,uition Iheing axacted only from such as were ahle to pay. It WBS more uearly a free school tha.n an?-t,l~iug hitherto known in tlie city. This association of free people of color was called the "Resolute Beneficial Society." I'rovisions were made for an eveuiug school on the premises aud managers of Sunday scl~ools were informed that on Sahhath days t'he school home belonging to this society, if reql~ired for the inst,ruot,ion of colored youth, would be at their service. There wits another free school which was called t.he C,olumbian lnst,itnt.e, which conti~lued for t,wo or three years; eat,al)lislled about 1831; it relied mainly for support upon snbscription, 123; cents a month only being expected from each pupil, and this amonnt was not compulsory. Mr. Prout was at the head of this school.

77 78 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans lt was in the Smother's school house that Ihey formed their first Sunday scllool, and here they continued their very large Sunday school for several years, the Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church springing ultimat.ely from the orgauizatiou..john F. Cook succeeded Prout in 1&'4. In 1&58 the Smother's honne, after the Cook school wafi romovec1,was Occupied t,wo years by a free Catholic school, supported by the St. Vincent de Paul SOciety, a beuevolent organizatioil of colored people. The school was hroken up in 1862 hy incendiaries. Immediately after t,he war of 1912 a free colored school was founded by an association of free colored people; it averaged uearly 300 scholars. The afisociation was composed of!,he most substantial colored people of the cit.y, and was maintained with great determination aud success for a cousiderable period.' The most elahorate system, perhaps, was that under (:ellera1 Ranks in Lor-. It was rstahlished in lm3, and soon had a regular Board of Education, which laid and collected taxes and supported eventually nearly a hundred schools with 10,000 pu1)ils under 1172 teachers.? lo Geltern1 Howwrd's Erst Freedtnert's Bl~reaa report, he says: schools were taken in charge by the Rureau, a d in some st,ates carried on wholly-in connection with locxl efforts-l~y use of a I'efuget?~' and freedmen's fund, which had heeu collected from various sources. Teachers came under the general direction of the assistaut conllnissiouers, and protection tllrough the departlueut commaudam was given to all eogaged in the work t The inspector of schools testifled : PETITION FOIL SCHOOLS.-.4s showing!,he desire for education among the freedmen, we give the following fact: When the co1lec:tion of a geueral tax for schools was snspeuded in r.ouisiana by military order, the ronst,ernstjon of bhe colored population was intense. Petitions begm to pour in. I saw our from t,he phutations across the river, at least thirty feet in length, representiug lo,uild Negroes. It was aff~rtirlg to exainiue it and uolo the names nut1 rnarks (S) of such a long list of parents, ignoraut themselves,,but t)epgiup that their cllilrlre~ riligllb be etincsted ; pron~isirlg that from 1)eneat.h theil. present 1)urd~us and uut of theirestrrrne p~)verty, they *odd pay for it.$ The ac?llool rek)ort for tlw last sis nlonths ill 1868 was as follows: my schoul~.... I,I!I~ Nikllt schools... 2'23 -- Tt,rnl... 1,426 Tuition puld b freedmen... $ l5.319 i5 Espeuded hg Lreau..... n 7, 48 ~ Total cost..... $180, soliuols sust~ined wholly by freedr~ieii ~chools snst:~inrd In part I)?. freedmen ~chcic'l liuiic111igd owrird thy freednirri... :+61 sehtml huilcllngs furliished by Burrrtu... 4 li White t.eerllel's... 1,031 colored trrrrlic~u Totul rr~r(,ll~r~ent ,878 Average atteudrrnre #.7!10 Pul~ils pnyilig tuiticjn... Pt>,l;+!l l'nl,lic Hi:h~~oluIn the nlstrfct c)f(:oi~lilll)i~,hnl~rr:lrd, lw-70; Scho~~lsof tliecol01'd t'nprll:r.ti11i1, ~~ll-lw?l.-m. U. <i~)ockwi!l. u l l l l 1 l l 1 % 1, 1) 2. $ Jlljtl., P Il)ilt., 1JP. 28-2!).

78 Schools 79 The report of the Bureau for 1869 urliieh summed up the work, said: The foregoing report shows that not more Lhan one-tenth of tlle children of freedlncu are attencling school. l'hoir parents are no[. yet shle to defray the expenses of education. They are already doing somethillg, pro1r:lbly more in proportion to their means, than sny other class. nuriug the last ycar it is estimated that they have raisecl, and uxpcnrled for the coustr~~ctiou of tichool houses and the support of the teachers not less than two hondrecl tlrousanti dollars ($2OlJ,000). They have shown a willinpue~s to help,aud as they prosper and acquire property, they will assume a larger share of the burden, either by voluntary contributions or by the paynient of taxes for the support of schools. The freedrneu assist in the support of their schools to the extent of their ability. As their conditiou is improved, thcir willingnrss to contl.ibute for educsticm, as they always have for religious interests, exhibit,^ itself in the largely angmented iitnonnt- paid for the support of schools. Forty-four thous- teachers, and for construction of school houses, of which ve received 110 report, the actual alnuunt of which would grcatly inorei~se the abovc sum. The total scl~ools, attend;tnce mcl disbursemei~ts of the Freedmen's Bureau were as follows: * Increase of Education Ex~mdltures far Schools Total I t ik5,7lk, 01) 1) $ 5,879,924 (K, Finally the Negro carpet ba.g governments establistied the public scliools : Although recent researches have shown in the South some germs of a public school system before the war, there can be noreasouabledoubt hut what common school instruction in the South, in the modern sense of the term, was founded hy the E'reeclmen's Bureau and n~issiouary societies, and that the state public school systems were formed mainly by Negro reconstruction -Negro Common School, pp t.estimated by the Bureau officials.

79 80 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Church scl~ools. Aid to private schools Aid to public schools. The African Aletllodist Episcopal (!hl\rr:l1 Ilegan iu 1,94 to shtt schools for Negroes. A corn~nittee was apl>oillteti and foullcld Union Serllillary. Later this illstitlltior~ was united with Wilberforce University, whip11 \\.as bought hy the rhurrh fron~ tllc white AZetllotlist ('llurch. 'L'hus \\'ill)erforce, tlatillg fruin IS%, is bhe ol(lest Negrt, iuetitutioo in thc 1 ~ ~ Ttrc 1. chnrch has now

80 Schools Afrlcan Methodlst I3plscopal Schools-Receipts Pnyne 'l'heologlcal S(r1ulnnl'y Wllberfurre, 0 Wllherlorce Unlverslty, ~llhrforre, Morrls Brow11 College. At lnutn (in... Klttrell Uolloge. Klttrell, H. U. ( Paul Quinu College. Wnro,Tea..... Allell U~~lverslty. Uolumhla, S. C!.... Wester11 TJnlrersitp, Quludan,Knn..... Eda.n.1.d Wnt<:rs Cc~llr e. Jarksonville. Vla... Sbwter Universltv, i?orth Ltttlt! Rock, Ark... Pnyne ~~nlrc~.sit~,'~clmc~.~ Alu... Uo.mphell-Strlngel'College. Jr~ckson, hlo.... \Vzrmnn Iustitutr Harrodsl)l~~~fi Kv..... ~;hei. Nr~rinal ~ndt,ttutr, shrlby+llie.tcn~i Fla*ler High Hcho111 Jln.rlon, S. C! rlgl ~nstitute, I)vlhi, La..... Slssi!il!a Hi.711 Srho~l. South JlcAHstrr, I. T Blur <'rerkdn.nd hluscogae Hlgli Sehuul, I.T. M~)rsell Ii1s:itu tr, Hastl... Bcm~udn lnst,icute, Srr~iiuda... Ziou Institucc, fiirrrn Leone, Afrlcu... Eliza Turner School Mvnro~ls~, Afrlr:~.... Cape Town 111stitut~.:.h~e tour^, Africa... - The C'ulored Methodist Episcol)aI ('hurch has five schools: Payne ( ollege of Aagusta. (:a. Texas Collrge of Tyler, Texas. Lane College of.jackson, Tenu. Ho~nrr Seminary of Homer, La. ITayxood heminary uf Waihiugton, Ark. The white Methocl~st Church. South, hell)s in the auppnrt of Paync Collegtt. The Af~icatl Rlrthodist Ep~scopal ir~ Zlon Church hail tllrse institntions (Sercral schools had not rrportecl wl>eil this repo~t was re;id) :t I,lri~i~st~oiie (:allege $ clint(yn Institutr... I.; '102.i:450 In7 Lancnster Instltutc... ti 5,O:P (10 Orernrille C) :i 2,705 1% Hanuon and I,omnx... Whlters Itlstltutr Moblle Tnsttrute... Jorres Unlrerslty... A:W 110 hl~mey raised by Secretary nx 00 There were the fullowing additional schools :.\tkinson College, Aladiuonville, Ky. Palmetto lu.;titr~te, Union, S. C. Etlcnton Industrial High School, Edenton, X. ('. * Negrn Church. 1)p. 129-:W. t Ibld., pp

81 82 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans 1,loyd Academy, ElizabetJ~town, N. C. Hemphill High School, Crorkett, Ca. Pettey Academy, Newbnrn, N. C. 1,omix and Rutler Academy, Tampa, Fla. Carr Academy, NorLh Carolina. Lee Institute, ilmite City, La. Pettey Institute, ~alrert, Texxs. Africa11 Methodist Episcopal -. Zion High SrJ~ool, Norfolk,Va. Perhap:: the most extensive educ~rttioui~.l work is done by the Negro Hnptists: The Wegro Baptists support 107 schools, as follows: * Llst of lnstltutlone by States STATES I Aia han~n Baptist Unlversltg... Beln~a. Normnl College..... Annlston. Eufnlll~ Acndeniy.... Enfnuln. hlarlon Acadc~r~y..... Marion. 7 ellka High Sol~ool..... Opelika. i'eomaonvllle Acndenlg... Tholnaonrille. 3tokes Institute... h1ontgomery Autaugn Institute..... Kingston. Illdinlla... Indian Territory... Kentucky..... Vnmdrn. Baptlst Gollege... I,i t t le Rock. Arkndelphia Academy..... Brinkley. Arkntlelphla. Brlnlileg Act~demy..... hlagnolln Acnde~ny... Mngnolia. Wynne Nornitrl nnd Indu~trlnl ~nstitute': Wynur. Soutl~east Bnlltist Acndrmg... I)?rlnutt. Fordycte Academy..... Yordgce. Wlorldn Rnptlst College... Flurlda Irlstitute... West Florida Bn.ptist Acnderny.... 1nstit.utlonal C!huroh Hchool... Fernandim Elhle College..... Anierlcus Instltute.....:... Walker Acndelny.....Irrur l Academy... Central City Collese... Southern Illinoi~ Polytechnic Institute.... New Ll~lngstone Institute..... Ir~dinnn C'olored Bnptlat Institute Topeka Industrlnl Instltut,e. Fenlale High School.... Glnsgow Normal Institute... Wcl~tevn,..- P - Hopkinsville College..... Ecksteln Norton ITnlversity..... Yolytscllnic Instltute... London 1)lstrict Cullcge... Baton Rouge Acndcii~y... Houmn Academy... hiorgan Olcy Acade~y..... Howe Institute.... Opelousas Ar~~dclng..... Contrnl Lvuisinnn Acade~ly..... Cherryrille Acndeniy... Baptlst Acndrmy... 'l'he Natlonnl BI tlst Year Book, 10Cri Jacksonrllle. Live Onk. Pcnbac~lu. Jnc ksonrille. Fernnndlnn. L+niericux. hugustn. Atl~ells. hlncon. C?t~iro. hletropolis. Louisville. ('adiz. F~n~ikIort. Glasgow. Weukly. Hopklnsvllle. Cane Hyrlngs. lj&illv1ilr. I,on(lon. Bnton Rouge. Houula. hlorgnn City. New lherln. Opelouuns. Aleanndrin. (:herryvjile. Lake Prorldence.

82 -- STATEY I Schools Llst of lnstitutlons by States-Continued -- INSTITUTION hfonroe. Rubton. Alexandrln. hltlnetlt=ld. Monroe. Sllrevepurt. Maryland..... I (:lngton WiHiains Instltute..... Bnl titnore. Natohez Oollege... Nntchez. 1 Olorter H1.h Srhonl... Gloster. Central (Jolle P Kosclusko. hlerldlun =Ig% '&hobi '..::'::::':::::.': hferldian. I Ministerial institute,.... West. Polnt. Nettletoll H.igh School.... Netrleton. (ireenville HI.h School... Greellvllle. New Alharw Ii 1gl1 School... New Allmny. Kosclusko Industrial College hosciusku. / ~upt~st Norlllnl ant1 111dustrl:rl Yc~lrk~i Frinr Polnt. Hl~rlngor Ac'ndcmy... Frlur Point. North prnllnu..... Ohio Tennessee Western C'dlege... 1,nrt.a Unlverslty... Hierh School... ~hrloh [ndustrlal Institute... Thou~son's Instlcute... Addte NoTris' Institute..... Trnlulng Rchonl... Roanoke 1nstltut.e.... i\lheu~al.le Trnlni~~g Schooi..... Bertle Academy... Ken' Rerne Institute... Ronnn Illstitutr.... Burgnw Nor~iml Instltute.... Colon Training t111d Tnrlustri~l Srhnol.... Peac-e I-Ittsen Inutltute.... Frlendstll Instltute ll(~l.rlu uof;rge....: 1: ::..:::: : 111 : :. :::: : : Seneca Institute..... Charleston Normal and Iudns. Institute.. Howe Ir~stltute... Nelson Merry Uollege..... Lexington Norinn1 School... Iinlclgh Wak~fleld Warreliton. Lumberton. Wln~ton. Frankllnton. EHzaheth Edenton. IVlndbor Nt.n Bcr~~e. Chn~lotte. Rurgaw. Fnluon. Urbena. Broad River. Ruck HIII. Bunlter. Xenecn. Charleston Mrlnphis. Jeffersou City. Lexlngton. Ounclalu e Cullegt?... Seguln. ~entra~ &xis.hcademy... WRCO. Houstou Academy... Hearne Academy..... Plne Valley Instltute..... Kew Home Academy I. Vlrglnla Selnlnarv and College... Lynchburg. T!ulon Industrial k~.ndeu~v..... Port Col~way. Kepsrille Industrial 1nsti;ute....., Keysville. Hn.llfux Institute.... Houston. Spiller.hcade~ny....., IIanlpLon. I West Vlrginla... RlllefleId Institute... Bluefleld. / West Virglnle Institute Farm... Kan~~whacnunt~-. Africa ;,. Ilo e Institute..... Klr -'s Instltutr..... Lagos, W. Afrlcn.... I Mnnroria. I Jokl,% Industrial t4chool , Cspe Mount. Miss I>e Lnney's School..... Rlnntyre,W.<!. A. Qursnstown fnstltute... / Houth AfrlcU. -. I Total nnnlber (11 schoo~s I ~rt~uat~on of property... $IWO,MO

83 84 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans The income, vslnation and pnrollineut of tlle Negro Raptist schools tile as follows; these scl~ools, except the oues statred, are Sllppor~. almost entirely hy Negroes; the full names are given in the preceding list: I E~uollmen1 in all dr:- yortnren2.s Alabaiiia Bnptlst..... $30 AIIIF~~CLIS... Arkntlelphio \utaugn...!)[I Baptist N, and I Bnpt.iut Institute... 31; Sa.tun Rouue IWrtie i\ca.~em):... 1% Srinkle.~ Burgnw... IF! Blnenrld Cudiz...! 1'2 Wn. C. C!olIrb.e.... I75 (:en. hl. College... 2% (!en. T. Academy (!ell. Louisiana..... LX (!llnrleston.... 2% Colon... ill!) (!urrp E~kntein Fri&hdsiiip... GUR~NIUJJ~... f1alifn.s... Hc~uston hcudemy... Howr R. B..... H~~plrinsville... In~t Jrruel... liers\.llle.... Kosciusku... LUttib... 1,011don... Merirlirtn... i s... Nr~t(.Iiez... Nrls~m Merry... Kew Hoiue.... New fl~rrl~r..... Plue Vnllry.... IJolytrcllnlc... Itlmnoke... Hownn... Kustou... Snngo... Srneva... 8hiloh.... Sprtnger... S. W. Bnptist..... S. Illinois P.... *8tn te Unisersit,~... Stokes.... Thirteenth Dlstrlrt... Tholnaon.... ITuion Inil..... Vlrginia Sen~lnRrg.... Wtilkn Baptist..... Western College.... Wynnu ROB ld... 1,tiMI (HI... 7-?7 2.5 I:!;+ 10 I.>O w... 1,5W 1x1 1,llW (MI... 1,110 on I(i,lYIO lYlO 00 1,l.x W G 14X,ti% 50 The ahove schools and others sappol.ted partially by Negro Baptists reported in 1906:

84 Schools Tencbers, nmles... i.4~ Teucbers, frmalea Totnl Total students... lli,6r4 ''lieporrs from the field irtdicttte llrogress. The educational w-ork,especially in Louisiana, is taking oli new life. Baton Rouge College, Coleman Acade111y and a half dozen others in that state, are doing most excellent, work, and the people give them a support unprecedeutecl. The c:dorecl people of North C,zl~)- lina and Soutl~ Caroliua, each, gave some time ago $6,000 to educatkmal workthe former for the erectiou of un ind~~strial hall at Shaw IJniversit,y, Raleigh, and the latter for C!oi~vention Hall, Beuetlict College, C'olumbia. lieutucky, Alalmn~a aucl Georgia are now n~aliing great efforts to raise aeveral thuosautl dullars t,o secure equal alnouuts from thc Missio~~ Society of New Ycrrk for huildiny purposes. The Florida Baptist Academy, Jack;sonville, has jnet. co~upleted a boys' dormitory at a cost of $4,O(HJ. With the exceptiou of $l,nh, the colored Raptist,s of the st,atc rnisecl it. The enroll~ncut for t,he year shows an incwise of student.;. ''The American Hal1ti3t Hoinr Mission Society has done systematic educetional and ~nissiou ~ork ;11nong colored l%apt,ists of t,he h~,utl~ for more t,lian fort\- years. Tl~e rociet,y also aids a few uf the sr:hools ownecl l)g Negro Ihptists. "All together, the 3oriety aids in t,l~e ~upport of forty-four missionaries mcl 244 teachers. The missionaries are distributed in riffeeu st.ates aud t,erritories." (b) did to P~i,vate Schools. There are numbers of private scliools established by churches and benevolent, societies for Negroes. A special canvnss was made of these late iu 1907 to see how far Negroes supported them. The United States Buret~a of F~dncatio~~ in it.s report for 1906 lists 161 private schools for Negroes in the TJnited States. Of these 74 of the largest a,nd most important have given u~ figures showing: (a,) The total cost of rnai~itltinirlg the institution for the last nine years ( ), including (except where noted) the cost of the hoarcliug dapartment,, and uot inclutling new buildings. (b) The tota.1 cash payments made to the institutioi~s, incluciir~g payme~~ts for board, -here the boarding departmeut was conducted by the institution, but not including payments for books, olothes, travel, etc. (c) The cash value of students' work, as estimated by tlie institution. This mast be, of course, a very indefit1it.e figure, but as nearly a11 the janitor work of t,hese schools is done by students, and also some productive industries are carried on, some account must be made. According to these reports the total cost of these 74 schools has heen, so far as reported, $11,637,099 for nine years; missing figures would bri~~g this total up to $11,610,000. Of this Negroes have paid in cash $3,358,667, or 28.9 per cent, and in cash and work $5,187,269, which is 44.6 per cent of the total cost. The figures by instit,utions follow:

85 Economic Co-operatlon Among Negro Americans

86 REMARKS Kentucky Normal, Indus. Instltute lor Col~wcd Persons. F'rtmkfort Kg..... $ Virginia N. and I. School.... petersburi, VIE... Llncoln University..... Chester Co., Pn..... Hartshorn MemorlalCollegu.. Rlchmond Vn..... Trinity School... Athens, AIL..... Allen N. and I. School... Thou~asvllle, On.... Howard University..... Washington, D King and Queen Industrlnl High School.... Onuthornville,Va.... Washburn Beminary..... Benufort, N Oregory Normal Institute..... Wllmlngton, N. C..... ~iddle'unlrersity... ~harlotte, N. C:.... Louisville State Unlverslty.. I,oulsvllle, Iiy.... Cnbin Creek... Griffin, (fa... M. T. and 1.Uollege... Holly Bprlngs, Mlsn... Tuskegee N. and 1. IllstlLute.. Tuskeger, Alrr..... Kuoxville College... Knoxville, Tenn.... LeMoyne Normal lllstitut,a... Memphis, Tenn..... (lnokman Institute..... Jacksonvllie. Fla..... Leland Unlvirslty...:.... New Orleans La..... Franklin Junction institute. Franklin ~u;~ctiou,~a.... Floridn Fit,ute Normal nnd Industrial Bohool.... Tallnhassee, Fin.... Rpelmnn Seminars......I Atlanta. Ga I J.iruel Acadelny... Athens,Ga..... Atlanta University..... Atlanta, Ga..... Clark University..... Rout11 Atlanta. Cin.... PrnnkllntonChristlnn(~~~llenc. P'rankllnton. N. C Jackdon ('ollegr Jackson, M1w Wfitcrs Normal In~tltut~ Wlntorl.N (' Bnllnrd Normu1 Brh~ml i.maron, (h Houthern(:hristlnll In-tltule Edwardd.MIw I Tlllotson College.... Austin, Texas... Fisk University.... Nashrille,Tenn..... Hampton Instltute..... Hampton Va..... Atlanta Baptist College..... Atlnnt,a, dn..... Fc. Valley H. aud 1. School. Fort Vnlley, Ga..... Bourd not Included. Negrocupnpl-1Sof taxes. Ytudeutsl work not reduced to cush value. 3 years. Mnny men earn thclr way. 2 sears 2 years. 2 years. Eqnlpuwnt nut Included. 2 years: $3, given by Negroes also. Negroes give $8,600 also. 4 yrars. Oost of bulldlng(l not Included, Btndcut lahor not calculuted. gi', given Iry Negroes In addition. Total cost unknown.

87 88 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans From this it is clear that primary and grammrtr schools for are being supported very la,rgely by N~groes themselves-nearly a11 tho institutions whose students pay 50 per cent or more of the cost in cash being really schoolfi of this character. The sebools for higher training collect a smaller proport.ion of cash from their students. anct the indust,ri;tl schools the smallest proportion. But the la.t,ter schools receive R rrrg large payment in work from students. Reside t,hese schools t.l~rre are severa.1 hundreds of private a,nd unrecortled primary schools conducted each year by Negroes in different, localit,ies, and R fairly widesprea,tl system of supplementing the public sctlool fulltls. No di1,taof these scl~ools are available, but t,he following installce in Virginia is instructive :,\ statistical aide-light with respect to eleven of thse (Virginh) counties ie that, Mr. T. C. Walker personally supervisctl the colleetiuu of $1,6& from the people, by which 77 schoolshacl their terms prolougcd fro111 one t*) two montlls, and l'ermanent. iinprovi~meut,s were made to the nrnouut of $4Q0. Similar in c}~ararter was t,lle work of Mr. Fitch, who led the people iu tn'elre sc!hoc~l (listricts to raise the sum of $398, by which t, terms were lc~lgt,l~eue(\.* The visitor of t,he Gellerd Etl~~cationnl Road makes this report: In the ruri~l dint,ricts it is the Negro who 111ust lengthen the term :md provitlt. better!iollsus. Often it is uevrs.?sry for him to I~uild t.he ho~lse, while the school a~~thorities pay for the teacher. So~~ietiinrs reut is received from these \,uilclings, hut. illore often, particnlarly in the far Sooth, noue in received. AcconliLc c~)unty, iu Virgiuia, for illstance, owns scarcely one-t,hird of the scllool houses in use in the conutg. At conveuieut point,s tl~roughouthe county, however, Negroes hare pu~~rl~aiecl laud and erected in most cases a chmrch, r\. h:\!l f o accyet ~ society purpt)ses, ancl a school house. In some places the llall sar\.el; as a school honse. So closely are these schools aucl rhnrclles ilssocintetl that nearly every 'bchool it: know-n I,y the name of thc chnrch war it. E'irst Haptist, Ehenezw, etc., are the nalllas ooli~~nonly apl~lied to the schools. The property is uslally owned 11y the elltire Ncgio cmnuiunitg. This,.ol~~liti~u is (.o1nl1~o~i in the Sonth. Such a contriln~tio~l t.0 Ffilefro educ*:~tion is so closely :tss(~~ciatetl ~r-it,h public ctl~~r:~li~r~l that it ft'e(l11cnt1~-escapes uotire. 'rill> \ray lnost ill vopi~. at pre~eut for supplrn~enliny 11ulrlic education in tile Soutll, alnuilg whiles especiallj-, is through local t:rxnlion, togetlrt~r with tile co~lsolicl;~tion of +rllools. No~th Carvlina is tlunl,tless in the front in this ecll~c;ttioual 1.evi~:~1 in the S0ut.h. Here they ha\-e built, on au average, a 5clIo~)l house a day for the last tv'o Fears. This mu\-eluent, however, has affectetl t,he it\'csro I,ut little as the Superintr~~dent of Pnblic Inatruetion inforlllecl rile. The Negro is hardly i11 a position uow to belletit 1)y political ~nct,hu&. He is uot co~lsulted r~or always inc:luded, in conllnu~iities even where local tnnotiou is ndol~tad Og the whites. Ile does not, of rourse, under sucll circu~l~staiicea yay the local tax. IIe geuerally uses :~notl~er 111ethod tor raising lnouey ill the int,erest of his schools. Here, :ts in maup otl~cr 1)hases of Negro lit'e,tlle churrh is the agency e~nployed. Through religious clenomi- 1latir)lls the Negro is doing 111oat to\vnrrl ~ul)plenlenting his elementary ~mblic etlucatioii. This s1~lneti11it.s results in nni111e lnultipli~~ity of srhools, Ibut there are not \ranting insti~nces where r~~m~nullities, regardleas of the J-arious religious faiths, unite ill tl~e support uf a. siuglc school _ ' Hnu~ldton Nagr(~ Ihnfereuce, No. 8, y. :33.

88 Schools 89 I The Baptist associations of Northern Cieol'gia, a.nd the churches nud iudividuals of hrdf a dozen ronuties made.jeroel Academy a possil~ility. T11r.y have giwn it prc~perty valued at $ri.o(l(l, aurl of the running expenws for 1!+0:! antl 1903, amonnting to $8,,%i5, Kegroes paid $R,lW9.19. The only untside aitl, amonntiug to $500, comes from the Home hlinsiou Society. The hmericus Institnte,sit~t~ated in the very heartof the hlack belt of Georgia,represents r3ren hetter the possibilities of the Negroes along the line of self-help. In its present oryauization this school is oulv seven years old. Prior to that,however, an effort had l~een matle to establish a school there, but owiug to the dishouesty of a white man wnployetl as agent the people suitained :L loss of $1,001J in cash a1~1 ele\.eu acres of land, besitles ~uotller loss vf $'fi5 stoleu hy a di~houest clerk of the association. Kevcrt~lielesa, in seven years Mr. bi. \Ir. Recltlick, the principal, has built up a school with proijerty wort,l~ $;,OW. This has practically all come through tl~e stnall coutrihutiuue of the Kegroes the~~~selves. He collect,^ from the nciphlwrl~oocl, through vi~rious Haptist oganization.;, churches and iudividua,ls, ahont $1,1Ml yearly. Mr. Rerldick aud his teniahers go ont tu the various cl~urcllea tc~ collect tll~ ~no~~tlilyco~~tril~utii~us. Thus the sclionl a1311 t,llc idenof etlw;~tic~n are l;el)t in the minds of the [~twple, wlio arc Iwi~~g c.ducatei1 t,o hal~its tjf giviug aud to a feeling of ownerahil) and pride in their local ii~st,il.ntious Alnl~ama wliofuruishes cxcellcut examples of tllk cumn~i~uit~- q~irit in rilucation. 'Fhr! Nt, Meips Iustitnt~e, of w11ic.h Miss Corneli:~ Bow~n is principal, has acqiiired propcl'ty v:~lnecl at $7,000. This has come largely frou~ the earuings of the Negroes tl~ereahout,~. One huiltliug was erected by the rolored peol~le theu~selver at a cost of 94)00, and Tor two years they supported the school entirely, paying $1,000 alitl $L;dIO a year, rrspectivcly. TIIIJU~II thia is a poor comniunity, they atill pay $700 a year tuition. JVit,lliu fire miles of this iustitutiou is another hearing rhe s~tggestive title, 3'Tlle People's Village School." Azlis.; (korgia JVasliil~gtou, ml~o received her trainiug at Harnptou, is the priucipal. Here the whole coiutnunitj- is organized for edue~tiounl puqmses and for the economic and religions euds as well. For instaucv, they not only ~m~liluct the srhoul, 1,nt huild churches, aotss a laud colnpauy, l~oldir~g 3dl scres of laud for s~~le, awl are 11uyiug and o~~eratiug a rotton-gin. The school is really tl~e center anti inspirat~on of the whole ~novcinr~~t. As a result of it, good ho~nes are being estahlislied antl land has heeu acquired. The sc.hool has property ralnetl at, $4,000, which conr;i~ts of four huildillgs and 27'; acre5 of laud. It is ownccl and controlled by a hard of tru*tees,all of wl~om are lncal colorcd incn excepting two ml~ites. Each fitwily sc:ntlinp children nrr required to pay $437 -early rcxprdlesc of the nnmher of i~hildreu. In t,his way $5WJ has hren collected this yar. Thus t,l~is poor cou~muuity of Alnl~aln:~ Negro Esrrners auil laborers is makiug podsihle a schooling for their cl~ildren.suc,h as a 1)reteutiona town ~uiglit euvy ; for, in :~dtlition to aouutl n1t:lnentary literuy training, these ptrpila are hugl~t sewing, ruoliing, general I~ouarwork, und theoretical autl practical :igriculture PI-ith thid groi~p al~oultl he ~r~entioued Alahalna Baptist Uui\,rrr;ity, controlled by NI*~I'IJ~?., \vho raise annna1l.v $10,!4%6 out of the $12,W)5 nrected, and wl~irl~ has property valned at S.iO,lloOilargely acquire~l t~y Xegroes The Tegroes of Jlrrutgouiery, Ale,, paid gli,lllll~ for t,he laud ou whic'h the State Mormal Schoul in that city stands, and presel~tetl it uucoutlitiounlly to the Stat.e Hoard of Education. They reser\-etl only one acre, which, ho~vever, the schoc~l is allow-rcl to use. The Negroes of that city also yay a.~rr~ually tc~ this school in tniti~~u $1,600 whic11 ip used to eluploy teachers for the primary work, thus supl>le~nenting t,he 6cl1ool facilitie;; of the city. Two of the school

89 90 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Ilouses uc.ed by Montgomery for colored sclrools are also the property of Nraror?;. 511 tlle pnlrlic schools in Yelmawhich, by the way, is one of the best as regards t)~th 1~11ilding and work which I have seen south of the Potomac, the pllpils one cli~llar a year as a contingent, fond for incidentals, furnish all material,~ fur the work in hot11 literary autl manual t,raiuiug, and provide shades and m~rtnina for the wiudov.a, piano arlct orgnu, pictnres for bhe boilding, and 110oks for tl~e lilxary. Florida and other Southern states furnish exrimples.~in~ilar to these To orerconlr these I)oor conditiol~s, and to prro\.ide reasonably :~lnple oppor. t~~nitic- for effect,ive training, tl~e Negroes are working in several different tlirc.ctiuris. Tl~ey are not only snpplenleutiug the public funds aud lengthcuing tile whool terln, I)nt art. estalrlishing private schools and cousolidati~~ wit11 the 1)11hlic.rchools nearby; the^ are Luililing iuilepentlent private S~.~I~IO~S; :111d they are supportiug ill larger tneasllre the great scl~clols eatall- \is\~ui\ry Nurtheru pl~ilauthropg. One of the most conspic~uous cases of consditlatillg \vit,l~ the p~~hlic ecllool i~ fnruisheii I)y the Keyesville Iud~~strial S~l~ool in ('l~arlrotteollut,y. This is an i~ltlustrial School, foulltletl ill 1Y!IY and s~~p~x~rt.etl almost entirely hy Kegroes, through the Baptist organization^ of that uei,ghborhoocl. They have a pl;~ut, inclucliug Ill0 a.cres of land, worth $i,lj(mi. T11t.j ha\.e domitory acco1nn1otlationsforh11 Iloarclingstorlents autl atlaily :ttrelltl;luee of 1.35 pupils. The curricnlum in'111tles such i~lctruction as will tit l)llpil t,~~ en(~.r Virginia Uniou ITniversity,\vith which schoolit is atlili~ted, and ;LI,:~I m;~nnnl :i~l iutlnstrial t,rai~~ing i~a will fit tllen~ for usef\~lives aurl for tratle schocila like Han~gton. This school succeeded in having the pul~ic school ;llld t.lle l)ublit! t'llnds placed in its Iranrls. IT gets only the $176 forluerly given tl?- tllc iwul!ty to the 1111hlic school, Imt it gives the cl~ilclren a term of sevell l~~,<teatl ~f tire months, and it pays two well-trainetl teac'hers of its own allpuiutiug $20 enc.11 :~ud I,oarcl per month iustrnd of $15 and WO, rcspeutively, wirllout I)oard, as was t,he case forn~erlg. The chilrlren are hetter liouaeil aud I,t.t,tcr t:~ugt~t and m;ki~~tnin higher attendance than was known hefore, to say ]ll)t]liug of haviug tl~e Ileuetit of effective ~nai~ual training. This is made pos-.illlc 1. 1 ~ t11r c:outril)utions of Negroes to this school. It is a positivr effort ou tllr 1)art of the Negroes thercslrout (i0.01)o witl~iu :L radius of 75 miles) 11, i~npyuyc their e~lui~ntion:tl facili~ies. Tl~~'ougl~ the Napt,ist Asaocintiuua, Sunday ;PII,WI.....,wutril)utions.. cl~ur~tlies, tuitioll auil l~:trc\ fi'0ln 1~ll)li19,. - this COllllllullity pays iut,, the sc!hool 12e;crlp $&(I00 yearly. Tl~c only support of :trig ~naguitude relyit-ell from outsitle is $.'IN) annually from t,he Bnpt,iat Home REissio~l Society. Iieyesville Institute is but one of :t group of half :I dozeu scl~ocols of its kind silatteretl around in the cunnties of Virginia. T I I ~ II:~lifns Iustitute at Houston, in :I neighl~oril~g county, is another scllool conducted ill allolit t,he same i'a~l~iou as the one at Keyesville, though it is not so large or snccessful. The com~nu~~ity is not yet so well orgauized for etluc.atioual work, I~nthe school is uon iu competeut hancls and will suc- (vxd. Elere, too, t,he county earby by has Iwen consolitlateti with the private ;i~.l~ool ant1 gaius thereby sever;~l mouths in length. The Negroes raise $470 annn;~lly for the support of this work. The Pittsylval~ia Institute, in Pi ttsylvauia couuty, anot,her of these H:~pt'ist, cllools, f~lrnishes one of the hestillustratious of wh:lt a well organized, earueet ~>ol~~u~unity mag do towards improvinp tl~c schuc~ls. The count,y schools thereahout were, n.a usual, poor. The nearest l~oardinp sc11cw1 is at Lyurhburg, thirty ~nilee anray. The l)eople, small fnrlners owning fro111 ten lo!no acres, tlecidetl to have a school. These chose a board of trustees sutl last year, N p

90 I fouuded their school; they acqniretl 2j4 acres of land for $150 autl erected a bnilding for $1,000. This is two and a half stories high autl rontaius threc~ class rooms aud eight bet1 rooms. The financial statemeut for 1911:i-4 reads az follows : Inco?rbe- Expenyes- Fro111 AssocintIons... $ Snltrrles... $ :i$ml.(ul From toltion '2 Fuel... -1ri.78 Frolll honrd... DM.UO I Faid on htlila11ll:... X(KI.IYI This leaves a rleht of $33.01 or1 the building. So certain are they that this will he paid that they are planning anot,lier $1,000 I~uildiug, to be ready for use in Octoher. These peolrle have not asked for a e,elit outside of their owu neighhorliotrd. Tbey sxy they prefer to see what they can do I~efore asking for aid. I inet the l)riucil)al, awell educated (Ihristian gentlenian, iu Ilanrille, Va.,ancl heard of this school for the first time. It has a preparatory cour.;e ot three yews, a normal eowse of three illore, and an academic cilurse of t,llree years for those wishing to enter This first year they enrc;lled uinety-, fonr pupils. They havcl not ahsorbed tl~e pul?lica srliool for t,l~ere is uoue witl~iii t,wo milts.* (CJ,lit1 to PLIMI'c Schools. As to Negro SIII~IMI~~ of ~,nl,lic schools we can hest reneat the couc1~1- I sions of the Atlanta Cnivrrsity Conferenre of 1901: Iu uearly all of t,he states there are a fcw town ant1 city systems which art. often not included in the St.nte srhool report, where the cost of Negro schoolr is more ne:~rly equal to that of the whites and wllere, cotisequently, the Negroes contribute proportionately less. Since, however, over iu 11er ixnt of the Ncyroes live in tlle country, this itflects comp;watirely few. With this excep tioil, theu, it call l ~c said that appareutly Negroes coutrihutecl to their sci)~~ols as follows for IH!l<:: TotnI cost...$ 1,675, per cent. I Puid hy N\'rgrot%, direct taxes % paid by xegroeu, indivect taxes.. $426:226 Estlninted total..... $ 3,7ri?.R17-7H.4 " " Paid hy white taxes ,Kdi-20.6 " Iu the post the Negroes have undoubterlly,oterl a consideral)ly larger proportion than tllis. For instaure, in Delawa~e, Alarylaud and Iieutucky, they routrihnted morr than the total cost of their scliools for sol-oral years. r11 all the other states the tendency has been to use first indirect tas:l.tii)u for schools and then to add direct ti~xatiou until today a large pro1)ortion of the tases are direct. Now the indirect taxi~tii~n fell more largely on the Negroes thau thc direct,siuce they arc renters :rud cousunlers rather than landowuera. If Georgia Iw taken as a typical stut,e in this req~e~t, theu the cmnclusion of, the C'onference, held last May, is true, viz: That in thc years 1870 to 1899 tlre Negro sel~ool systems of the former slave 3tat.e~ have not cost the white taxpayers a cent, except possil)ly in a few city systems: Cost of Negro srhools, Y!l..... glih,!!t;n,l?l.tb Estinlatetl totuldlrect schoul tnres paid I,$ Nrgrues,id0-189!1 )!&,O(U,CTIO.OO Indirect tuxes and pro ~.~brn share of endow~nents ,iUlll,O~lO.~l~1

91 9 2 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans This 5tatement wlwn first made was received wit,h some incredulity and (:riticisnl, :~ud prol~ahl~ will he now. This is simply I~ecalwe of the careless zt;bte~nenthat schools have heen "given" the K~~.c(J without effort, wllicll has been so often reiter%tec\.* Section 11. Beneficial and Insurance Societies No completr acc*oont of Negro brnefic*iitl iiocietles is possit)lr, so large is their ~~u~r~brr and so wide t,iieir ranlifiration. Nor call any hard alld fast lir)e bet\vecn them autl irrdustrial insul~ince societies he drawn save in inemhership ant1 extent of business. These societies arc also tliffic.ult to srpwrate fro111 secret societies; inany llaxrr more or less rit,ual work, ant1 t.lre regular SCICL.P~, societies do 11)11c!h fraternal insnranco busi- LlrJSS. An a~ccoin~t of the secret and bnr~efioial societies in svveral towns of variou~ sizes and ill different lacalit.ies will give some idea of the distrib~~tiou of these orys.nizations: Xenia, Ohio, (2,000 Negroes) The church does not, however, occupy the social life of the Xegroes as cornp1t:tclg :ta forinerly, or as is now the case in some Southern towni. The )lome is fsst bew~~liilg anlong tht more intelligent classes in Seuia the real social unit. I:nt, leaving aside the hoine, next to the churcl~ are t,lre secret orders. There ;Lre ele~en Negro lodges in Senia, uamelg : Will>erfi)l.ce Lodge, No. 21, of Free :~utl Accepletl JInso~~s, haviui: -18 nie~nlwrs; Lincoln Chapter, No. 1, of Ro?-a1.\rcl~ Alasons, 11a,ving 18 ine~nhrrs; Senia ('r)m~nandery, No. 8, i~f Knights Teinplar~, 11avi11g 20 melnl~ers; Damon Lodge, No. 29. of Knights of PS t,l~in,s, having 70 1nem11era ; 'l'o~~;;saint Lodge of G. 1). Order of r klrl Fellows ; Daniel'r! Pust oe Ciraud hriny of the Republic; Ihniel's (:orps, So. USx, of Wonrcu's Relief Corlm; 13astern Star Lodge, No. 2; Bell of Ohio D. T. T~heruacla, No. 511; Alouut. Olive Lodge, No. 25, of (iood Rauiarital~s, aurl a lodge of Knightti of Tol~)r. t Baltimore, Md., ,000 Atlnn ta ITnlversl ty Pul~licntion, No. li, pp. 91-'J'2 +Bureau of Lullor, No 18,p Nenroesl Thrrr i.: proba~l~lg no city in the lili~tl wl~ere there are as many so~ieties :lmong the cwlored pcoplr~ as in Kalt,i~nore, aud severnl of tlrc large societies whic!h have spread far :ri~d wide, uorth and so~~tl~, had their origin here. Xearly all of tht. societies are heueficinl, hnt they may be diri~letl in general into two classes, those l~eneticial merely :md those with secret features. In urder to help oce another in si~,kness and provide for decent trurial, througha syst,em of.small butrognlar payments, heneticial societies were for~ned amoug little grollps~)f acquaintances or fellow lal~orcra. In Baltimore they date back to 1SZl1, and were afterwards specially exempted from the stst,e laws forhidding meetings of colored people. Twenty-live, at. lo;lst,, hat1 been formed hefo~e the war; from lw5 t,o 1S70, seventeen or Illore were for~ncd; since 1870, twenty or more hare been nrlded, several as late as 1884 and The numl~er of rnembers vary from a dozen to over 100. Tn 1H8-1 wns held a ~neeting of many connected with theaesoeieties to arouse a more general int,erest in the work, and very intcrestiug reports were presc~ltetl. Fort,y of them gave nn aggregate membership of over 2,100. Nearly

92 BeneficiaI and Insurance Societies 93 1,400 mcmbers had beeu huried, over $45,000 having heen given in funeral expenses; $125,000 had been given ss sick dues; $27,000 had bceu paid widows hy some t,hirty of the societ,ies; over $10,700 had heen given towards house rent; and over $ll,:wo had heen paid for incidental expenses. yet there had been paid back to the members of many of the societies, from unexpended balances, as dividends, a total of over $40,000; and there remained in the banks, to the credit of t,he societies, over $21,4110, and in the treasurers' hands a cash balance arnouutiug to some $l,4(k). Five had small sums invested besides, and one the goodly sum of $.i,g12. The total amount of lrioney handled by all had been nearly $S%),O00. These societies vary somewliat in details. The usual fees from members are 50 cents a month; the usual henefit,~ are $4 awcek for a uumher of weeks, and then reduced sums, in sickness, and $4,000 for death benefit. Some pay as long as sickness lasts. Some give widow's clues accordiug to need. One, for example, the Frieudly Beneficial Society, orgauized chiefly by the members of a Baptistchurch, somefifteen years ago, with theusual fees and benefits,carries a standing fund of about $1,000. and the yearly fee* of the mernberr have l~aid the curren t expenses of from $300 to $>W, and has usuully allowed an anunal divitlenrl of $6 to each. The Colored Barbers' Society, over fifty years ~ltl, gives $KO nt the death of a member. Three societies, originally vcry large, have hceu gotten up in the last twenty years, by oue colored wornan, whose name one of then1 bears. A few of t,hese beneficial societies have dish:mded; a few ham changed to secret societies. Very few of them have I)een badly managed, although uniucorl~orated and without any pul)lic oversight, aud everybody seems to speak well of then3 and of their work. Secret societies among the colored people are now very numerous. Many important ones date back t,o before the war. The colored Masons and Indepeudeut Order of Odd Fellows are eutirely independent of the whites in Baltimore, the colored meu lraviug been obliged from tlle state of public feeling in llie IJnited States in the old days to get a charter from the white hrethren in England. In there were nearly 500 colored Masons in Baltimore; now there are prohablp 500. Of the Indepeudeut Order of Odd Fellows, tifty lodges of the seventy-seven working ones, giving a nielnbership of over 2,300. The Afty lodgcs had, during the past two years, aided their sick, buriedeighty-three brothers and relievcd seventy-seven widows aurl orphaus, at a total expendi- ture of over $13,O(H). The order held real estate worth $18,500 and had over $30,0(10 i r ~ cash. Of the secret societies in Balt,ilnore, thcs most influential are the Samaritans, the Nazarites, the Galilean Fishermen and t,he Wise Rleu. The first two were instituted some years before the war. The first has spread lroni Baltitnore,during theforty years of its cxistence, to a number of sl.ates; but a third of all the lodges autl nearly a third of all the members are in Maryland (18!10). Ahont oue-half of the order are women, Daught.ers of Samaria, aud they meet by tlrelnselves in theirown lodges. There are uow in hlaryland fifty-eight lodges, 1vit.h a u~embership of lp'. The order of Galilean Fishermen,of men aud women together, was hegun in Baltimore in 1856,by a handful of earnest workers ; it mas legally incorporated in The order has become iuflucntial. It is said to number over 6,000 in Mary1:tnd. The order of t,he Seveu Wise lmeu is a more recent order. There are many Inure of the same secret, beneficial nature, hut these are the largest.

93 94 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans In 1885 was incorporated the Colored Mutual Benefit Association, the only one in the etate, entirely managed by colored men, with a colored doctor and a prominent colored lawyer for counsel. It is endorsed by all the clergymen, has grown rapidly and proven itself worthy of the aupport of the people. 1, these first few years,some $10,000 have been paid out in benefits.d Beneliclal Socletles 01 Petereburg. Va. (1898) (Not Including secret orders.) - Young Men's... lw4 40 $700 :SLsters of Friendship, etc Y 00 Unlon Worklng Olub... I 16 R MI Waters of Charity Lndles' Union H Beneliclal Association lii3 t%c Daughters of Bethlehenl..... Y!l tl2c 00 Lovlng Sisters ti&. J OD Ladles' Working Club A7 tl2c 3 (XI Bt. Ma.rk Oo~~solatlurl t i ilk 3 10 Daughters of Zion tlpc 3 MI Young slsters of Oharltg... lht8 3) t12c Humble Christ Ian... 1RB8 2li t14c R IIII Histers of Dnvid YO 3 la sisters of Etebeccall U< (X) pntershurg... lw2 39 tlfxc. 3 (10 Petershurg Beneflclal... In!,:! 35 t50c 5 20 First B:~ptistChurch Ass'n 18!) Young Men's.... 1H!M 44 t25c 3 00 Oakstreet Ohurch Soclety Endearor,etc..... l8u Total Total tnnual :neome 'ick and death beneflta - Cash and mperty MJ -- NAME Beneficial Societiea of Atlanta, Ga. (189UI (Not lnoludlny secret orders.) -- 4 nn?6a1 inconie REMARKS. Helping Hntrd, Plrst Oongregntlonnl (:llurrh Rising Sta.r, Whent Street Baptist Church... L~tuyhtewof Bethel, Bethel Clhurch... 1,udies'Court of Oalanthe 1)aughtrrs of Friendshlp, IJnlon No. 1, Frlendshlp Rnptlut. Church... Fort Street Benevolent Misslon Imughters of Plenty... Pilgrlnis Progress, Pnrk Street Church Sisters of Lore, Whentst: Ihptist (:hurch... Reneflts paid in 5, $255; benevolence, V25. 1 Benefits pr~id In 5 gears, $Y'i!?; donations, etc : owns cemeterv lot for its po6rer'members. - ]>onations In 6 venrs, $126; benefits in 5, 35W. Beneflts 890 since Bellelits 6 years, $ll);donnteu~nuch to the church. B~n~flts 1 year, glh0. Benrfits In 4 yenrs. $an; seces~l~n fro111 Daughters of Bethel. Benetltv 111 R years, WWI. Hns $WIl In hank. -- Nine orynnizations $Nc~tes rrn tht! Progress of the Colored People cbf Maryhnd Since the War. 1890, Jr.Rl'ry It. Bmckett. Ph. I). * Athlltn Cniversity Puhllct~tion, No, 3. Orgrtnlzed before the u-nr. +Assessment upon ench meinber in case nrly member dies.

94 Beneficial and insurance Societies Warsaw, aa. (1908) The history of these societies is interesting. The Christ,ian Progress is the oldest of them. It was organized soon aft,er the close of the war by a number ofchristian people who banded themselves toget,l~er for mutual help. The societ,y has tweuty-five ~ne~nbers and t,he mont,hly duesperperson are 26cents. The sick benefit is 60 cents per week. The society paysone-half of the doctor's hill. The death benefit ii; $2i. Any person of good moral charackr may now hecome a member. The next oldest soviety dates its organization from reconst,ruct,iou days, when there was a military conlpaiiy here with a woman's auxiliary. The company passed out of exiatence but the auxiliary, under the name of the Ladies' Brauch, has cunt~iil~~ed to th~! present time. This society owns a hall, where its meetings are held. Its rnemhership is fifty and its monthly dues 25 cents per member. The sick benetit is 50 cents per week and the death henefit is $25. When a n~emher dies an assessment of 25 cent,s is levied on the survivors. The Boyer Quiet Club was organized in 1888 at the suggestion of an old German named Boyer who, although very poor, at,tempted to help the poorer Negroes. The socic*t,y charget. au atl~nission fee of $3. It. has about. fifty rnemhers, nlth n~onthly dues of 25 ccnts. Tlrc sick benefits are 50 cents per week aud one-half the vost of the doctor's tirst visit. The society pays all the funeral cxpeuses. The Earue$t Workers has heen orga~~ized five Tears. It. ha* forty-five tnembers with the usual monthly clues. The sick 1)unt.f ts are 50 cents ller week and the cost. of the pllysician's first visit. The death beneii t.s are $30 and one-half of the funeral expenses ; it reported $100 i11 the treasury. The E. li. Love Henevoleut Societ,y, witrti headqnart,ers in Savannah, is chartered, the Warsaw hrarich having sixt,y members. This society has a twofold purpose: to aid the sick and bury tlre dead, and to assist, ic fiupporting the Central City Collegeat Macou,Ga., an institution controlled and supported by colored Baptists of the state. Each member of the society is taxed BO cents a year for thesupport of bhe college. For local purposes t,he members are taxed 25 ceuts per month. The sick benefit is $1 per week. When a rnemher dies $30 is paid on the funeral expenses and $10 to the nearest relative. Only Christians are eligible for membership in the societ.y. The Sons and Daughters of Zion is primarily a childreli's society. It has t,weuty-seven n~embers and the monthly dues are 15 cents per mouth. The sick benefits are 50 cents per week one-half the doctor's bill. Thedeath benetit is %20. It reported $113 in the treasnry. * Philadelphla. Pa., 1899-(60,000 Negroes) From early times the precarious eco~~oinic condition of the free Negroes led to niany ~nutual aidurganizations. They were very simple in form: an initiation fee of small amount was required and sln:ill regnlarpayments; in case of sickness, a weekly stil)entl was paid, and in case of rleat'l~ the members mcre assesaetl to pay for tlrc funeral and help the widow. Confiued t,o a few merrihers, all personally known t,o each other, snch societies were succt.ssful from tlre beginning. We hear of them in the eighteenth century, aud by IS8 tl~erc were 100 such small groups, wit.1~ i,us rnembers, in the city. l'hcy paid in $,l%,k51, gave $14,173 in henetits, and had $lo,fe3ou hand. Ten years lat'er ahont 8,0011 nien~bers helonged to loti such societies. Seventy-six of these had a total membership of 5,187. They coutrihuted usually 25 cents to 37% cents a month ; the sick received $ldo to $3.00 per week, and death lreuefits of $10 to $31 were allowetl. The iuco~ue of these sevent,y-six societies was.j;l(i,xl4.!!3; 681 families were assisted. These societ,ics have since heen supercaecletl to some extent I)y Work, in Ro~<lhrrn Tl'o~kmon, JHIIURL'~. IUt8.

95 96 ~ ~ ~ Co-operation n ~ m k Among Negro Americans other organiza~ions; they are still so numerous, however, that it is impractito catalogue them ; there are probably several hundred of various kinds in the city. F~~~~ gelleral observation and the available figures, it seems fairly certain that, at least -1,000 Negroes belong t,o secret orders, and that these orders annually collect at least $25,000, part of which is paid out in sick and death henefits and part invested. The real estate, persoual property and funds of these orders amount to no less than $18,000. The function of Lhe secret society is partly social intercourse and partly insurance. They furnish pastime from the mol~otony of work, a field for anlhition nnd intrigue, a chance for para&, and insural~ce against misfortune. Next to the church t'hey are the nlost popu- lar orgnnizations among Negroes. Of the beneficial societies..... The Quaker City Association is a sick and death benefit society, seven years old, which confines its membership to native Philadelphiaus. It has 2Yl members and distrihutes $1,400 t,o $1,500 annklally. The Sons and Ihughters of Delaware is over fifty years old. It has loti inelnhers and owns $3,000 worth of real estate. The Fraternnl Association was founded iu 1861 ; it has 86 members and clistrihut,es ahont $800 a"was forlned for the purpose of ralicviug t,he wants and distresses of each other in t,he time of affliction and death, aud for the fnrtherance of such hellevolent vie\r;s ~ n ol3jects d as would t,e~?d to establish aud maintsiu a permanant and friendly intercoilrse among thcm ill their social relations in 1ifp.l' The Sons of St. Thomas was founded in 1KLi and was originally contined to rnemhers of St. Thonlas Church. It was formerly a large organization, but now has 50 meinhers, and paid out in INti, $410 in relief. It has $1,500 inrested in governrnellt honrls. In addition to these there is t,he Sons antl Daughters of hioses, and a large numher of other small societies. 'rhcre is a rising also a considerable number of iueurance societies, differing from the 13eneficial in being conduct,ed by directors. The hest of these are the C'rucitixion, connectrd with the Church of the Crucifixion, and t,he Avery, connected with Wesley A. M. E. Z. C'hurcti; hot,h have a large me~nbership and are well conducted. Nearly every chnrch is heginning to organize oue or more dtlch societies,iiorne of which in times past hare met disaster \'y had management. The True Reformers of Virginia, the most rernarhlde Negro I,e~,efioinl ory~nizationyrt st,arted,has several branchrs here. Beside these there are 11umher1vs.i minor societies, as the All~lra Relief, Knight,s end Ladies of St. Paul, the Nnt,iowl Co-oycrntive Society, C:olored \\'omell's Yrotec.tive hssociatic)n, Loyal Beneticial, etc. 3or1~e of these are honest efforts and some are swirldlillg imitations of the pernicious, white, pet,ty insurance socielies.' New York Tile older "African socirties" in Pl~il~tlelphia antl Ncu-port have alreacly been noted. Tllere was olle ill New Y ork also, organized in 1808 and chartered ir~ 1810: The organizaiioa celel,mt,er\ its incorpurat'ion hy marching through the streets with n~usic and Ll~ing colors in spite of a \vnrniug to the edect that tho authrsrities would he entirely powerless t,o protec-t you on the 5trcets,and you would I,c torn in pieces by howling molr+." The society, after its incorporation, exerted a wide infl~~ence the communitv. It hec:rune so large that out of it sprang the Clarkson Society, t,he Will,eh'orce Beueyuleut Soriety, the 1;r~ion Society, and t,he Woolma11 Societ~ of Brooklyn Phllndel~rhia Negro, gp. Y1L-25.

96 Beneficial and Insurance Societies At present t11v rrnl wt;ltr in it. pu+srs+ion is valued at not lcss than $W,I'MJII. One of tllr earliest n(.cc~unts, (.ovvring 1813 and 1614, SIILH~ ro(:e~pts to t11(* anionlll of $1,14*.17; from Ih5" to I%;), in(~ll1sive. rents of the so(.iety'ri buildings, tluc.~, ctc.. $2,t hd7; in Ih!rl, $:l,ltiz'.15, and sirk t111ea: paid o~lt to the amount of $%Ill; grat lli t irs blyli.3 ; fur lr;%2, tl~e receipts frutn all so~trc(~n atnuunt to j;",735.m. Tile 1111jects of the s(wiety wtbre: "To raise 11 fuucl to he appropriated exclusirt*ly towtcrd the s~lpport of zuc.11 of tht. ~neml~crs of said sucietj ss shall h) leason of sickness or inlirtniry,or citller, be iu(bapr~hleof att.rntling to their uiunl vat-ation ctr en~l~log~llcnt, a~itl toward the ~wlief of tl~e wiclo\vs and orl~haw of decca.dcrl Invlnheri;." T11c zuc.irtyc~wlls two pieces of real estatc3 in the centla1 part of the city, out* rcutrtl to tweut,~ c.olorc~l I'illnllies,and the other a sturc nntl d\vrlling occ~~pietl hy three furnllics. 'I'hvre are a Iargr rit~tnbcrof beneficial and insnrarl(!e socictles in Sew York IIOW, as in other cities. Canada There were' in ('hatham xswciations formed. c-.tllrtl 'I'roc 13antls. Ti.ev wcre ron~posed of colored people of both sexes, associated for their own improverneut; tllc~r ohjects were many: I$or general interest iu each other's welfare; topnlsne such pln~is and ob~ects as may he for their inntual advantage; to improve their schools and inclnce their race to send their children into the ~chools; to break down prejudice: to bring the churclies, so far as possible, into one body, and not let minor differences divide them; to prevent litigation hy referriug all disputes among themselves to a colnmit,tee; to stop the beggiug sgst.em (going to the United States aud raising large sums of money, of which t,he fugitives neyer received t,he benefit); to raise snch funds among themselves as may he necessary for the poor, the sick and the destitute fugit.ives uewly arrived ; t,o prepare themaelves ultimately to bear their due weight of political power. The first True Hand was organized in hlalrlen, in Septeml~er,lM,consisting of 600 members. It is represented as having thus far fulfilled its objects admirably. Snlall mont~hly paytneuts are made by the memhcra. The receipts have enabled them to meet all cases of destit,ution and leave a surplus in the treasury. In all other places whrre the hands have heen organized the s:tme good results have followed. There were in 1856 fourteen True Bands organized in various sections of Canacla West." The beneficial societies are thus seen to be uuivessal among colored people ant1 conducted in all sorts of ways, from the simple fortn noted in 0 3 to the regular iusurance society. No accurate estimate of the income of these societies is possible. Their history in Philadelphia is instruct,ive on this point: Judging from the figures here anti in other citics, and remembering that the insurallce society is largely replacing the old beileficial society and that the coontry districts have fewer societies thau the city, it seems, to hnea,rd a guess, tht between a clurtrter and a half inillio~l dollars am still a~inually paid to Negro beneficial societies. As has bceii said the purely beneficial societies are being absorbed into larger insurance societies. The first Negro insurance society appears in Philadrlphitt : * Urew: The Refugees.

97 98 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans The year IS10 witnessed the creat,ion of the African Insurallce yompan Y, \~1lic:]1 was located at xo. 159 (now 539) Lorr~hard street: Joseph Randolph presideut; Cprus Porter, treasurer; William C:olenian, secret:rry, wit,h a capil tal stock of $5,000. '(The inembers of t,his company are all colored persons,', stated iu the direct,orie;i for 1811 aud In the latter year it was located at 155 I,oml)ar~l street, whiell appears to have h?en t,he reside~cc: of its wllose lwofc~sion was given as '&teacher." We tint1 llo traces of it after thii year; some uf its policies are yet preserved in the falnilies of the insured.* is thus The tra~lsition from beneficial to secret and insurar~ce ~oeieties (1t'~crit)~d in Vir~inia : As soon as tlle colored man became free he formed all kiudn (,f aasuciations for mutual protertiou, miany of which exist t,oday thoiigh in sornewllat moditied ferule. These orgimizatiuus were foiiudetl for the plirpose of caring for the sick aild furnishing decent hurial at deatli. No attention was l)aid to diff e r? of ~ xpe, ~ ~ and very little to healt,h conditions. The same joining fee charged regardless of age, and the same 1nonth1-y dues paitl. The :~mon~lts 1);1i(l for iuitiation fee in t,llesc " Reuuvolent khxic:t,ies" was frolll $23, lo $3.00. llo~lthl~ dues of 50 cents were generally charged. The airiount paid for sick clues wa.s regulated t)g the hp-laws of tl)e \rarioue societies and raugetl from $1.50 per week to 85.0IJ. Melnl~ers \\-ere t.nken in on the reet~niuleuclatio of friends. These or#:trlizatioiis were torined ljy tile hulidreil in the cit,ie.s of Virgiliia, a.nd inally of them served ;I good purpose iu tll:lt the 1)eople were hrnllght together frie~dly iutercollrse estal,lic;hed. These societ.irs \\ere klinw~l by their n;llnes a~ld Inan>- of them were long and :ious Heg:tlia of all kintls JYcrr worn %lid the society h:1vilig the greatest ulnoliut of rc:pali:i v7:ts the 1110st popular Fro111 pnyi11g 110 attel~tio~~ to tl~e laws of healt.11 and t.:~kilig inperso~~swit)~ illetlical r~~.ztilill~lti~ll, lllituy Of tllese OI'#:illi~%ti~>ll~ f01111d tllemselrej loatled down with large amo~tuts of money d11e ou accollilt of 111ipa~i(I sick dues :111d rle:~til heliekits. hlnuy of khem 11ave gone to tlte w:~ll altd tl1el.e relnaills lit,tlr ri) tell that they ever existed [II the early eightics t.he c:olorecl people began to take iiisurauce in white ~-o~iip:t~~iee recl~~iring a an~ull weeklyl~ayrnent :r~ltl giving ill retor11 t,herefora drat11 I~enclit, :tnd ill some it~sta~~ces sick tlites. As the w~iir~u~~ts cllarged were s~~~:tll and 110 troul)lr was attxchetl hecmiscof the payi11rnls king made to :t"elita at the 11oi11rs, tile gru\vtll of tllese societii?~ \\-:IS Some of!hew per,sou;i 11einp Inow iuquisi tire tllan others PIIIIU~ that the :i~n~ruuts p:iid ou accuul~t* (!I colored persow were srn:~llrr th:ui the amounts paicl to whites for the sanlepre~niu~ns. r)rcidillg :~t once tl~:~t t,his was unjust, the inore euterprising ~ueulhers of t'lie race hegsn to devise ways and means tc~ 1)re:rk clown this clisoriil~iuation by the estnlilishiug of colorcd iusurance c.o~upauies r~ltl Ly at.tarllii~g an i~~.~nrance feature to sovie ties already organized. The Iirolnoters of those val.ious co~np;~nie:: liacl uo experience whatever in iu;;iu'ailcr, ~ L Iit I ~ 11vveroure o(!(!urret\ to tl~ein that all sii(:(~edsfill insllrailce is 1,:~setl on soine well eitn1)lished mortality t:~ljle. Nu iuvt,stigations were niatle in order to find out t,he relat,ive rate of tlie culuwd and white r:ir:r*. Iu order to secure thc Irl~siness fro111 white cu~l~p:tnivs tlle colnmon attei11l)t was t,o adopt. n rate lower than that cllarged hy tllc \I-hite companies sud to pay therefor more 1)enefits. The \roods are toll or the gr:t\'(!s of t'hese -- *A Hist<~l.). of the Ii~surnllce Conll~nu~ of North Alllericrr,, t be: olcltxst flrr and Inarille insurunce COIIIIIHIL?. 111 AIII~~~cu). Tlre Negro sucirty wns forlnvd ill 17!% Cf Pl~ilr~~lrlphl& Nvg~o, p. 23.

98 1 earlier companies which failed for the want of kuowletlge of 1,usiness. * I The The United States Peoule's Mutual Aid Assoclati~~n... 1 following is a, list of the larger Negro industrial insurauce socicties now operating: Unlon hlutual Aid Assoclatlon....Jacksouvllle, FIa.. Cordclcl hlut.urtl and F'lrr Insurance Co.....(:ordele, Gn. Atlanta Mutual Insurnncx? (!I).... Atlanta. Ga. Mutur~l RencHt Soclrty...Rnltinlore, Md. Rcnrvolent Aid 11nd R.ellef Assooifltlon...Anunpolis, hld. Toilrra' hlutonl Inwrunce Co.....(:~~?ensl)oro. N. C!. Progressive Benefit Associntlor~...C.'hnrI~ston, S. C'. S~~rth C:arolinn Mutual mid Provident Assocletion..... IIU~~IA~III, N. (1. Unit4 Sttiteq 1,ife IIISUI.RIL(.~ CO.....(!h~~rIeston. S. C. Metropolitan hlutunl Bellefit Assoeiatlon......Chnrlest.on, H. O. American IAfe and Beneflt Innurunce Co..... Uurham, N. C:. The Home Insnrancr Co.....Cho.rlevton, S. (1. Pled~uont Life Irlvnr~nce Oo.... Greensboro, X. C. (:arollon Mutuul Life In~urance Co..... l)urilnnl, N. (:. Toilers' Mut,ual Llfe Insurance Tnrhol.o, N. (!. Ke.vstolle Aid Yoclcty......Phlladelphin, Pn. Northern Aid Bc~drty..... Phllndelpl~la. Pa. R~li~l~le Ald n.nd In~pro~ement Soclety....PhlIndelphIn, Pa. Rlutunl Ilnprovenwnt. Rociety..... Washington, D. Cl. N11.tionaI Benefit AsSocIn~tlon..... Washington, I). (:. Hand in Hund Fraternity..... Wasblnpton, 1.1. (:. Cfuaruntre Aid ond Rellef Roolety...Savnnnnh,(ffb. Anlerlcan Beueflcifll Insurance ( Richmond, Va. Hlchinond BeneHdnl Insurailce (, Vn. Vlrginla Benaflclal Iusuranoe Norfolk, Va. Star of Zlon Kellel mid Acddent Corpora tlo~~.... Boydton. VIL. I:nitrd Ald Insurance C'CI... Richmond, Va. Benel-olent and &lief Association...Gu thrle, Okln. Lincoln Bencflt Asaoclntll~ll... Rmleigh, N. C. Pimh~s Mutual Altl Society... BR I tinlore, hld. St. Jnmrs Reneflclal Socletp.... Balti11101.e~ hld. Co-operntire T~~surc~nre Han~lIhnl, Mo. Unlou (:ent,rnl Rellef.... Florence, Ah. Independent Benevolent Order..... Georgla Grand Uulted Order of True Reformers......Rlchll~ond,V&. Indepcntlrnt -- - Order of St. Lake..... Richmond, Va. Home rrotectlve Assol:latlon.... People's Mutual Ald Assoclatlon..... Helena, Ark. Tlir Alyhn Insurance (20... Washlngt.on, D. C. Industrinl Bnvings RocleLy..... Wllmlngton, 1)el. Mutual Insurnnce ( Athens, Ga. Gec~rglf~ Southern Home Ald Insurnnce Co..... Augusta, Ga. Stnnd~rd Beneflclal and Relief C!o...Bnltln~ore, Md. People's Benetlcl~~l and Frntrrnal Co.....Baltii~lore, hld. Cosluopolltan Benefldal Assoclntlon t. Paul, Mlnn. Long Island Industrial Association..... Brooklyn, N. Y. IJulted Aid Benevolent Aasoclatlo~~....New York, N. Y. Chlldren'~ Ald Society....Cindnnati, Ohio Report of the Hriulpton Confer~nce, No. 8, pp ,IX.

99 100 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Mutual Reliable Ald Society... Philadelphia, pa, Fidelity Mercantile Fraternity Norfolk,Va. (:onsum~ra' Go-operative Fraternity... Norfolk, Va. IJnitrd Rr~~therhood Frnternity....Norfolk.Va. The liet makes no pretelltions to conlpleteness and co~~ld be greatly extendetl. F;11ch Negro insurance societies have had various rxterilal tliffirulties:.\fro-hn~elican insurance companies were forging ahead so rapidly that the legislature of Virginia passed a law with the expressed l>urlnse tu pnt the.ifyo-amecicau co~npanies out of hnsinesa, during the year of 1903, aud raise the state 1ic:ense of ins~~ra.uce cotnpauies to$'?00 and \ per cent on gross receipts. These enactn~entssimply caused the Afro-A~nerica~ c~)n~l)anies to host,le Illore ;tu<l thcy paid the taxes. These legislators nlet agaill; passed a law to this efiect: In order for insurance companies paying sick and death claims to,:.,,~~tin~~e to do l~usluess they iuunt deposit in the state treasury the ronnd sum of $lo,f~()t) as a security to their policy holders. Many thought th~t Virginia woulcl Ile a grave yar~l for Afro-American ina11rmlce colnpanius. \vhile ageuts ou their route told Afro-Anicricaus holding policies in.%fro-h~nericau corn- ),anie;i, that, their Inouegs were lost :~ud t,l~ey had hel.ter join the whitr. conlpa- (lies. 'rhe Virginia Beneficial and Insurance ('o.,ancl three other Afro-Xlnerii:au cvn~pauies il~cliriduallg put up their $IO,lMJ and tixli~y there are Illore Afro- Atnericall iusnriince ~(~n~pi~nies, with liun~e offices in the st,ate, iloing h~~siness t.11im there are white. f hiost of the laws referred t20 nrr to protect lmliry holders, but the Negro so~ieties lia,ve lrotirrtl that Sont,ht:rr~ lepislatur~-: ~)nly began to w.walie11 to this nced of protection when Negro societies begm driving tllr v.ltit,el: out of busirlew. \Ye tind 011 investigation tl~at in the state of TTirgini:~ quite a nunlher of insllra1ic.e orgauizations haw heen formed, itnil in the selwrt of the Auditor of Pahlic- A ~ou~~ts fur the ye:lr I!w, wc til~d tl~c folio\\-in# re1~11rt which will give :-oillr icle;~ of the w:~guit~lilr of the i~~snrnnce husincss ;L-: cu~~ltlctecl 1)s Ntsu,rr~es in the state of Yirgillia. There are cluite a num1.1erof insrlrxnce oompanies i~ntl fraternal au,.ieties ill the.=txt.e that do uol n* yet. malie relwrts to t.11~ Auditor..kccorrli~lg to the otticial directory of the city of Hich~nond t,llcre nreiu th;~t rity a1oue;;inteeu insnrauce culllpauies coudu(!tcti hyn'egroes: Allrrrictin Benefit... Ric.hni~mrl Nrnrflt Htru then1 Ald Society of Virginia... IJnitrd kid... ~encroirllt.%la e.l~d'~elit?f kss~~ciai~on... (:rrrud Vou11tn111 I: nltcd Order True Reft~m1ers. -- If a complete report cr~~~ltl I,c had of the business \vhic.l~ the colr~rerl insnrmi:e companies ant1 the fraternal societies are doing in theatate of Yirginia it t >-e\\ Tork 4 yr.

100 Beneficial and Insurance Societies 101 wonltl show that more tliar~ 300,000 colored men, women and chiltlren carry some form of insurnnce. This meaus a great deal for the bi~sinesr; conditions of the people of this state, si~:ce these organizations not only provide for the relief of the policy holders in sickness, but u. large part of t,he mouey paid out on t'he ac'count of death claiiiis f~urls perui:tnent investine~it, in varinus form^.' The career of our Negro insurm~ce society has bee11 so re~nrtrkable that it deserves especial study. Xost of the following facts are from a United States Gooern~uent investigatiaii: The l'l'l~e Reforiners comtit,utes prolml~ly the most ren~arkal,le Negro organization in the country. The association has its Iiendq~iarters in Kichmond, Yn., aud its hist,ory in brief is as follows: The Orand Fountaln The association was organized in.jannary, 1881, hg Rev. \?'illism Washiugtun Rrowne, nu ex-slave of IIahersham county, Ga., as a fraternal beneficiary institution, composed of male and female memlrers, and began with 100 menlbers nut1 a (:apit,ai of $150. 0u April 4, 1!W, or over t ~ years v later, the circnit cwurt of the city oe Richnioud, Va,.. granted a rcgnlar charter of inc:orporatiou as u joint dt~~li eoinpauy tu Hrowne andhis associates uncler the name of 'LTbe ant\ Fouotaiu of the Iiniteci Order of True Rrl'oroiers." The chief 1JUl.l)OdP of ir~rorpriratio~~ was tu provide what is to be Icnow~i as an e~ldovment or nintual I~euetit fnnd; the capital st,ock \vas "to he uot le6s Lhau $1IN) nor more than )10,001l, to he clivitled iuto shares of the value of $5 each ;" the company was to hold real estnte "not. to exceed in vnlue the sum of ("5.000;" the principal office aas to be kept in the city of Rinhmontl, and oflicers named in the charter for the year were Kev. William W. Rrovme, Ricl~moud,Ta., Grand Worthy Master; Eliza Allen, Pe tersburg, Va., (2 rand \Vo~th~- Mistress ; 1i. T. Q~~arles, Asl~lnud, Va., Grand Worthy Viee-hlaster; 8. W. Sutt,on, Ric?hmond, Va., (:rand Worthy Chaplain; Peter H. Woolfdk, Ricl~iuond, \'L, Grant1 Worthy Secretary ; Rohert I. ('lu~ke, <:eut,rslia, Va., (i~and Wort.hy Treasurer. These, with six others, composed the Board of Directors for thc first year. Tl111s the Troe Reforiners started on their way as n fnll-fledged joint st,ock corporation, whose chief aim was t,o provide a, form of what is kllow~i as mutnal I~enefleial insurance For its members the caharter was a~nendccl so that. a part of section 2 should read as follows: "Tl~e said corporatiou shall issue certificates of ~neinhershil) t,o it,s meml~ers and sllall pay death henelits to the heirs, assig~w, pcrrion;tl or legal representat,ives of the deceased meinhers ;" and section 4, as follows: "The rc:a eiit,ate tu I J ~ hrltl iil~all not exceed ill value the sutn of five huutlred tl~ousantl ($.ilh),(loo) dullar*." I'p to I)ecember, MII, the lasl. rc+port of the organization shows that it had p:~id in desth clai~ns $ci(xj,oo\>, aud ill sick, $l,:fiu),ln)o, anti t,hat the rnemhershi~) was over :~O,OO(J, having increased 1H,O(KI iu the prereding year. Tl~e iucrease in t1reut.y yeam froin s n~embership of 100 and a capitd of $150 to a ~nernl~ership of over.i!l,olkl, and with real est;~te aggregating $JL3,.iOn in val~~e, (wnstitutes a11 excellent showing. Rnt it is uot the growth nor even the existence of t,lre Grmld Fountaiu of the True Reforinera as a ~nnt,unl insurance ansoc:iation, with its sinall arully of employees, that. causes it to be considered here; it is the affiliated by-products, to n6e arl il~tlustrial expression, t.11at are of interest and thac may prove t,o be of great ecouoinic value to the Negro race. t The relmrt of t h order ~ for 1'307 with the "by-products " or atiilint'ed departtnents is as follow-s: The Fonntain 1)epsrtment hea grown from fonr lhvntainu or lodges in lss1, to 2,678 Fountains or lodges in Jaunary, I!W. The 100 ~neml)cre have gro~rll -- Halnpton Oo~~ferrnce. No. 7. t Eullr.tli~ of tbe United Srntes I)epurtment of Lnl~or. Nn )~. W7-11.

101 102 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans to more than lli0,00(1, who hare heen initiated int.o the ortler,nnd of whom there are now benetited in the Fountains tw,li3i. Thew h:we been X,:B2 deaths in tllp senior Fount,ain, for which there has been paid $97!!, , The joining fees of this department are from 84.M to $6.60, and persons are adnlit,terl flmm 18 to 60 years of age. 3Iont,hly dlle~, 5s CCUts for eight nlonths and 61) cents for four months are pic1 into the Founbain by each member. N, extra tax or a.ssess~~lentis levied to pa.y the death henelita. In 1885 there was organized and put in o1)eration a ciel)artment for the ~hildren known as the Hosehud 1)cpart~ment. For b\~t.llty-one years this depart- ~niut mas in opcrnt.ion under the ~n:magcn~cnt of t>he (;rand Fo1ultaiu anti more tllan MI,IWX) cllildren 11:~ve heerl entered into this (kpartlllent. C:hil(lren are t,alten from 2 t,o 13 years of age. The joiuing fee is 60 monthly dues are I(; ccnt,s. Sirlr i~enefits range from $1 down to 95 cents per week, accord. ing tr) the length of t,ime sick. There have l)een '757 deaths in this class for wllich t,lie sum of $!LH.'L14 h:~..; heen paid. The class departn~ent of the Rll~trinl Renetit Degree was introdncecl in 1885 for the llurpose of paying to rnemhers of the Fountain department an additional ;unoout in death claims of from $200 to $1,llOlI. This tlepartmen t, like the clt,hers, has gro~~n and increased, from time to time, 11ntil t.otlay there are j,$)&) members. There have been 1,131 deaths ill the tw-enty-two years, for which there ha6 beeu p ~id to the heirs of deceased melnhers $364,;%4.50. The following tables will give t,he ages, joinirlg fees and Clues of e;tch of the classes : Class "B" Table ---- IXI $ to YO :I0 tn.g....i to LO to to.xi to (XI -55 to rio... 4 "6 ~rlcuul Quartevdues ly A!WY Class "E" Table Class "M" Table

102 Beneficial and Insurance Societies The I~euefits pait1 Iqr all dopartn~enta tc~ date I~ave I)een : 8,322 Fountnln deaths... $ $17!,,4$0.5.i '727 Kosrl~u dt!tl ths.... %.?ll.!~ 6l2(:l:1as H deaths... W,44$.,> &!I1 CIRss E deaths... 2W,i14.!L5 1 C!I11ss RI death N1 Total. 10,10:3 cleuths...$,!lh9.26 This alnouut pnid in death heuefits is not all that has been paid, for the various sullordinnte Fountains hare paid over a ~nilliou and al~alf dollars in sick he~~etits, making a grand tot,xl paid to nle~nbers hy t,he (:mud Fountaiu and its snl)vrdinat,e lodges of Y;2,$6l~,H8!1.2j. Savlngs Bank Iu l&!i the i1ecessit.p for a re1)oaitory for the funds of the organizatiou was made very evideut wheu at t.lre organization of a suhordiuate Fountain in ('llarlotte co~mty,t'irginia, the funclscollect~ed were entrusted to a whit,e storekeel~er hy the trnasuxr for safe keepi~ig. The white storekeeper passed the word ainongst his neiplil)ors,anc\ it van cleter~niuctl hy I.hem to 111.ealz up orgsuizntiou. Fecling I~etweru the race3 W:IS runniirg very higlr 1)ecause of a recent lynvl~iug ill the neighl~orhc~ocl. This stra.ugc coudition of affairs let1 to t,l~e org:iiiizatir)n of t,he savings Ixiuk. 'I'he Snviugs Hank oe tl~e (;rand Fountain. United Order (if True Iirfurn~erp, W:LS chartered by t,he \"irginia Legislature March, 1888, ant1 went into operation April 3, 1889, receiving $1,200 on dr- ])orit the first clay. The capital stork was p1ar.c.d at $100,00i), each nhare being $5. The by-laws l~rovirletl t1i:tt only members of the Grand Pount,aiu could take stock, aurl one persou wan only allow-ed to t:rke a limited an~o~unt,. In this way it was sought, hy the founders to perl)etuete t,he Ilank and prevent t,he possiltle poo1in-g of tl~r stovk. 111 thirteen years from the date of the charter the whole anlouut of raljital stock was taken up. The b:~uli receives deposit,s of frum one dollar up, aud pays inkrent at the ratcof 3 per cent ou all deposits. The huainess for the first lire ruollt~hs of the hailk nn~ouuted to $9,88128 in deposits. Tod:~y it has: Cullltnl stock pald in... $ I~li1:tWl (10 Hurpl~~s lulicl... 95,OOCJ (XI Undlvldrd proflts, less R~)IO~UI~ paid for Inlrrest, expenses aurl taws.....?1>,18r 95 Lncil\-irluul dep~~slts subject to check ,S'Lti iri Ti111r wrc1tic:rtes of tleposlt ,746 I1 -- Tc)~:LI....$ %o,w!i 82 The Refurmers' Mercantile and industrial Association The Reformers' Men:autile and Inrlnstrial Association was incorporated 1)ecelnlwr 14,lSK~. This clepartluent condilcts a dgstern of stores doing an ann11al t)usiness of over $IIH),(I()O. The priucil)ai one of these stores is located at. Hiohtnond, Va. The Reformer The Zirforr~ler, a weekly newspaper wit,l~ a circulation of 19,OIH) copies, is publislled hy the Reforiners' Rlerca~~t,ile and Industrial Assoc.iatiou. A general 1)rinting deprt~nent is i:onil~~cted l~y the Hgfowac,~., where all classes of printing is ueat,ly and q ~~ickly done. Hotel Reformer The Hotel Reformer, located at No. 9l@ Nortli Sixth street, Rich~~~ond, \'a, has acc~oo~rnodation for 150 gnests.

103 104 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Old Folks' Home An old Folks' Home located at. Westham, Henrico connty,v%, six miles west of Rich~no~ld, is established for the beuefit of the old members of the race. Westham farm, on which the home is located, cousi&ts of 634~ acres, of which 900 acres have beeu cut up for Browusville, a color~d town. The Oltl Folks7 Home is snpported by volunt,aly cou t'rihnt.ions made by the various meru1,ers of t,he orgauizatiou and the frieutlly public. Iun1a,tes are tnketl regardless of t.heir religions belief or fraternal counection. Reformer Bulldlng and Loan Association, incoroorated The Reformer Builtling altd Loan Association, ~ncorporated under the lams of tlle State of Virginia, has as its ohject the enc~oura~emeut of industry, frugnlity, home builtlillg and saviug alnollg its members. Its oflices are located at No. G0-I North Sec-ond street, Xichr:~o~~tl,l'a. Real Estate Deoartment The Real Estat,e 1)epartment of the (:rand Foluntaiu mas estahlished in 1'30% ant1 controls the propert,y holdings of the organizat,ion. It has under its control tweuty-seven buildings and three farms, with a value of.$~g~),(jw, which belong t,o t,he inst,it~~tion, and leases for the beuefit of the institution twenty-three otller buildings. Brief summitries of the business of thirty other Kegro industrial illsurance societies follow: 1. Prog~.essive Henetit Associatiou, (:harlest,on, S. C.-Fees 5 to 40 cents per \veek, to he wllectetl by agents. Sickness is reported at the office, and paid one \vcek afte~ report on doctor's c:ert.iticate. neath claims are pnid one week after reported. Bnsiness : 1W4, $10,7-11; 1'306, $10,108; lwi, $10,331 ; I!Jlli to J~lly 1, $4,(i3%. 2 The Amrrictan Life and Benefit Insurattc!e C'o., Durham, N. C.-Chartered Fehr~lury, 1:KNi. Business: Amount paid in 1!10lj-7, $6;245.15; alnou~t paid out, $3,"5l1.7H. 3. The h~nerican Heueficial Insurance Co., Ricl~moucI,V~~.-T\vo hundred st~, Brauch estalilial~~~lents in all cities 1111rl towns of \Tirginia and the District of ('olu~nl)is. E+usinc?s : l!ki2-3, $~il ; lwl3-4,!+iio,gg7.w; l!kl4-5, y;;c;;2isnl; 1905-fi, gs,%l.iio; l!)uti-7, $3!$-153.S4. Total 1)aitl up r:~pit:il, $15,000. Real

104 d - 7. L1nited Aid anrl 13enevoleut A;isoc.iation of _%n~erica,.terr;ey ('ily, I?. J.- Rrancli ~stnhlishments: Rew York (Tity, Ken- Rochelle, Tarrytnwu, Wliitc~ Phius, Nyack, aud Saratnga Springs, S.Y., Lnlie\vwcl, Astrury Park, Newark. N. J., ('olumhi:~, S. C. Illsures spainst sicliuer;s,accidcut and cleat11 and fire in rhe irlsurance departnicnt. 111 the real estate tlepart,lnent, rciits, Icascs, huyn anrl sell.;; t:&kes firfit aud S~COUCI m~rtrzagw, ~ n loans d 111oney. ELIS~II~SS: I,nr t ~ C I L t,he ~, rei:eipts fur the Insurance I)ep:trtment, $17,liS".iJ; iu the Rno.1 F,t:ite Del~artment, $11,501.41, ~nalriilg a total of $.'!1,2153.,5(;. Paid out last Scar for >i(:k claims, ~l,ii'hs..',o, aod $2, in de:~th claims, total $7,152.75, leaving a I):~la,ucc of $lo,.i"~l; capital, $10,0110. Xeal estate owued: Kew Tork and New.Jewry. "The Tiuited Aid and Ueue\~nlc.nt Associatiou was orgauized June 10,1901, and incorporated 1111der the laws of tltr St,atc of htc\v Jersey iu the strlne year. 011 June 117, l!ioi, the comlmlijr had heen in oper:~tion six ycars. Since that time. we have insured al~out 15,flUO personr;. Our ren.lty company is incorl,or;~t,ed ft,r $25,ocN." 8. Uuiou Benefit Association, Savaanah, (:a., willt 25,000 nlcnihers. Branch offires : Atlanta, C;:1., (:Iiarlestoil,R. C., Thon~asvillc, Ckit., All~ang, Cia., Heaufort. S, (I., Rinw~r, ita., Uluffto~i, S. C., Gnyloil, (:a., l');~ufuckie, S. (.'., H~i~n~~~c?rville. S. C:., Jesl111, Ga. Mi~t~ixl co-operat,i\-e upon the absessnlent pl:ln. Totti1 iucomt for I!AlO, $%&,"Y"."O. "The ne;ir~r:iation WRL' orgnnized ill 1!l03; since that time we h:~w written up nvcr $500,1)00 wort11 of iues~. The bi~siue~s is\l:~liy iucrcasiqg ~LIIG~ \v:t~~autd over LY)o employeeh." 9. The (:allileal~ Fisllermcn.Joint Stock Ass(~ci,ztion owns a huilrling \vorth FR,i100. Tialtioiorc, Md., ICJOtj. 10. The Stuck Association crf t,he (:rautl T7uiterl Order of tlie Sow and Daagllt,el's of (h~otl Hope. Raltin~orc, Mtl. 11. The (:rand CTuitetl Order ol' tl~e Sons aud Danphters of J[oses owus ;I bujltling worth $9,000. Haltininre, hid. 12. Benrvcrlc~~t a,ud Relief.Lsst~cia(i~ru, (Gntllrie, 0lils.-Capital stock $i,(lol~, 18. (.'o-operative Ins~~mmir-e Co., II~nuil)al, 310.-The colnpatly is al.mnt onc year old ant1 it has 1,000 meiilbers. 11Nlii. 14. S:ltional Beuetit Association,.Jacksonrille, Flit.--C'apital stock $lo,lh)o. 16. The Afro-American Iurl~istrial ant1 Ilelletit Associa.tion, Jacksonville, Fla.-Paid up ical)ital atoek $10,O(I0. 11;. Toi1er.J Mu t,ua.l Life Insurnnce C'o., Ta~lmro, N. C'.-I)ireclors, 11 ; basiueas dolie in , ~2,9F2,86. No cbapital ; au asseislnent company. " ('0111- mellcetl hu;iness hiarrab.5, 1WO." 17. Shr of Zion Iielicf Accident Corpnrstion, Bo,vrlton, T7a.-3Ieli~I~errl~il~,!!.Xlll. Emefits: From 5 ro 49 years 18 cerlls to 25 cents. Xf ter twelve ~non t11.c a melaher is 1)euetited 11s n policy of $100, wliich matures in twelve or fol~rteen years, follo~vetl hy a (wntinned pdic3- of $lmi ~ IfYOl) I at same rates. In the Accident 1)epn.rtlnen t sick and accident and death Iwnetits are paid according to ag~. For $2 IJW week one receives $lw at death-10 per rent every ten year*, minus what yon draw nut. After fivo years oue-half of t,he initiation fee is pait1 hack, on writ,tpu al>l)lication, complying with t,lle rules of the Supreme Fouutain. After thirty years n~ernhership policies are paid off. Fees: $3 t,o join,.?(i crnts 11er nlontll ; in citg,f,o crntr lrer illuntll. Benefits fro111 $25 tto $3. Calrital stock. $lo,lllhj. Business done iu two years, lw6-7, about $lll,oljo, with a paid capital of $1,(lD0. Rrd eshte, $2,b01l. Yll~artcrcd 1113der the laws 11f Tirgiuia May 9, 1004.",Oue of the main features of tlic order ia its Kefor~natio~\ Department, intel~cletl to reclain~ the fallen yrmtlr of the race. 1s. Peoyle's RIut,nal Aid Association, 1,itt.le F:ock, Ark.-Rl'snch etitablishments at P~IIP Nlnff,fIelena, Fort Sruitl~, Texarkana, IT7pne, Marimua,Arka-

105 n a I i T 106 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

106 I Beneficial and Insurance Societies 107 I ( clone ~(II' l!hlii, $3Sl,:X; six rnultl~j: in 1907, $lt;o,l81~. Total c:al~it~l, $.i,ooo. 'it1~~a rtc. Tllr A-wrirt~ou has n a~einhersllil~ of li.wmv Nvnevoleut.ild slid 1:clief X.&ociat~o~~ of Tlaltilnorc, Bnlt~nlo~e, ivti.- wcident henrtits Ercm $l.%l ro $10 per week; death Im~eiits from $:,o to $250. 1)ues rollwtetl :mtl payahl~ 111uut1ily : ('l~ilclreu ILU~C~ 12 pears,.jo (xu ts : acllrl t.3 ill ('1:~s~ B,$l.iul; dulls in ('.lass A, $ % I'roritlent hldical 4itl runcl Burid Associntiun of Chicago, c'l~irago, Peld to Pollcy-holders In W sick nnd nccident clriuls..... $4Y31HO HO 450 death clnlms , Total... $ 57,609 64

107 t n C ḻ -. A AC c (! Ih r) F CIl In I K K L hl ~~ M

108 Secret Societies The chief criticism of tti~se societies is the ~~nscientific basis of their ii~surai~cr business. It is ti of insumnce thro~igl~ wl~icli all gl'ou1js have at one time or a.nother pmsed, but it is today largely discredit'ed hy the best opinion. Its def~ct lies in thc irregular iinpositior~ of the burden of insurance, a11t1 del)endence on li~psed policies t,o 4upply tile needed surpl~ls. Under Massach~lsetts insurance It.gisln.tioir many of these co~npm~ies coultl [lot exist. Nevertlieless, tliero are signs of iinprovement; Iiia~ny societies, like the True Refor~rle~w, are gradually adopting gradua,ted paymen tc: OII a scientific cla,ssification a.nd others will follow.* There is also wide rooni for peculation n.ud tlisl~oile~ty in industrial insurance. Prot,ectivc? legislittioil, especially in the. South, is driving ant t,hr worst offenders, but, some still reulain. 011 the whole, however, t.l~ese societ.ies Iiave done threc: thitigs: (a) E~~conragecl econninic co-operation and confidence. ([I) (lorisolitla.trd s~i~all ca.pit,a.l.! C) l'a~~gll t husi~~ess ~nethotls. \Vc: will ~iow take up the kindred secret societies. Section 12. Secret Societies The Masons The Grand Secretary of the Prince Hall Lodge of Massacl~usetts, t.lie n~otl~er C;rnnd Lodge of Negro Ma,solwy ill An~erica,, gives the n~~mher of Negro Masotis as follows: Afric:m Lodge in its hgi~lning had lifteen members. In 1904 I made as c:areful nu investigxtion as the data iu IIIY ~UHSBSS~OII permitted, with the followi13.g result:. -. STATES ;Lodgest Mllemh~rs I' STATES lluilges' Members - I -_- _- -- Ain1,nina IYc 2,Mi Elnnghl forward... 1, Arkansas , R,7W2 hllllnesota Valifornin.....I 14 Hlri Ml~sisullrpl ,4lY Coloradw... ( If, I : I Missc)uri.... Wi (!~nllf%tkllt NRW Jersey J,rl~a.nrr ' 15 4MI New York !lH Illstrlrt of (!olumbia. I North (I~rullntc... H.1 2.%li Florida r Grurgi* !& llll~lois.....% 1 ;5i5 Indlnnn I5U lox lri :W sout,h (!arolim..... XI 7lYJ Knusns ,256 Tennessee... $8 l,w4 Ke~iturky Trxxs.... ::':::I 68 1,I)iB Lo~ilslana... -I1 1,Shl VLrglnla M 2,111 Mnrylu~~il ; Md Weal~lngto~~ l$~i hla%mchusrtts... I1. li West Virginia t:g Bli~l~Igul~ / H1;1 I -- Tc~l~l... 1,YUI 15,?35 ('nrrlntl forwrr~-d... 1,031, I I p"'" L ~- Notr the t&ble on page IIN. Holrie as8uci~tl0ti~ have less 111surn.uoe Ln force at the e~~ri of tht! year than rhry have a-rltten during the yenr. showl~~g many lapses. In other c:bsr.s the flgures show a l~etter ou~~ditio~l.

109 110 Economic Co-operntion Among Negro Americans! (irorgia... I.... 1Illll(>t~... mdinn:~.... lixl Kerltucky... 1,401~ 1,ouiaialill Margl~nr\ Mnasncliusrt ts... nilclrigall... Rlissisvlppi... Mlssaurl I,%\VIL Nzw Jer~ey sew I North U~rolinn Alabama

110 Secret Societies 111 each year.60 that prohably over $LUILIIM 11a.i heen paid wirlow-s and o;phr~ns. The inz~wnnw asxociat,ion 11;~tl 1,~IOO ~iic:~nk~ers in 1Ht18, R I I aaaess~nents ~ of 10 cents per cal~ita at.deslh were marl^. One h~uutlrecl dollars nab paid at death, u~~le~a the 111e111l)er's lodge is in arrears for tl~rec asse3s1nents. This benetit \vas chnngecl iu 190G so a,.: to Ile $100 for persona dying in the first year of insurance. $200 ill seco~ld gear, THO0 in third year and,$r00 thereaft,t!r. Arkansas 'I'otal insurance paid t,o widows a ~ orphans,$l?&i,(nn). ~ d Florida Louisiana "IVr have 7,000 craftl~rnu in our rank., s11r1 with snrh n r~unlher it is not sur- 11rising that we sl~ould have fonrteeu tle,zths a month, or 165 per annum. The prese~lt :LSS~SSI~I~U~ rate is cents for each tlenth, autl fourteel~ aascss~nents arc 11:1id for $1; thus we pay $7;23) IIer 11m11l.h or $S7,L)O(l pcr pear. This is rlie Xreatert amc~unt collec8tecl a.~~tl 1~:tid {jut hy any institution opernt,ec\ :mtl controlled by om race ra,riety kuuwl~ to us in the civilized \vorld. This is n ntart,lin~ st.:~telnent. Iut I I tio111:tt ~ true. 'Phi.; i11st.itutio11 has $I9.lR.L.lj.i lo its credit in threc banks. They havc alw wcently purc:ha.sed 1~0011 acres of laud. (:u\e~~itor Vnrdi~111m am1 ail the othn devils Ihi* side of Ilarlrs caunol. st:~y

111 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Total amount r~ised LWO-19%... $ 5:UJYO 42 (:l~%lnls peid and expenses , Bulance......$ 17.M# RZ Largest amount raised In one yenr ru,5'24 :i5 Mlssonrl Receipts Claims paid 18MJ....$ ~, IM)6... 8, $ 4,m5 UJ... North Carolina Income, 1W5... $ X,5mi Clninls paid... G325 Oklahoma Illcon~e....$ 048 5i Texas Paid out,, 10 years....$ 15fl,00(1 ill1 1W6, income... 11,RiO NI Pt~id out... 4, Balnnce....$ 7, BlnkIng fund, etc... 1,HW C~sh ou hand.... $!l,li:l 1H Thifi endowment policy is confined to the Sol~th and is criticised by Northern Masons. M~~ssachusetts Lhus criticises Mississippi: This association pays $500 to its l~enefiriaries, and costs, IU the way of assessjneiitii, $1 per month, on au estlruated annual death rate of twenty-four per thousand for their seven thousand members. At its last aun~lal report in 1934, it as :il,le tu,llow a 1,alanc.e to the credit of $19,13S.(i5. Auother item of cost 3-hich does not appear in the estimate follow&: Melnhera suspended for nun-payment of due3... Iiimitted... Suspended, all other cnuses..... Expelled... 1)eceosed... The suspension for non-payment of dues and assessments, dimissions and cleat,hs are the net losses of the associat,iorl, which the reinstatements and affiliatio~is fail to balance by Z33, a loss which mast be made good by the continual accession of new members. It is iiot possihle for tthie association to be permauently successfal, and it already shows symptoms of the weakness and decay which llreeedes it,s death. As it becomes older, nud the demands upon its resources illcrease, it will fall to irretrievable ruiu, like all other similar organizations. If it seeks to avoid the inevitable, twocourses only are open, either to recl~lce the beuetit or iucrease the assessments, and this never yetdid more t.llan to post,pone t,he day. It% a mathematical irnpo~sibility always to pay out two dollars for each aud every dollar pid iu. It's a miffortune for ally C4rand Lodge to idvntify it,self wit,li any such ~novelnent. Vital statistics for these associations are given ouly for 1904:

112 Secret Societies Death Rate per 1,000 I For year 1904.) Alnbanin.... A rkansns... ii Misslssl]1p Mlsuuri... %n NonnaI drftth rate per 1,000 {Ainerlc~n experience]. 12 Other enterprises of the Masons are as follows: In Alaha.111a $600 was give11 in $60 scholarships to ten student.;, rl,ntl $60 to the Old Folks' Home at Mobile. Florida, has an Orphan's Home: Receipts, llr(fi......$ 3,! Expeltse :3, Balance... $ Qeorpi:i bar; a Widows' and Orphans' Home and School at Americus, mana.ged by t.r~ist,ec.e elected by the Grattd Lodge. The incwme fur 1901 warns $3,532.70, and expenses $3,240.7S. The HOIIII: was reported out of debt a,ncl wort,h $25,000. Louisiana reports: Twonotable features in blie Grand Master's address mere, first, the arranpcmerits made ill connection with thefrateruity uf Ocltl Fello\r's for t,he of lard aud buildiu:: iu t,hc city of New Orleans for their joint occupant-y. These were purchssed for them at a cost uf $14,000, the building to be retitted at a11 expense of $li,rlou, leased fur a term of five ycnrs, wit,lt privilege of purchase at the expimtion of lease. The second was the cstahlishnleut of a lo~lgr at Belize, British Houduras,under the juriidirt.ion of thcfi1.w. Eureka Grand Lodge. To thisend six brethren journeyer1 to Belize, and with the aid of n rrsident Mason, of the j~irircliotion of T,ouisiana, entered, passed and raised sixty-one randidates, dispensating them under the name Pride of Hont1ul.a.s Lodge, So. 30. Mttssachusetts has published Upton's Kegro RInso~try and rr'ectecl a $.NO ~noii~unent to Prince Ha.11. Illinoia has a Ma~onic Home at Rock Islaud worth $6,000. Ma.rgla,nd and District of Columbia have a Joi~~t Stock Building Association. Tennessee has a Widows' and Orpha~~s' Home. Kentucky rel~orts: The first Keutucky lodge of colored Masons, Mt. Morinh, No. 1, w-as organized by residents of Lonisville in 1,9i0, under t,he jurisdirtjon of Ohio, and for three years met in New Albany,lnd., ou account of the black laws, which forbade the assembling of free people of color. At the expiration of t,lmt time the lodge removcd to Lonisville, and shortly afterwards, while in open camn~unicatinn, their rooms were forcibly entered by t,he police, twenty-one of the bret,l>rcu arrested, oue of wl~onl was Brother (;ibson, the Becret,ary. On arriving at the prisou, the jailers refused to receive them ; the judge of tlir court who was ronsulted, ordered their ~lischarge upon their personal promise to appear for trial the next ~norning. They in a body for t,rial, found the court house guarded by the police, were denied admission, and told to po their ways, say nothing and they wo~ild not again be clisturhed. When we add i

113 114 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans tion necessary.?it. JIorii~li~~creased so rapidly in nun~l~ers that it was twice clividtd, the C4rnuil Lodge establishetl in 1%G. In tweutg-four ymrs the order increased from 14 to 275 lodges. Texas r~ports : The Maaous in Tesasowu ill fee simple 1W acred of good lalid, llnincumhered, It is located in the falnous fruit district of Texas and will bring $50 per acre. 'Phe (fra11~1 Lodge h:is just had erected in Fort Wort11 u Granrl Masonic 'Ikmple :~t, a cost ut' $;&,~iou. The Or;~ncl Lodge paid out to widows iu the last t,en years $~T,o.I)o~. 1'111? local lodges (subordint~te) own $lu0,000 in real property. The local lodges pay their sick niembers more than $30,000 allnually aud they speud $lci,llm) per yea]. t,o bury their denct. If wr t:~ke all the lrlorley out of the local l,,ciyea' trr:lsnriei :~ncl put it in une we woald h:~ve more than $75,(10U. We ha\-e 2-10 workiiig lodges. District of Co1ulnhi;t rtaports: Dlstrlct of Columbia 01.~i,,l Lodge I I S i t I I... $ lj.83tl66 'I'(J~,IL nw<>ont of es])enditurt?s. Ill yews... $ 4,5V4,2IJ amnlult exgen(let1 fur charity, LO ywrs ,581.W -- Total esliended $ li, 176.M T 11a R fnl ill1 111 'el ~ll '01 - Stun total of rrcril~tx in 1U ye:ll's..... $ li4,3s4.n Sunn total <I( 1~xilrnditurra, 111 yrars... :ff,1u5.p.l 8ul11 total rsprnrletl f<,r cllill'ity, Ill?P:lrs... 17,577.3'4 l'ot:tl rsl~r~~ded... 5 b5.0li'l.h'?

114 I Secret Societies 115 III~II. That i.3 trur. and I a t RSI~:IL~IM(I ~IJ UXII it, :IU(I llle \\-hole vrtit;r i.~ uc(~u:~~~itc.ti wit11 the fu't. a.5 \vi.ll as the ('<~rn~nitlc.~, of Arn~~;~gelnc.ut at Lercls. 'I'11osv \vho do II(J~ knov. it ~~ewox~dly, ~IICIV it 1))- the III;I~;~Z~IIYS \\-Irirli are p11111ished in ELI~I~II~ aild a\~~~v~,ica. 111 ~~t~g:~rd to tl~esc(~~~itl point in y(j11r r~t,rr~~~r~uiic-;~t.ioll, I n-o~~ltl IIC,~ ~ur:et ).ou OII a11y oti~el' ~~'(IIIIIC~ t11iili ])erfwl rqr;~lity in every senbe 11f thn wold, :~utl il~stroctir~lis k'ron~ the A. $1. ('. of onr o~cler iu M :L~ last to the ('urnlriitlee of Rlallaqement \vai that uotl~ing should Iw tlr~ur t,hst would int,erfew with the loclprs n11,e:~tly i.stal)lisl~eci here. V-it,l~ regnrtl to the clfrcts which :%ti uniou llliglrt haw U~IOU what ynn justly te1.m t.he slieletou of your order, 1 think the cource you :wr 1)11rsni11g will \-err rwbll nail dowi~ the ~-.t~din-li[l, a~~tl rol~sigu it to ohlirion, and the world \\.ill be let1 turiew it ~IIIOJI~ the things that once were, l~ut are nolv '' no rno1.e forever.:'*.. This spirit of indrl)t:ntl~nt ~i~xnliocss in itr. ~.elatio~~i; wit11 E ~~gli~l~tl 11a.s beell kept I I ~. In for instan(-c. we find this rrsolutio~i: Re~olrerl, That the Suh-cornmitt,ee of Mulagemcut in A11leric:l rlo respectfully represent to the C'o~nlnittee (if Manage~nmt, F2ngln11d, t,l~at we ;tre grtitef111 for Ihe care whic:l~ l~aa heen exercised 111 tlre~n, yet we tlo recper~tfltl1)- sub mit that therc? is n feature in the chsrsctrrs for~uiug the grollp on tl~e 1'. G. Rr. certificates which js o))jer:tionalile, and we do tl~eref(~rr sul~~r~it 10 )-ollr Ilout~ra.11le I~otly that raid crbjectiou 11e 1-e~nontl alld t11a.t that tigure rrllrn.seii tinp tl~r coloretl mall he l~laced 011 :tu equal f~~oting with the ~)tlrers."+ Tllr reports of the Gmntl Secretxry w e a.s Pollows: * BtYioks, pp. 4li, 47. t. Brooks, p. 95.

115 Secret Societies Subordlnste Lodge Reports. Comblned 1m I X52... R MI... lm5... IH.ili... 1 K % '1... 1R5!) lhlu... lxn m..... lfitil... lh NiK... 1Rli7... 1HtiX... 1W'l... 1H70 ill; lodges fxlled to report)... 1.Y7... 1x73... I lu4... IH%? i C18YH... IR!lrll'&XY)... I!XG Airk nwi U'idotus Fu~~eral and ReTwfr ta Ovph~71s 3~nrl. olr~~l purposes The condition of t. he order in various years is thus reported: 1045 Funds Rowipts... $ Elllrndit~re~ %Y Eflects l'hilomatbetin. New York Balance... $ 489 il $ f,x ) 76 Kt~rullt~m, New Tork Wl 64 Unity. Phlladrlphta R:~luilco BO 1, IXIO (XI Phlloine.tbenn. Alhnr~y lx) H5 MI Recelpts Exprnditures (0 Hnlnnce... $ 3000 Ph1lornnt.lieun. Poughkengsle "There were 1, 00) lodges in Amer~ca, 113 Past Grand Masters' Councils, 40.1 Hmaeholds of Ruth and 47 Patriarchies. There were 36, ti58 members and!i, 007 pant officers ; 3, 241 rnenibers had been relieved, 415 t)rothcrs buried, ThX widows relieved, 404 orphans assisted. The ninouu t paid to sick rnemhers was $37,757.82; paid for f uuerals, FLl,00!!.15 ; t.o widows, $6, 057.W ; for charity, $?,YZ(i.!;i ; paid for ot. her objects, $4.&, ; the whole alnouut paid out, $114,066.9!2; amouut inrested, $lik),9$13.15; valur? of property, $ ; balance iu funds, $69,:3li.56; invested, raloe of pro1~ert.y and in fuuds, $343,1W.70.~' " During the yean there were 339 new hrltnches opened. Twenty-four thousnnd, twenty-$in dollars and ninety cent^ was received by the Suh-committee of Management for taxes aud supplies, and the surplus fund increased

116 118 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans from $5.1!1 to $lo,.u)f),bl. Inatead of haring to borrow nloney at exorbitant rates, as the last S. C. of M. were forced to do, the ordcr has ever since carried a large snrylus fund in its trea~urp.~' \\'hole number of Imdgrs 111 good standing ,047 Whole number of Huuseholds In good atandi~~g...!is!$ Nurnber of P. C. M. Coundls In gmcl stnnding Nulnhar of Patrlnrchie~ in good sfaudirlg..... ES Number of Dlstrlct Lodges in goml stundlng Totnl active branches :i,:um Estiuleted uumhe r of ruembera in Lodges... llfi,500 Rutlmn.t~r1 numher of members in Housaholds..... Total n~erubershlp ill all branches ,637 Amount paid to The 'ity of Philadelphia in 1906 ha,d 19 lodges, witl~ 1,167 members; 75 inembers ~.eceived sick benefits, 7 cleat11 berieflts, 8 widows were relieved a,utl 6 widows and orphans buried. Expenditures were : Sickness....$ Funerals...!Ex MI widows and chnvi ty... 1!17 2fi -- Total... $ 9,:W 74 Other expenses..... $ 3, Total... $ Tnrested % 64 Valueof property , Bnlnnce in funds , Total propwrty of all kincfs... 15, Statistlcs. Tenth Session, WOO Whole number of.iurenilr ~ckiities... I31 Whole nulul~er IJI Patrinrcbleu Whnla number of District Orm~d Lodges... :%6 Whole nnmber of District Ho~~seholds Total nurnbcr of all brnnchw... 4,283 Totnl membership of nll hranohes ,350 Whole numbel. of members relieved in 1808-U itiO Whr~le nuutber of wldows and olq~hans rellored... 9,lN Whrrlr nlunbt?~. of n~e~nhers huried... 4,H) Tvtal amount paid for sick R I I IUneraI~. ~....% :%0,540 V~ilue of fu~~ds and property of the order ,150,500 On the occasion of the Forty-eighth G~neral Meeting 1906, held at Slcllrnorld, Va., the orator of the occasion said:

117 Secret Societies the past six years ending wit11 the l~egiri~~iug of this B. M. C., after sp?ndinp in rouutl numbers a millio~~, prwitling for the sirk. burying the deceased. relieriug the widows and orphans and meeting ot, her.just obligations. t.he order reprcjsents inresttneuts that have passed the three million dollar mark. "A certain re1inl)le Philadelphia paper. not counocted wit. 11 our order. stated in a recent is~ue words similar to these: 'The G. U. 0. of 0. F. is erecting in tl~ia city :L hundred thou~all dottar buildiog owned and wholly uontrolled by Xegroes on the Aniericau coutineut.? That we t. each industry and frugality. that weeucourage Llie brethren tolay asirla for t. he gloomy clay. as a means ' to dry the widow's tear. ' ' the monrner's lieart t. o cheer. ' om progressive Enrluwn~eut Department. s are living evidences.'" The ~nemhership was as follows: Whnle nuunher of nctirc Lod-es enrolled Wholr 11unibe.r of aatire ~ou~eholds enrolled... 2.M6 Whole liuuihrr of nctive P. G. RI. Counctls enr,, llad... '274 Whnlr uunlber of active. Turrnile Y(~clcti~:s Wl~ole nu1uht.r of t'atl'i:~r~hies Whole 1nu11i111.r of 1). it. Lodqrs... 3!4 Wllults nui~ilw~' of 1)istrict H~useholds... 2ti Ili~rei~se over last report ti41 Numerical Strenxth TotRl mtg bershlj, in 51 ~ry&holds... 79;343 Total ~~icu~t~ershlp in 811 Couiictls... 6, 310 Totnl nieinbershlp 111 all Patriarchies Total illembership in all Jurenilcs... U,'L 45 Total mrrnt~ership in all branches... '&5, (I31 Increase over lnst report , l!d The fmanciw. l statenleiit ScK is as follows: Receipts...lX!rJ-18!l4...$Pi, 026!X7 LJisbursements. 18!l% Balf~n~e cash... $11) Receipts...I $ i Z>Isbur~eluentu..I895-Ib'i , Bnlnnce cash... 7, Keceipls... IHHP $%, Uisburse~i~e~its.M!1 7.1AW... YH Bfilnnce cash !El Rrceipt.~...I89 Y-1W % I)lsburseiuent. s..189u-i!xx) 'i82 53 Balance , Receipts...I930-1W?....$ LJlsbUI'Selllc11tS..!%XbI'Xl:!... 34, 58t) 69 Bsla~lce % 63 tleceil)ts...1m 2-1\04....Sa, 196 fk3 Disbursements IMP S Cash Imlnnoe... 18, $53 51 Racelpts...19 M-lIKM3....St%, Disburseriients..1M) M 01 Bnlaiice cus h... $

118 120 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Summary ('R~II t,ala~ice on hand An&ust,.71, 1!2M.....$ IU,HIl I7 Receipts fro111 all sources dlu'ing term... hb.$v6 (16 -- Totnl (1)9,7U 58 Bnlnnce cnsh.....drb,il:37 61) Details of Receipts, Receipts worn Lodges..... $40,734 a$ Receipts from Housrholcls... Id,!iG4 47 Receipts from Councils.... 1,R!,8 $4 Rrcelpts fro111 PRtrlnrehles XU Keceitrts fro111 Dl9trlct Gmnd Imdges "3 Receipts fro111 Ilistl'ic't Hnusehr~ldw... luti 79 Rec.elpts froll~.ju~enile Snci~tirs (; Receipts from Interest dcl~oaits... 1,W 05 Kccrlpts frou Odd Frllows' Jo~lrl~nl... :lo11 Receipts frwll rrlltuls ) Total....% 6"C'?tl Ofi Dlsbursernents, {)(Id Fellows' Jolirnnl....$11,H.2;317 Snlurles nnd clerk )lire... 10,IGl I15 Traveling exlxmses of the R. U. N. and Grnnd Aiid1tol.s Pontnv exl~ress ~htlrg~s, tel~l~llotlc sel~ice , c,mce?.&r, ens, Ice and laundry.... ~ Total Recelpts Tlltal recrlpta i,lll3?g Interest on deposits..... I,MV 06 Rtqtals Grunt1 total n,!i7~ 06 Cash Expenses J~nnnry.... 2, February... HW? 55 March... "2 60 April... 4!lR 18 MILV....!I ~ Jnnnrtry... Februnry... M~.rch... Aprll... hlag... J~ule... July.... August..... I -- Unrried!l,bo4 25 i Tutnl... $37, Bnlru~ce n11 hn11d August. 31, 1:IOP..... ig40.hll 47 Receipts for terlu, IWI-l!KWi, from all sfrnrces *,! Total... $!Iil,'ih7 63 l)lsl,nrsements for all purposes..... M,ItW Ill C'nsl~ balance ~ l ~ g 81,1800 ~ s t.....&li?,ox7 62

119 Knights of Pythias The order was organized hy J. H. Ratirbone anti others, in the city of Warllington, I). C., February 1!1, At the sessiou of the S~preine Lodge of the Knights of Pj-thias of the World, held at Richmond, Va., March 8, 18(;D, an applicatiou for a charter from a body of colored cit,izenaof Philadelphia, Pa., was refused on acconut of their color. Nevertheless, severs1 colored inen, E. A. Lightfoot, T. IT. Stringer

120 I22 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans allil ot,hers, \\,ere afterwarrls regularly initiated into the lrrgsterics of the,,l.,ler ~f Page, Escluire, Knight,, ebc., ill a regular lodge, working untler the r-ontrol of tile Slipreme Lodge of Iinig11t.s of Pythiab: of t,lic World. Tl~ercnl~ou a Supreme (tra~tdcouncilof ttre Knights of Pyt,hiaa, to be known a,* the Sul,l.erne Lodge of Kurt11 America, South America, Europe, Asia and -ifrica,\\-a; instituted for the pnrl)ose of extending its benefits to all persons, \~itlloot, rlisti~lc:t,ion of race or color. Light'foot Lodge, No. 1, in ttie city T7icl;sl,nrg, Htnte of Mississippi, h1arc:b 26,lXSO (tl~e date uf t,hc Pytl~ia~l l'erid), waq tllp tirat. Tl~ere was it re-incorporation, with a dight change of name, in 1903, In his ;ltltlrt~ss Iwfore the Supreme Lodge, in 1905, the Sk~pl'enle Chnnwllor said : -*TTp to this time I think we have demonstrated the Negro's ability to ~:~;.afully coutliiut nn orgaclzation with a represeutative form of governlment. The hirtory of our order for the past few years is known to all of you. lyle unnnuer iu wl~irl~ we have risen from uot'lling, as it were, a few years ago to tl~e Irigl~ and ~.rnpected ~msition we oc:trupy today, with 26 Grsnd Lurlgc?s, 1,53,j sul)ortlinate lodges, tls,4f2 members, with $211,8!4!).-lli in our vsriom treasuries, $RR,''@4.:Ii of whicl~ 1,elungs iu the Silpreme L~rdgc itself, is t,he wonder of the age. \TTit.h t,his growth awl prosperity ro1llegre;~t respunsil~ilities. I wish to fraillily, ;ks I liaye said hefore, that m y greilt interest in the order is due to t,he fact that 1 couaider it one of the greatest agencies now cl~~ployed in the work of ul'lif tiug the race to which we belong."... I<~llSilS Kentucky ~1... i 677

121 Secret Societies

122 124 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans C'orlso1itlatt.d stittemrnts for the whole country are as fol1owr.s: Flnanclal Statement, Supreme Lodge, Knlghts of Pythlas -- band) )....h~~ount ~kd&r-n~e~~t elairns un- (:rand a~~tl Su prrnlr Lodgt: funds Pr,~l)erty (C;rrwd Ll)dgrs]. l'r<rpect? ~Sll\mrdi~~n.te Lvdgasl Except l'r~nple fund. Ct. i~?jrn. Tile Entlo\vl~~ent Depa~tmellt insures lives at the following rates: Table of Monthly Payments A{lr rlnioli?lt A i~zoutlt e..... NIC I... 45c 2K... 65c 21.. k ' ~ % :I... 70c iic $ c c c (:I*. ;j?,... 71% "i... Oll'! i5c In ense of rlrnth during flrst, year'q u~ernbershil)....$ r. a r of death during second year's nlembershi]>... '?W Irl rnse at dent11 rlurlng thlrd year's men~bernhiy lKl In case nf death dnrlng fourt,h yew's nlelnh~rwhip In c:~st: c~fllrllth durlng nftll year's 111em1)ersblll.... %IO.' Iu Iny rrport 1,o you at t,l~e la.;t sessio~l of Si~p~.rlne Lodgr, our tal~le *I~rwucl the iuspect.ion crf fourteen States, colnprising 70 ronllla~~ies, while tn>tl;lp we l.elml.1, over 1110 col~ll~anies. W'e t.heu rrpo~tetl 2,:rilI melnhrrs. Today \ye repnrt eightern Stoteh and Y,6ti5 u~rnll~ers. 'l'hrn we had iu the treasury $4,15!+4,RY, while today we I.eport $0, We then 1.epurtec1 valuati(~n of prope r 1 3,il., t o $ 5 1. We then reporter1 11iO ou~npnieu, while t,url:t.y we And ~I.OIII a partial report, over 1'90, nost uf which ;ire fully equipped, wl~iclt ~nnkes us toclay hare the largest, most colllp1el.e ant1 ecluil~l~ed lnilitary I,otly known to the wce." An n.ssesb1nt~nt of 20 cel~ts per melnher a gear was laid for huildiug a National F'ythi~n Temple nntl Haua~toriurn for the order. From this a, tc~tnl of $ly,62!2.;ix was raised last ge&r. The United Brothers of Friendship The LT~litt.d Hrother~ of Fricndship was orgiluizeil at L~~~isville~ ICY., Angust , first as a be~~evoleut :iud later as a svcret order. 111 I%%

123 Secret Societies 125 tlle following receipts and tlisbursen~e~rts were reported by the Grand Lodge : C'or Wldows and Orphans.... $21;2Htj hh For Home and Business Fund... 1,W 85 For (:rand Lodge taxes ,861 OH For National Orend Lodge tnxes.... Xn 47 For snle of supplles ~ For Interest or1 IJnited Btn.tes bonds Porlonli M -- Total receipts for one year....$2~, Disbursements For Widow and Orphans For United Xtatrs t~orlds For For For For For For For For ---.\lnbnlna... Arknnsas... c.:nliporl~iu.... Colorf~do... Illl~l~ris..... Inrllnna... Kansas... Louisiana..... Krnrucb..... I s s i i. RIiss~~uri.... Knrlowmm1.1 assr'csr~r~?~t $ %,IUO R,tilYI W IO ,lHIO I%(l(K) YII,(I(Y)... 8,NKl lil~~i!ul?,limo.. 'rhe official totals R.I.~ : Number jurenllrs... Totnl males. T11tal feniales... Totnl ren.1 property.... Totnl persounl property Tota,l anclowmen t... Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of the World Howard Branch I Ovga~~izecl Number of lodges 61. l'lle eighth annual report sags il.: to the origin of thr colorotl Ellis;

124 126 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans "Like all other secret and benevolent organizations that have heen organized, the white order of Elks will not permit colored perfions to become meint)ers. ~ uthere t are colored Elks now. How and where they got their secret work is known to mauy white Elks of this country. Some nlay try to deprecate the colored Elks, but we have the same ritual that the white Elks have. Ollr men~hersl~ip has grown to over5,1)00. The letter 'I' stands for LImprovt.d.~ The difference between white and colored Elks is this: The white order is known as the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. Ours is known as tile Improved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World."' The Srrreta.ry reported $1, as tl~r income of the Grand Lorlge and the~e ~tlditional facts: Sixty-one lodges report a total rnemt~ership of 3,740. Thirt~--nine lodges report, an increase of 1,249 menlt~~rs. Forty-n~ne lodges report $7,7.'%.36 in the hank. Thirty-two lodges repol t property to the value of $6,1%.&5. Twenty-eight lodges spent iu char~ty $3,070.i5. F1fte6.n lodges report 25 deaths. Of the 80 lodges on the rolls 61 have relnltted taxes, some for one, more for two and others for three and four quarters. Thlrty States: are represented in our jur~stl~ction and 28 new lodges haye been added to ollr number. The (ialuean Fishermen The Grand United Order of Galilea11 Fishermen was organized in B;lltilllore, Md., in The order has at least $2.50,000 worth of real estate. I1 11as a bank at Hamptor~, Va.., with w. paid up capita1 of $~,(jg6.79. The insnrrtnco tlepartn~e~it has issued 16,800 policies since 1902, and paid $48,900 in death claims. It has a surplus of $16,000. The printing plant does a t)usiness of $2,500 a year. The joining tee is $4.60 alld the ~nontl~ly clues fro~tl 3512 to 60c. Sick benefits of $1 60 to $6 8 week arid death benefits of $60 to $2UC) are paid. 'The chief of the other Nrgro secret orders are: 1r11provt.d Henevole~~t Protective Ortler of Elkn of the World (Brooklyn Branch). I<night,s of 'I':~.hor. Benevolent Ortler of Hutfaloer. Anciellt, Order of Forresters. The (iootl,ritar~s. Nrl,zarit,es. Sons and D~ughters of.ja,ooh. Seven Wise Me~i. Knights of Honor, etr.. etc * The only stxr~t orgnriizntio~~ in Arlclinsrrs of nntionol repute. which llr~s its origil~ in the Stt~ta,is the Mosttic Ten~plars of Aluerlcn. It was Cuuceived and ii~~d Its blrtb from the fertile hrnin of two Negroeh. C:. W. Kentt.s nnd J. E. Bush, in 1~82, in the city of Little ItocI<. Today this orga.nizetlorl is lillc~wll in nellrly ewrg Southern Ytnte In the Cnion 3110 uunlber'i its 1~e1111xrs by the tll~~umnds. They hnve expe~~ded ill cash for the relief of t h~ widows, orpl~nnsof decna.sed Inr?~nhers in t,he pnst twenty years, t.lir,l1110: p1~i11 to its poli(:y-holders $SI,NI!l, and nt their la,st session in Bhreveport, La., July 25, I!nl?. reported u prc~ycrty vtriu~ltinr~ of $?~6,~XW.-Nntional Negro Business Ltaaguc, 1!102, p. 105.

125 Secret Societies That Negroes are aware of the faulty econoniic basis of aasess~nei~t. i Fraternal insurance is that class of insurance which levies an assessmeut upou men~bers to create a fund t,o pay the families of the deceased members an endowment or death henetit slid no profit therefrom. Among Negroes it is the outgrowth of excessive rates charged hy the old line insurance co~nparlies which coinpelled the poorer classes to organize into these benevolent associations and attach bhereto insurance tor the menibers wl~ich would give relief to the families at their death. This branch of insurance is not held iu high favor by many people from the fact, it is supposed, that thc fraterual order that carries fraternal insurance takes too great a risk aud, therefore, the increased mortality would increase the hurden of t,ax upon the membership and therel~y lmnkrupt the iustitution; hut we should not I~eootne discouraged, hecause it is an established facat t,hat fraterual insnrance is a success and it has doue much for thc adra~~cemeut of the Negro in this country. Too will rei~ie~nlxr that the Negro was excluded l'ron~ the old line coupsuies on account of color, and, therefore, it was inll)ossit~le for the Negro to give l~rotection to his family and loved oues as it was the great ~~rivilege of uther hiiiericaiis. But there were ot,lier causes, prominently among them was the high.preniinms charged, which made it impossit~le t,o one working for small wages to pay t,he premiums charged and meet his other ol~ligations. These conditions have long since passed aud it is niercly due to frat,ernal insurance that has co~npelled the old line cornpauies to accept the Negro and, in many inst,ances, they have employedcolored agents, and in other instauces, the whites have catered to colored business t.hrough their white agents. To give you a faint idea of what the Negro is doing in fraternal iusurauce, 1 will d l your attention to the report of the Insura~ice C'ouimissioner of my St,ate for the year's business endiug Decemher 31, 19U3. Twenty fraternal orders reported the nun~her of certilicates in force as 8'2,5ti", amounting to $5,0+3,01~l.fili. The total paid by the above fraternal insurauce orders is $l.i'l,lil(j.w, leaving a balance in the t,reas~~ry of these associations $l6,iii7.71. I will mention, the most prominent among these institntions, the Masonic Henetit Association, which paid last year $CiM,SO~i.ciO. This ainount, was raised by an assessment of 755 per capita, a total cost per annum of $12.00 per memher; since the organizat,ion of the asscxiation in IHW, they hare paid over $titffl,oolo. The Od(l Fellows' Benefit Association, organixccl in 1880, paid last year $26, , having paid over $T~IO,l100 since organization. This an~ouut'i~ raised I)y an assessment of l(i 2-3 per cent or $12 pel' anuuni per ~ne~nl~er. The Independent Order of Sons and IOaughters of Jacnt) of America, paid $21,5%3.89; the Endowtnent Hnreau of the Knights of Pythias paid $l8,9!13 qn assessments of $Id0 or $6 per anliurn, having paid in all since organizatioil in 1894, $200,000. Judging from the amount of business done in miss is sip pi,^^ believe we can safely say that the business of fraternal insurance among the Negroes in this country amoulite t,o over a million dollars annually.* The Masous appear to hold at least one million dollars worth of property aud have an anniial incoune ot a half niillion dollars a year. Thr Odd Fellows claim two aucl one-half million dollars worth of Natlonal Rusiness League, l!w, pp. (xi-!w.

126 128 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans ~)r~~p'ty and a,n income het,wren a quarter and a half of a million. The Pythians have $300,000 worth of proprrt,~ md an inc~)nle of possibly qu:lrter of a million. The Brothers of Friendship $600,000 ill propel.ty, a.t~d other associations may add a half million. Ft,om these figures it fiealns that Negro secret orders in t,he United States own het\veeil forir a.nd five million dollars worth of property and collect each yea.' at least $1,500,000. Brotn tl~e be~~eficial societies and secret ortl~rs have arisen variour [~pl~evolent or semi-benevolent enterprises, such as hoines, c~rpiinnngps, I~ospitals :~nd c~lnrt~ries. Section 13. Go-operative Benevolence (a) Homes and Orphanages Tl~ere a,re l~etw~t and I00 homes and ill the Urlited States supported wholly or largely by Negroes. A list, of,57 foll~\j-~: 1. Colored Orphan Asylum, Oxford, N. ('. 2. M:lsonic Ho~ntb, ('oluml~us, Ga. 3. Masonic Orphans' Home, Beuuettsrille, N. ('. 4. Aged Me11 aid Worneu's Home, Baltiinorr, Md.-Property, $3,mo; inmates, Iti; State aid, $ St. Fri~ncis Orphau Asylum, Baltimore, Md.-Property, $60,000; in. mates, 94. ti Bethel 0211 Folks' Kome, Baltimore, Mil.-Property, $10.000; inmates, Carter's Old Folks' Home, Atlanta, (in. 8. Old Folks' Home, Augnsta, Ga. 9. Friends Orp11n.n Asylum, Richmond, Va. 10. Home for the Agrrl, Clevela~~d, Ohio.-Income, $1;209.44; expenditures, $ki Georgit~ Colorec! Indust,rial and Orphau's Home, Mwul~, Cfa-Inmates, 8.5: income, $4,350; prol)erty, $lo,(x)o. New buildiug nr?rly ready. 1" (;enera1 State Reforn~atory, Macoo, (.;a.

127 128 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans ~)ropprt.y and an income between a quarter and a half or n n1illion. The Pythians have $300,000 worth of plwperty mcl an income of possibly a qu;trtrr of rt nill lion. The Brothers of Friendship chim m,m in propert,y, and other ~~ssociations I ~, add Y a half million. Flmm these figures it seems that Negro secret orders in the United States own bet,ween fonr a.ntl five lrlillion dollars ~ o ~ of t h property and collect rarh yeax a.t least $1,500,000. Froln tl~e heneficinl societies a,nd secret orders have arise11 various henevolrn t, or selni-benevolent enterprises, such as homes, orphanagrs, Ilospi t,als and cemeteries. Section 13. Co-operative Benevolence (a) Homes and Orphanages The1.e a1.e hetwc-en 75 aud 100 horr~es and o~phenagps in the Ullited States sul,pul.trtl wholly or largely hy Negroes. A list of 67 follows: I. ('olored Orphan Asylum, Oxford, K. C:. 2 Maso~~ic Home, ('oluml~us, (:a. 3. Masonic Orphaus' Honle, Bcnnettsvilln, N. V. 4.,lgetl RIen and Wornc~n's Home, Halt.imore, MrL-Property, $3,@)(1; in. rnatei, 16; State aid, $ZFiO. 5. St. Frzucis Orpiran Asylu~n, Baltimore, 3ld.-Property, $60,000; inmates, W. 6. Rethel Old Folks' Home, Baltimore, Md.-Property, 810,000; inmates, I& 7. Car ter'a Old Folks' Home, A thnta, (:a. h. Old Folks' Home, Augusta, (:a. 9. Friends Orplreu Asgllun, Richmond,Va Ho~ne for the Agetl, Clevelaud, Ohio.-Inwrne,.Y;I;XIKL).W; expenditnres, $ Oeurgia Co2orc.d I~ldnstrial :iud Orphan's Home, Macon, Ga.-lnmates, 3.7; irlc(onlr, $4,350;. prolwrty, $10,IXiO. New hnilding uearlg rettdy. - 1" Genrr:~L State Itct'ol-matarv, Rl:wun, (4%. Qecelpts. 1906

128 Co=operative Benevolence 2'2. Orphanage, (Gil~ner, Texas. '13. Orphanage, Anstin, Texas. 24. Jenkins Orphanage, ~harleston,s. C:. 2,5. Home for Aged autl Infirm ('olorecl Persons, Philaclelphin, Pa.-Prol>erty, $4OO,oWl; income, $20,003. Slieltered 858 old people, 1W&lS!)9. 'LB C'olorecl Orl>liansl Asylum, Cincinnati, Ohio. Property? $loo,(htu ; endowmen t fnncl, $25,(KNl; income, $2,010; inmates, 73: receipts, $'3,1Z3,4R. Inmates Males Ffmrilrs Tolnl Nu~nbereniaining May 1, :%5 Admitted PlacSed in homes I )it'd... 2 (!nred for during year '2 Reninlning '1 Total inconle from Negroes ahont $ Crawford's Old Folks1 Home, Cincinnati, 0hio.-Property? f'1$100. 2% TTome for.\gecl Colored Women, C'incinl~ati, Ohio.-Prope~ly, $4, ITannnh (:reg Home, Now Haven, Cnnn-Inmates, 5; inmn~e, $i!tnl. :io. Vnivernal Progressive Hcllool for Orl~l~ans, Bxlti nlore? Md.-Property, $1,950 ; iilnl:1.tcs, Clltl Folks' Honlt~, Kansas C'ity, Rim-IRSO (P). 32. ('hildren's Orphans' Home, Icansas C'ity, >Io.-lnnlate~, IW; expentlitnres, $I% per month. '3% Hescne Horne, Kansas Git.y, Blo. 34. Baptist C)rl~hanage, Balt,irnore, Md.-lumates 35. :i<. Orphanage, Richmond, Va. ti. Weaver Orphan Home for Colored child re^^, Hsmpt.ou, Va.: Cash receipts for $ $ Do~~ntions, for lwg.... $ Receirerl frmn parents... 2b7 00 Sales oe articles hliscellnneous Totnl... $i,noo Gad. S. Johnson% Orphanage, Macon, Cia.-Inmates. 25; income, $1,5(K Home for Parentless Children, Petersbnrg, Ta. 39. Marylancl Ho~ne for Friendless Children, Baltimore, Md.-Property, $2,(HllJ; ilmates, 52; State aid, $250. Receipts Brooyht forward from the year 1905 $ 2tiO 47 Loa.ns... %5oW Mortgage... 1$60 00 Ci t.y uid... 8% 20 fitate ald... MI0 OC Hale of property ,0(lO 00 Legacy... <li RO General contrlbutloos, etc.... Wi T~tlll.....$t(.l41 xn 40. Amanda Smith Orphanage, Harvey, Ill. 41. Iowa Fegroes' Home for Aged and Orphans, Des Rloines, Ton a. $2. St. Louis Colored Orphans' Home, St. Louis, No. 45 Carrie Steele Orphanage, Atlanta, Ga.-Inmates, 97 ; income, $";2lX) I$l(lO f~mn Kegroes directly; the balance from taxes on both races.)

129 130 konornic Co-operation Among Negro Americans 14. Keetl Home and School, Covington, Ga.: Home hullding and slte on which It stands.....$ 8,MM Farnl withln clty lirutta.... H,%HI Brick machlnc and tools... 1,HM saw Llre stock... HMJ Farm Ilnple~~lents Lihrury... WO - Total.....$ 4.5. Br~tlgcs Orphanage, Macon, Ga. 6. stat? Protective Home and ;\litchell Hospital, Leavenworth, Kansas.- Income, $Z,XO.(iO, du~'ing 1W Home for Deat~tute Children and Aged Per?ions, San.kntouio,TeXas- TwoYeers' Income Totfil RIIIOUII~ collected hv suhucriptlon.....$ TO~UIL an~rmnt. of specin1 donations.... NO 82 Total amount collected for hulldlng purposes..... K8 55 Totf~l amount from Bexur county and Board of Uhlldrrn Total ttnlt)unt frou~ tables and entertnl~~~nents..... I73 16 Total amount coller:ted from rai1wa.y employees Total amount collected Iwln churches Totnt collected for two years...11, The proprty recently tmnght. for the Home was contracted for on the following terms: pue hunclred dollars cash, the balance, $!MIO, to he paid in ~nonthly installments with S per cent intereit duri~lg the nest six years. 48. C,ld Folks1 Home, IIamptou,Va. 4. Witlow-s' and Orphans' IIome,Vickshurg, Miss. 50. "Tents" Old Folks' IIo~ne, Hainpt'on, Va. 51. Home for Aged Colored Women, Providence, R. I. V1. Working Girls1 Home, Providence, R. I. $3. Oltl Folks' ffon~e, I'oluinbus, Ohio. ;4. lhy Nursery, I,'oluitll~\l~, Old Folks' Hon~e, Westham, Va.-Inmates, 6; income, $10,000, for home ~ L Ifarm. I ~ (See True Iieforlllers, page 1IN). 5ci. Iieforrnxtory for Boys, IJroaclneck, Hanovrr ~oullty. \'a. (State.).-- Rescue H ~III~ for 0q)hilns and Old Folks, Jacksonville, FIn. (b) Hospitals There are about 40 hospitals conduct~d by Ney~ue.;, including the Freetlmrn's Hospital of W~sl~ingtu~l, D. C., whicli the Oovernmrllt 1. Nercy IIosl~ital aud Nurse Training School, Orala, Fla. 2. hiercty Hvspitnl and Sehool for Nurses, Philadelphia, Pa.- Total incolne to Xovelnher, lwi, $ti,474.(rl; patients, 4;B2; received from Negroee, 1[1;3W.0.K% :but1 from the State, $5,000 every two years. 3. P1wedtnen's: Hospit;d, Wasbiugton, I). ('.-Patients nnder care, 2,iZ3; receipts and expenditures for the year, $53, Frederick 1)onglass Rle~norial IIospital and Trainill:. School, Philadelpl~ia, Pa.-I'ntieu ti ending November, 1907, B,Ii57 ; inco~ne, %5,!!1!1 for ~nain~en- ;Luc3e; income fer Ij~~ilding, $10,4OU.

130 Co-operative Benevolence Mitchell Hospital, Lei~venworth, I<an~as.--Iuconie, $2, during thcs year Taylor Lane Hospital, Collunbia, S. C. 7. Mercy Hospital, Nashville, Tenu.-Patients, 394 ; total income, $1,853, all frorn Segroes. 8. I)ougl:tss Hospital and Traiuing School, Kansas C'ity, Kansas.-Patieuls Inst year, 81 ; income, $5, Harris Sanatorium, Mobile, A1a.-Pat,ients last year,!25. lo. ('olored Hospital, Petershurg, Va. 11. I'rovident Hospital, Baltimore, Md.-Property, $15,(l(MI. 13. Provident Hospital, Chicago, Ill. 1s. Lincoln Hospital, Durham, N. C. 14. Lanlar Hospital, Ai~gusta, (:a. 15. Georgia Infiroiary, Savannah, Ga. 1H. (:harity Hospital, Savannah, Qa. 17. Nurros S:~natorium, Augusta, Gtt. 1s. ('olored Hoapita.1, Evnl~sville, Ind. 1 (?it.izens9 Nat,ional IIospital, L<luisville, Iis I'rovident ITosl)ital, St. Louis, No. 21. State's Ilospit:tl, Winston, X. (:. 2;'. (food Samaritnu IIospita1,C'harlotte. N. ( Colley's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio. 26 Nurse 'l'raining School, Charleston, S. C. 5. Hairstoll Iufirmary, Memphis, Tenn. 26. Dr..I. T. Wilson's Infirmary, Nasl~ville, Tenn. 37. C:olored Hospital, I)allas,Texas. 26. Richmond Hospital, Richmond, Va. 3. Woman's Central League Hospital, Richmond, \'a. 30. Slatet Hosl~ital, Winston-Salem, N. C. 31. Ihcoln Hospital :~nd Home, New York, N. T. (c) Cemetetles Nearly every town in the South has a colored cemetery owned ant1 rontlucted by Pu'epmes. There are afen exceptions, as in Augusta, Ga. : "Thc c(110red cemetery 1s owned and controlled by the city. Any one n ho wishes a lot can purchase it frorn the city. Lots are owned hy all of the t~enevolrnt societies and families who are ahle to pay for them. "A kcwprr of the cemetery is annually elected by councll, with an assistant, n hr) iq colorc4, and u hu has the keeping of the colored cemetery assigned h~m." The co~intrg tlistrict,~ are poorly provided for: "The colored cemeterv here (Brunswick. Ga..) wa3 eiven the colored 1,eovle church vards or in the woods-no narticular rjlace. Oft-times the undertaker can scarcely get to the place for the weeds. Nevertheless, if a person dies herr in Brur~swick, who lived once in the couutry or across the river, the body must be taken at all hazards to the old hnrying grounds, even if the plac3e is tlrickly c[,vered with weeds and can scarcely he fonnd."

131 132 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans There are probably 500 Negro cemeteries owned, of which tlje list helow is simply all i~lclicntio~i of their number and situation: 1. Baptist Cemetery, Parir;,Texss. 9. Colored Cenletery, Tuskegee, Ala. 3. The Asllhurg ('emetery, Balt,i~nore, Md. 4. The M t. t21111urn Cemetery, Baltimore, hld. 8. The (;reenwood C'en>et,ery, Paris, Texas.-Total husiuess done, total paid up capital, $31W). 7. ('olorerl Ce~nete~.~, liitt,rell, N. C:. 8. Beneroleut C'eluetery, Dallas, Texas.!+. (hlored t.'emet,ery, Austin, Texas. 10. " Waco, Texan. 11. " /. Ft. Wort,h, Texas. 12. The Masons' Ckulet,ery, Situ Antouin, Texas Colored Iinigl~ts of Pythias' Cemetery, Ssn Ant,ouio, Tesaa. 14. Odd Fellows' Cemetery, San Antonio, Texsa. 1 C:olored L-. H. F.'s Cemetery, San Antonio, Texas 11;. ('olorecl Cemetery, High Point, K. (:. 17. " Greensfmro, " I<!. " Raleigh, 1!1. 'a " Lexington, " 20. is " Laurinburg, " 21. " " U'ilmington, c. s Charlotte, " 23. " Thomasville, " 4. '' tl Abheville, S. C. 25. " /. 6' LL., ' A). " IJitt,le Hock, Arb, "7. " Pine Blnff, " 2. " Hot Springs, "?!I. <A t Honston, Texas. HI). L' 'I :$I. t' Bea~unont, 'I.32, &'.letierson, '- :<3, Lt I'alestirle, " :$A, 4i hi:trsli:tll, '$ 5. " 17lizaheth City, N. ('.

132 Co-operative Benevolence ). Hrother.: and Sisters: of Luve, Ga.-Partner.;, 150; capital, $lillo. Pourteell years : I'a.ld sick Bt-nellts... $%I0 $Yki Paid for hurinl ) 75.5l. ('nlortd ('e~n~tery, E:sleigh, S. C. The Raleigh I~niiness League is nu organization cc~~nposed of citizel~s of Raleigh :mti snrrc~nuclinyl; who are intrrested in public iml)rovemeuls and arc at Illis tiu~~? engaged in a,n eit'urt to iinprovt! the (tits cemetery for colored l~t~c~l~lv, ant1 a1.w tu form a new c:rl~~eter,vassoc*iation for Ihe p~lrpose of enlnrgiug autl imlwoviug t,hc old one and 1)uiltling a suitable strui:ture to protect the patrous of thr c~metcry from inc.leu~r:ut. weather while engaged in 11arial services. 5'2. Summit. View ('rtnetery, Guthric, Okla. 33. Col~~rerl (!en~rt~r)-, Athens, Aln. 51. " ".\It)any, (;a. - -.)A 0 1 ive, " Phil:+tlell~his, Pa.-Eight a~~re.:, wol~th $IUO,OIKl; 900 lot.j\vner*..\l~i>nt lift) years oltl. 5ii. 1~cl-1a.uo11 ('e~n~:tc!r\-, I'l~iladelphia, I%.-V'ort11 $i5,lil10 and al~out litt)- years old. -- JI. hlrriou Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pa.-Twenty-one acres, worth $:30,(l(lO and al)out right years old. 55. Frater11:~l Burying Societ,y, Philadelphia, Pa. 59. Greenwoutl Ceinercry, (i IiO. Eden c'emetery C'o., 6' i' 61. People's Uudertakers Go., Dallas, Texas.-Capital, $4,000; business 1906, $78 ; 1907, $lu(i. Began in 1!U. Do about 75 per cent of b~isiness of colored people of 1)allas co~~nty. Ui\-c re~nlar ernployrnent to fonr persons. O\vn no hacks, but we those o\vned 1)y colored men. 6.' \\'oodlancl C'einetery Associatir~n is s co-operatiye concern, organizrd for the pnr1)trsaof p~lrchasiug burial grounds. Originally t,here were 120 memlwrs, w~ch of wl~om v\vnn a lot. 'l'here srr now- 116 :tct,ive ~ueinl~erri. These retained act.ive III~IIL~NI.S~I~~I 11s a,.?sulni~g all oldig:+tions incident to the care ulld keeping of mid groullds. IIave 110 cal~ital srock. In vested al~ollt $l,ouo.,\loury for sale of lots used in caring for gro~~nils. Dallas, Tes:ts. 68. ('olored ('e~netery! Uocna \'kt,%, Ga.-U~)nght l\vel\-e years ago. Fire acres, curt $lio. 64. HU~ISIIII Cemetery, l'azoo ('ity, Miss. (i2. Cemetery. RIarlin,Tcxas. 79. Cen~etery, Rome, Ga. (Xi " hfexia, '. HI. " Clltl~btrrt, (fa. Hi. " I'rairie T'iem, Texas. 81. " Athens, (is. f;s. " Tyler. 82. C'o~iugt~on, (+a. 69. " Seyland, H:3. " IIawkinsville,G~. '1 70. " (;reeuyilie, 84. " C'O~UIII bus, " 1' 71. " Seguin, 85. " I:nionville, " 79. " Daiujierfield, " $6. Locust Gro\-e, " 73. " Kic!hmond, 87. " Barnesville, " 7-1. " Xlilan, Tenn. 85. " Marshallville, " -- li 13. '* Furt T'alley, Ga. 89. " Willard, b. An~ericus, " 90. " Adelaide, 11. " Alillrdgeville, Ga. 91. " Sparta, 78. " H;~vannah, " (12. '. Lawtouville, "

133 134 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans 93. Cemetery, Gritfin, Ga. Sandersville, Ga. hl act on, ' Cordele, L Pinehnrst, " I)enmark, S. C!. Beaufort, Charleston, " Cheraw, &' icn % I aa. Aiken, Colwnhus, Ohio. Enfield, N. C. Troy, " Evansville, Ind. Helena, Ark. Newport, " Fort Smitll, Ark. New Dnrharn, N. J. Rlinue:~polis, RIinn. Holly Rpriugs, Miss. Mound Bayou, '' Kingtisher, Okla. Langston, " New Orleans, La. New York, N. P. Ok~nulgee, I. T. Ardmore, LL 131. C'emetery, Palatlia, Fla, Fesseden. u Trilhy, 66 Gainesville, ~ 1 ~. Huntsv~lle, Ala. Selma, Kowaliga, Normal, 16 Annietou, <1 Tuscaloosa, E1lorenre, Montgo~nery St. Joseph, hio. Jefferson C~ty, JIO. St. Louis, Kansas City, (4 Arlington, Va. C'appohobic, C'hivago, Ill. Evanston, Ill. New Haven, Conn. Eatonton, Ga. Shady Dale, Ga. Montlcello, " Lrr~ngton, Jlisb..Jacksou Holly Grove ('e~~l'y,glbbons, ic 151. C'elnetel y, Cl~attauwga,Tenn " hiurfrecsboro, " Knoxville, Taft, L RIiarni, Fla. Jacksonville, Fla Sanfo~d, 1' 154. Nine t' Three assouiatious owu nine hnrial yrounds with :L capital stock of $10,000, etc. There inust he at least 500 such cemeterir s ir~ the Unit4 States, and p~rhrrps twice this n11inbt.r Section 14. Banks The first Negro ha~~k ill the United States was the Capital S;lvin&% Rank of Washir~pton, D. C'., opened in Brfore that, how~rer. a bank bad hre11 est~.blisi~ed for the ireeti~~lrn: Pending the continnance of the ('ivil war, aucl soou after the colored race hecilrue a considerable element. in the rnilitary t'orcrs of t,he United States, tlw safe-keeping of the pa.y and hor~n ty rnollega of t,llii class hec:t~ne A matter of great imprtance to them and tl~eir fa~nilit.~, anti to meet this exigency, military savings tmnka were created at Norfolk, Va., aud Beaufort,, S. C., centerr: at tllat t,imeof colored troops. At, tl~e close of the war tlie emnncip:ltion of thi+ rncc increased the necessity of solne financial agency to meet their economlr and co~n~uercial wants, and in response to this cle~nnnd, taking s~~ggestionj :~nd counsel of theexpedients t,hat ~nilit,ary exl)erience had suggested for the hnetit of t.hi..: l)eol)le, the Xstional Congress illcorporated, RInrch, IYljTr, the l.'ree(lu~eu's Savings and Trust ('on~l)nuy. l " t t

134 Tl~e i~~corporators were : Banks 135 Peter Cooper, Willi:hn~ (I, Bryant, A. A. Low, S. B. Chitt,endeu, Charles 13. Marshall, William A. Boot,l~, Gerritt Smith, Williau~ A. Hall, William Allen,.Jotin Jay, Ahrahan~ Baldwin, A. S. Earne~, Hiram Barney, Sell1 H. Hunt, Sam~iel Holmcs, (:liarlt.s Collins, R. R. (;ravrs, Walt,er 8. (;riff'ith, A. LI. Wallis, 1). S. (:regory, J. W. Alvord, George JVhipple, A. S. Hatch, Walt,er T. IIatch, E. A. Larnl~ert, JV.. C: I,:tmhert, Roe Lockwood, R. K. Manning, R. W. Ropes, Xllwt WoodriifT and Thornas Denuey, of New York ; Jolln M. Forbes, William ('lafill, S. (:. Home, George L. Ste:trnt.s, Edward At,kinson, A. A. Lawrence sntl John M. S. \Villiarns,of Massachusetts ; Edward Ifarris and Thomas Davis, of Rllode T*land : Stepl~cn ('olmell, J. U'hcatoii S~nitl~, 1"ancis E. Cope, Thomas W'el~ster, I3. 8. fluut and IJenry Samuel, of Pennsylvai~ia; IMward Har\vood, Adam I'oe, Levi Cotfin J. M. Walden, of Ohio, n,ho, wit11 t,lieir successors, were "co~lstitutecl a body corporate in tlie caif,y of Wasl~ington, in the 1)istrict of Colum)Ji:t, I J t,lic ~ name of the Freedmeu1s Saviugs antl Trust Company, and I)>- tlmt name may sue and t~e sued in any court of tl~e L!nited St,ates." Sectiou five of the act of incorpor:ttioii said: Aucl I)e it f~~rt~lier rnaetetl, That the gcner:~l husincss and oh.ject of tl~e corporatiou hereby created s11:rll be to rec,eive. on dcporit suc11 sums of inoney as may, frum time to tinie, he offered tl~erelor 11y or 011 lwhalf of persons heretofore held in slavery in the U~~iletl Stat,es, or t,heir deccenclants, and iuvesti~~g t'l~e same in the st,ocks, l)onds, treasury notes or other securities of the Unitrd States. Tlle Se~ii~t,e committee of investiga,tion said: Until 18ii8 the spirit and lett,er of the clmrter seeint:d to have been recognized very fait.l~fully by tl~e trustees antl ofitirers who administered the affairs of the ounipany, antl uutil t,hc beginning of lb70 t,t~ere do not appear t,o have lleeu in tlie ad~niuist,rstion any berious and prac1,ical departures from the ki~~rlly and Judicious prograinme indicated ill the act the instilution. 111 May, IhTO, an a~~~endn~en t to the cliarler was Secured, which e~nhodied a radical aud what sul~sequent events proved to he a tlangerous and hurt'ful change in t,he character of securities in which the trustees were empowered to invest the depo5it.s of the ilistit,ution. Two-thirds of t,he deposits, that portion fwni whic:li the diyitlenda were expected to accrue, were originally required to he i~:vestetl esrlusively in United States securit'ies, but 1by tlie amendment referred to one-half was s11t)ject to iuvestinent, at, the discret,ion of the trustees, <'ill boucls and notes secured hy mortgage on real eslale in double the value of the lonu." From this period hegall tl~e speculalire, iudiscreet and cull~ahle transactions m11ic:h ultimately caused t.he suapenriou of the bank, and disast,rous losses to a very large est,eut upon an in~lo~etlt, tn~st,in~: aiid necessitoui <'lass of citizens. ' The bank fa,ilecl in 1874, aud uo one ma.s ever pu~~ishecl for the swindle. The business of tl~e Freedmeri's Snviiigs Bmk, lm6-1872, wa.s as foliows:t Report of the Bennte Select (?onimlttee to Investigate the Freedmen's Snvingb tind Trust PO., 1W. $[3ennte Hcport, No. 440, E'<~rcy-~lxth Congress, second serdon, p. 41. Apprndls; J3m.e Trnita and Tendencie, of the Aluericnn Neg~o, p. B!xl.

135 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans I - - ' Branches of the Freedman's Bank * Atlnntn,. GR... Augusta, GL..... Bnl timore, Dld.... Heanfort. S. ('... C'hwrleston, S. C... C'hntt~~inn~ir~.Tenn..... ~oluinhns.~mjss C!olumLin, Tcr~n.... Hunts\-lllr, AIR... J~ckso~~~lllt?, Fln.... Lexll~ptr~n. Ky..... T,l tt It. livck, Ark... Lu~~isrille, Ky..... Lynchhurg, Va..... Blacrm. Ox M~inplii~.~rnn..... Mubile. AIR.... Nolltgolnery, Ah..... Natc-hez, hliss... N1~shviIIt?,Tel Xe\v Berne, N. (?... Sew Orlenns, La..... Tnvk City... Norfolk,\:n...."... PttIln.rlelpl~ia~, Pa.... K:~lal.'b, N. C:.....

136 Banks 137 At the time of tl~c coml1:111y's failure, in 1S4, it co~~eisted of 32 Irrancl~~i. with til,l3l drllositors, a11tl tl~e I)alan<:e clne these rlcpo.-itorr at tl~e tin~e \\'it- $:i,ol :{,Gl!l The total ~~sy~nentr; to March, IWi, wcre $1,7?2,54H, leaving a halai~cc 11np:iitl of $1.2!l1,131. The present cash h,zlance ill the haucl.: of the powrnment rrceirers alll~luut,s l,o $JO,4Tli. * The Capital Savinga Bank. Washington. V. C., 1888 l'l~e M~~tnal Bank and 'I'rnht Co. uf Chattn~~ooga, \\.as ol>enrtl ill 18S9. all(! failec! in tlrc ~ ~t~l~ic: of 1893, after a. rawer of four yearn. The followi~~g is a list uf Neyro banks take11 from Barrter,' tlir~c.t~r-

137 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

138 Banks Bank statelnents anti histories follow: Bank of the G. U. 0. of True Reformers (Estahliuhrd 1WOi 'rota1. RECEIPTS OF TRUE REFoRXIEHS' BANK THE REPOHT, August 2. I!W From the Pi~ien~e Departiiient.... $ 1:%, 'roln the Renl Est0.t.e 1)epartrnent GI1 From the Regnlia Del~artment W 58 Froul the Reformer I~epl~rtnleilt... 7,127 IY Fro~u t,he Supply Department ,254 I:< From the Record Dcpart~nent LM :37 From the 0111 Folks' Houle % 44 From the Richmor~d Mercentlle Store !Pi From tl~r Washingtltn hlercnntile Store... I1,W.W From the Mrlnchester Mercantile Store... 14,!+iG 75 From the Portsni~inth Mercnntlle Store... l2,,nl? -10 Froul tl~r Rc~:in<~kr N~r(mr~tile Store , Froiil Fount~~ins... 47,1j5!4 3.7 From Rose Bud.;... 6,lllii; il Fro111 lndivlrluuls !l.fiSY 71 Fron~ societies... fi%,?2h 75 From Icmns lb,:3!il 14 Fro111 c:ollertirrns... l,40!1 44 Fronl excl~fiugcs... lili.5 50 Fvcrrn cluhs... 14,686 1~7 Fru~n Hotel Reformer... 4, Totnl... $ i!ll&on) $11 Cash bnlnlice forwarded from the last report... 10:3,2!1 Wi -- Tc~tnl recell)ts, including k~alance forwartled... $ H(I!I,:I~'J 87 Totnl disbnrsemrl~ts hy depositors, discmmts, niortgapes, etc.... H20,$40 53 Ainouiit of crish hnndlrd at last report..... fi,!mi,34!4 38 Al~lount of huslnrss done this yefir..... l,l'~lfi,~4) Totnl arr~oulit of husiiirss doue to dnte...$%1;1%18!1 w2.xrernge inonthly business done ,7;% ill Nunilwr of letters received thls yenr W N1in111er of letters sent I I U ~... 8,!(i!l Nunr brr of letters nnd ptickn.ges referred to other Ilepartiurnts......?$+ti Nn~iihcr of de])~dtors at. the I:~st reliort lill Nun~hrr of new depositors thls yenr Totnln~iiohrrof (lrpositors... 11,3iR Reroi~vcrs HTATENENT, April fi, lwt! Ltubii~lws Loaiis and dlscourits... $ 463,WI 21 C'apitnl stock pald in $ Ill0,tHlIl (Ill Stocks, 11cl11tls nntl i~iortgngrs. 5,000 MI Zzurl)lus fund... 8F.972 MI Furniture and tlxturt!~.... 2,.Wl 00 Undlvidrd profits, less a~nouilt C'hec.ks and other (.iisi~ lte111s. 2,555 8'2 pnid for interest, espense, Due t'rolll Statr Bank aud prl- and taxes...?i,w 30 rate 11ankrrd... 12, T11w certlftcntes of deposits ~21.0~3 Hpwie, nickels, cents..... ill t i IndI~IrLual deposits subject t,, Paper currency... t i I check..... lw2.561 #!I -- Totnl...$ 541, Total... $541s417 Ill The! bank has paid ill tli~identls t,o the stockl~oltlers $160,350 t, tla,tt?.

139 110 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans KEPOHT. l!m7 I L~I:LIIS and tllwo~ultb... $ 2ll1,:31!1 14 (C:npit:rl stock $ 25.[rn 1 lverdrafts W 51; Sllrpl~ls... Sr~~(~ks and lxind %) TJndirldrcl proiirs :' ' ,lh)rl 1l:j III Rrt11 estalr... I i ~'ur ~~ep,rsirtl~.s on rartikilties' 1g.Gll 2, P't~rniturt? nnd Ilxtures. i 7 l)nr clepositor.~ <tu ~l<,nlentl.? l : $ ~ ~ :L5 j h n i l : I i&1 21; Ilividellda nucnllrd for )... Total *Xnti~!nr~l Xeyro Business r.enuiii., l!loa, gg , I C i t

140 Banks The Wage Earners' Loan and Investment Co. 468 IV. E~vud St., Snva?~i~oh, Ua. t Estnhllshed I!x)O) Asnel~ ul lhe End o/errch F~dcr~l Year SEVENTH ANN~AL STATEMENT, Otttoher 5, IW Resources Liabilities Im~ns outstnndiny....$ 57,Ml 14 C~pital puld in.....$ 11, Heal estnte rind lrivest~~rentu.. 5,717 iu Reserve end undivided profits 6,Im 44 Offlca furniture nmd fixtures Deposits... 49,43!1 51 I ; 05 1)iridelrds unpaid A0 -- Total... $ 07,01Yi!U Totnl...$ tii',gd(i!!i) Bns111ess done In I!UW;....$ 14:3,7.13 C6 Totnl ynlrl ill, t'npltnl , Real estate... 6,h~ MI Th~s ronipany was 01g:rnizetl in October, I!lOo,\vith a total paid in capital of $lcl". Mechanics' Savings Bank 511 North Tlci1.d Street, Rich?~~ond, T'u (Estalilished l!hii) l~onns :LII~ discouut... Overrlrnft... Stmiis, l~oiidi n,nd niortcr cres..,.. Fnrnitime and flxtures f? :... Rral rstrltv... (! on hnnd: (:oin... (!uri'encg... Eschanxe Tot~]... I I,$WCIH H.5 flue from Amrricttu Nation:tl Bnnk... 7, lne from ~ntionsl Imnk uitd h~llks of N& Tnrk.. 2,1~ 77 h r from Natioml I)uuks of Virginin ,lCS; 35 $ 81, Other items... 1,868 OR Tot ill rrsourors... $lm,lfll Mi Linbilitirs ('npitnl stc~clr gnld ill.... $ ".I74 32 Surplus... 6,P.W 00 Tilne drposits... Rll.lli7 21 Ileiiiar~ddrp~~stt~... 25,%540 Iilvidends uui~aid :- tn Perlitled rhecks US Total..... $ lrs,l(il 86 The tinnucia1 report of the Cashier, TIIOLIIBS H. Wyatt, showed that t'l~ere \viw $:<2,61li.'LZ to the c'redi t IIE the stockliolders. The rtggregate deposit,& for the vear 1W7 were $4XI,B43.(iS, autl the gros* receipts 111) t,o tlrr close of the year, exc:lr.~si\-e of fr~rniturc and fixtnre.s, wcre $15l.!IO4..1X. The Bo:~rd of Directors had ileclxrrd a, divideud of 10 per cuent ou all of its stock. One of the features, too, in this rrl~ort was the reconin~end:~tiou to erect :L tine hnking house for the i nstitu Lion.

141 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Lincoln Savlngs Bank, Vlcksburg. Miss. (Estnbllshcd 1!W21 Capital stock..... % III,OM Rurplus... 1,150 Deposits... lfl,n)il \.e are five years old. We have many white depositors, and white t,orrowers have to be kept off with a clltb, figliratively speaking. We shall he in the clearing house which is now heing orgnnized in this city. One Cent Savlngs Bank. Nashville, Tenn. (Estabflshed 1MI:<l Lofills and discounts.... $ 17,616 I16 Cash Resources Due from hanks ttnd bankers.... 2U65 I6 Chet:ks and other cash ltell~s Specie i(i Currency $'J0,7.i~ 24 Total resources.... $ JLI,I?I 2(1 Liabilities Cupltnl stock pald In......$ 2,140 01) Burplus and undivided proflts, less expenses and t8xes pald... 1, Individual deuosits I \vant to give you, in a few words, a comparative st,atetneut of our deposite for a few rnont,t~s during om existence. In the month of January, 1904, our deposit,~ were $11,017.30; in January of the next year, lt;l!i,927.11; in January, 1906, they were $31,tiTO, showing an average incr~ase of nearly $10,O(X) for each year. 1u April, 1904,onr deposits a~nolluted to $lo,s!l2; in April, 19W1, to$16,358.09; in April, l!hm, to $%, In June, 1!W our deposits amo~iilt,ed to $14, ; in June, 1905, to $26,731.5, and in June, 1906, to ~36;143.0!b So you Re?, my friends, we ;%re grtldnally growing. Our paid up capi t.:rl slock a~nol~nts t,o $7,125; our total rleljosits on the 30th of June, I!)Oli, amonn ter\ to $55,!il3.3li.* Solvent Savlngs Bank andtrust Cu., Memphis, Tenn. Loans and discounts ,372 01, Furniture and flxtlll'es... 4,JRe 23 Expensespald, less Int. and Ex. collected 4,K3 $10 Cash Resources Due from bunks H I I liankrrs ~... $ 6,609 ti$ Chwks and other cash lroliis.... 6, k!pec:ie \I1 C'urrency... 9, , 'I'olnl rebources... g 51,422!)ci ('aplt~l stock paid In... $,7,7:32 W Indirldur~l depwits subjrvt to cherk....13, I!e~,tliicnteb or de~oslt... 2, y i~ Clertlflrd nnd Oashler's checks M Snvlnrs dew~sltsubject to check ,RM Total Iluhlllt~es Katicnnal Negro Ri~slness Leugur, 1!IlH, p. 172.

142 ~~ - Banks G'votolh of Deposits June '30, lwrj... $ 7.M 04 UecemberYl, l9lw... 18, June 30, Y3,'LM 47 1)ecelnber :il,lru7... 4Y,W0 HR The 8rir~y 8e.sse.c a ~ ryo~ilhampto~~ 1 AIIL~~ZCU.~L Home untl Mis.sio?~tr~y Banki?ry.~lssocirrPion, Courtland, I7a., I(W3.-Conducted by the Jeukins Benevolent a ~ Educat,ion d Association: Business 11K)B-7... $0~11,167 Ha Total paid up capital :i,H Real estate (MO 00 In one mile of the towu of Courtland, in the county of Southampton. Bank of Mound Bayou, Mound Bayou, Miss. (EsLnblished 1904) STATEMENT, OCT. 12,1Si% Liabilities... Individual deposits subject to Building mid flxturrs... 7,yi f<i checks...$ 42,GX 81 Espnnsrs Cnpital pald in... 8,4W 00 Overdmfts... Y1!1 (t7 Undivided profits... 1, ('ash and si~ht exchange.. I : 1 Iiills ~avnl~lt?... lh,jg 'l'cltal resources... $ 711, Total liubilltios...%70,5105s The Rank of RIouutl Bayou was orp;~uizetl Jnuuary 8, 190.1, with an aut,horizetl capital of!$10,(100. We were chartered hy Governor Vnrdaman, who, not so ~nunh hecaurie of kindly feelings towards the members of our race, but mainly twcause of the illdoinitable perseverance of the Mississippi Negro, has hecu forced to sip more charters for Negro banks than any other marl in the world. living or dead. Located in a towu and surrounded L)y a community whose citizenry is coniposecl almost exclusively of our people, our bank has had a rplrntlid opportuuity to iudicate the Negro's capwity to operate a financial inst.itution among tl>emselvea. Starting without ally esperience, no cor- ~esponder~ ts or tinancia1 eon~iect,i~~us, in a one-story frame building, l(ix2lj, it has today itbout $40,000 in resources aud liabilities; correspontlents and tinancia1 conl~ectious in Clarkstlale, hlisr., hleml~l~is, New Orleans aud New I'o~k. Iu sending some of o~u. pper t,o New York this spring for discount to our Sew I-ork c~orrespoudeut,, the Cashier replied t,l~at he had plnced the amount to our credit at 6 per cent per anuum and assured us that it was a pleasure to serve us. We completed t,his year aud are now domiciled in a two-story pressed brick front building, with n~otlrrn vault, time lock safe and comme~~surate tist~wes. Located in a cr)utiguous cotton territory about 30,090 acres, oue-third of wliicl~ is in c:ullivatioi~, aud a live hart1 wood tim her industry, we have 1iaudIetl more inouey in a short while than many larger institulions ill larger towns. The total c'leariilgs t,hrongh our hank from Septemher, 1!105, to January, lhok, were more than $300,000. * Union Savings and Loan Co., Savannah. Ga. (Established 1905) Stockholders ~... i.w Business, IHo $~JO,(UYI Total capital paid in... 14,IWn Real estate... R.260 Deposits W) TVe llegan busiuess Novemlxr F;, 1'305, with $1,000 paid in. We have pnrchased * Nattonnl Negro Business I~eagur, l'joci, pi). 168-!I.

143 144 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans one of the most desirat~le localities in this healltiful cit,y. In the heart Savannah, in front of the magnificent post oifi~t., jnst across the sqllare ttle court house, and in t,he midst of the bnuking and busitless life of savannjh. shalt erect a building here that will be a mouumeut to the race. We desire that our people everywhere shonld hol~l an interest in this and beautiful building. The ground and buildilll: coml)let'e \\.ill cost between $22,000 and $!!.5,0Orl, every dollar of which will owned hy Segroes. Authorized cnpttal... $ 1B.(KXI 00 Shares. each J[et?-opolitu?, Ah(t,cul B~?#qfit ~tssor+rctioll ftllr1 ~~fct~~opolitrr dlerealltjle cllld Rrctlty PO., Savannah, (:a., (incorporated).-we are doiug a regular tauking I,usiness, paying 7 per vent ou yearly rleliosits on flw and npwards; deposits in the savings dep:brtnlent, 5 per cent. We are well equipped with a burglar proof vault, stet1 deposit boxes, steel money chests anil t,ime lock. Deposit boxes are now for rent at reasonable cost. We h:l.tidle yearly between $50,000 and $HO,IKK). [Failed, l!n~] We ha,ve. four Xegro hanks in the city of sav:lllnalr ; the oldest onp is the \.Vage Earners' Ba,nk, est,al~lished some six years ago; the nest one er;tahlishetl \vas the Met,ropolitan Saviugs Hank; the third was the..\fro-american sa,. iugs Rank: and the next hank whiclr came illto r-xistcllcr in Savannah rvas the Union S:iviug?: Bank, which I reprrseut. M'e organized ou the Hth clay of last November with an authorizetl capital 6toc.k of E8,O(H); \Ve have hnntlled up to 1;tst month $21,0110, and now have a paid lllr (%pita1 stock of a little orer $.j,(m"' I think thus fa.r we have had reinarkat~le surces$.* Qideon Savings Bank, Norfolk, Va. (Estnl~llsl~etl Ill051 STATEMENT Hrao,~rces Lirrbilil itbs The Sons and Daughters of Peace, Newport News. Va. Lonnsm~d cllsco~c~~ts $ H,!Ii1 25 C!:rpit:iI stock...$ S,WI W 0re1.drnlts :31i Ileposits subjrct to chrck % 10 Hnnking llouse... I,(WK) MI (!rrtiiied checks y... 1.W) 73 Fclrniture at~d flsturen I I Other itelns li:il~ilil

144 Banks 145 Our hank was opened.july 4, l!hg. The first day we did only t500 of business, hot we :we glad to say tl~:~t we averaged for the first year over $.lo,rioo, a ~ st,ill ~ d hett,cr last, year. Thin yew wr rnr:rn to dr~ ere11 mole. The future for onr cuterprise is i~irteetl bright, nmtl we believe ollr bank is desti~~etl to be one of the fiila~cial strungholds of ollr pcol)le of this sc.ction. \Ye i~re in u \-icinity of activity. And we :we endeavoring to get the pcol~le t,u sa1.e sy+.tru~ntir:xlly, which inealls a I)l~siness that call lrc? clel)e~~iled u110u. So far, we 11:lve ruccredecl uicely a1111 our patrollage is stc.arlily growing; we 11avc~ hoth small and large aeco~~r~t,s nwnhcriug pussihly 400 or 500. STATE*llENT, AT THE ('LOSE Oh' BUSIXESS, IIEc. 8, 1!1117 Rcsotrrccs L6nDililir7s 1,oa.n~ alitl rliscounts.....$ H,.i4R 1U Ca ltnl stothk [mid in... B 8.IW (KI Overdrl~fts... 6'7 9 ~m$lvidual drpo~its xubjcct to Banking 11ousr....l,tiOo Oo cht'clr... ti,;3hl:% Furniture and fixtures Tiu~ccrttficutis'cif ilcl~o8lt... 1,Wl 91 Exchm~ges for clonwing hounr Cii XR Certified r111.cks. 7fi 111 Dut, SIWIII N~Ltionnl~nnks... 1.WO 41 A11 othrr ltri~~s ;;I 'll~lrilitp, l>ue from Xtnte ilnnks :lnd ~ ri- viz... :WYI 00 vr~te 1,tbnkers... 3,450 4Y Spt.cir, nickels R I I cents ~ 470 X5 l't~per currer~cy ,217 (0 -- Totall... I L)O,OH8 H4 Totnl... $"II,W8 34 T,ast year our tlepositr w-ere $tiu,lw)o wit11 a ~I~OLI~RIICI PX~~XIIIJ 111r3I'a ~~rless, au~l this year we wish to (la a great (leal more; frw this reson wesolicit yolrr husinezs. \Ve have racent,ly purchased our banking house, aucl put iu iinl,~~irve~~~enr~ and wr are prepared t,o give you every acr:nr~~~noclation cousislent to our b~~tiincss. Take a uumher of shares of our stock ;it once. If you c:rn~~ot take as lnsny ea you wish, take one or two at any rate. \Ve le11c1 nioney on easy terljls. Delta Penny Savings Bank, lndianola, Mlss. (E~t~~lii~lled 1!Ul4I ('upllnl Stock, $Y5,OoG Loans and dfscounts, ctc:... $ ciz,i1!1 116 (:n)>ltn.l p~id $ lo,!klil I111 Overdrafts secul,ed Surplus... 1,IHIO 011 Ha~lkfr~~ house.... 5,OW 00 TTndlrided ijrc~fits ,814!iY Fur~iituTe and I~s~uT~s I 1)einand drlmditd fil,hpl ti8 Sight exchange... 27,711 11) Tie l]sits , n I I I L... ~ This Imnk was orga,nizetl in October, 1904, and opened its doors Jauuary, lw5, \vith total resources of $l2,0(10..january 1, l!k)ti, total resources I~ad i~~cre:wecl to $HH,OOO; Januaryl, 1W7, totd re.iourcrs had incrraiecl to over Idl,lllH). 1 hewwith me of our last stateme~ils,whicl~ n.ill sho\v yon that w-e now hn~e total resoarces of over $IW,000. Your readers will likely recull the stir t,li;~t \!-as created some ~nouths aft' hecause I'resident Eioosevelt sought to rrt~in a voloretl \vuln;i~l. Mrs. Minnie ('ox, as postmistress at Iudiauola, Miss. So much dist~ur1rauce was c~.ent('ci tiiat tl~p Fresirlrnt finallg clowd the l~ust otlice aud Mrs. C'ox withdraw from tho otiice. 111 ttlc rllean time I~er I~nsI~:rutl, Mr. \\'. \V. Cox, \\-its a railway portal vlerk. 13erausc of the tlisturhancr Cox latrr yave np his position on the for a while 1)oth of tll~tm lived out r ~ Iudianola. f Soune mcrnths

145 146 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans ago, ho\r.ever, Mr. Cox deterini~ied to open a Negro hank in Tndianola, and I ran indicate tlie progress and suoress of this bank iu no better manner th an t.o quote thc following sentences which haw just come tu me from a business ril:in iu Mississippi : " Now reference to Mr. W. U'. ('ox, of Iudiauola, bii;is., I beg to advise th;rt no 1n:tn of color is as highly regarded and respected hg the wllite people of llis to\v11 aucl county as Ite. It is true that he orgallized a'nd is cashier {.lie Delta Penny Sa\ril~gs Bank, domiciled there. I visited Illdianola during the sprii~g of 1!)05 and was very much sllrprisecl to note t,he esteem ill which he heltl 1)y tt1t1 1,attkers and I>IIS~U~SR men (Whik) of that p1:lc:e. He is agoad,,:lenn inall 1111cl ahvve the average in int~t~lli#e~lc:e, and kno\vs how to handle tile typic:;il S~)utheru white man. In t,he last, statelnent furiiished hy his bank to tile stllte.\~ldit,or, his hank showed total l~esollrces of $4(i,OcJO. He owns li\-ei in,)lie of the resiclent houses in Intlianola, regartlless of race, and ]l)c:ated ill a part of t,he town where other colored Inell seem to be not desired? Southern Bank. Jackson. Mlss., I.:stt~l~Hshetl ILllti~ HTdTEWENT SUON'X Ilesources Lirrbrlilies r :ash $ l2.l;.i:r 77 i t 1 I *0 0(1 Ful'l~itun. and Il.itul'es I3 1 Wp. Sul, stock... ;L7,R!4 52 ICxpense !ti7 7'7 Sttvillg5 <Lepc~hits... 11,W 5%' Loans :rti,l ctiscoulit4.... I! I! ml M hiurt#a:,, Lt~nns.. I I (:ilshirr's r11i.cks Hot6 I I I : I S... 8,lMl 27 Bill? paynble :S Bills rwriv:li)le !4 (Ill -- Tot ltl $Sl,l5lj #!I Totnl..... $ MR

146 Banks 147 its third liscal year), the year baing only half gorie s11d the vapital ~nuch larger on which to earn this year thau last,-12 per cent after i~aying all erpenses. * The 1itci.qht.s of lfono~ of the IVurlr-l ryat:i)~{~.'i &61lk \vaq organized in 1!H~2, autl was cloinicilecl nt Vicksburg, hliss., being t,!x l~ioneer hank of the State; in l!)os, it \%.itsdecided to change the lwatiou t~) (;reenviile,mi~s.,\~~i~icl~ was done, thethlro111 Savings Banks~lc:~:eeding it atvickshurg.... The Knights of Honor Bank is eapit,alized nt p10,000, with uearly one-half uf the stock p;tid iu; we have a deposit awuunt of urarly $IH,o00, t.llere 1)eing a greater demand j11st at this season for cash t,han for deposit slips husiness is, as I am told, like rnost inst,it,utior~s workiup ou a xir~all capit,al, cwntined prinripally to chattel mortgages and short loand, they being a source r ~ f greater re\-euue and quicker ret,urus. t Prwplc's Rlmk arid T~IIS~ (%I., Rfoskogee, I. T.-Established 19l)Ii. Stuckl~olrlers, 13 ; '200 awes uf land and several lots iu 1ndi;~n Twritory. Penny Savings Bank, Columbus, Miss. Stutrliirnt trf the I'C'I~I~Y Sa,vings Bnok of (Iolutuh~~s. Misv., Oct !NV C'rcpital Stock. $lo,ooo RP.FOIL,~S Linbil.ilies I~onns nnd discounts on prrsun- C'apital paid in... $ 1,!1%1 MI nl endora~n~ents, reni eatnte or Oudividerl k)roflts !lR collatrrnl swurlties.....$ 6, Individual deposits suhject to Overdrafts secured check ,1% 05 Furnitucr alld fixtures.... 1,085 Ill) Tln~e r!ertificntrs 01 deposit. 1, Expenses... '718 '& Cnsl~ier's checks Hlght exclmnge.... W2 50 C'II.$~I on hund , Totnl... % i 26 Total... $ll,:t025 Of the ahove anloun t of loans nnd discounts- To ofllcers of the Imnk $ To directors ul the brink (KI 10 stockholdery of the honk.... 4'7:4 4.5 The Forsyth Savings and Trust Co., Winston-Salem, N. C. I Established l!lw) We have tloue a \,usiness of more that1 $is,(kh) since we opened in hf~y of this yew (IOcii). Total paid up capital. $l,.xra; capital snl~ncribed, $lo,ih)o, to be paid in tan auu~ml installmeuts. T11is movement, origiuated with Prof. S. (2. Atkins. A temporary orgauizxtion was formrtl in l!n%,.jan~~ary. We tried varions plans to raise lhe niuney necessnry t~) opeu a 1~ankuudt.r Stat.(? laws. Finally we nppanled to IIon. J. C.'. bus to^^, St:~tc Senator from this county, w h secured ~ ~ a special act from the (fennxl Asseml)ly uf North C'aroljna in Jaunar?, 1!Yi7. TVc elected otlicerl; in February, 1907, and ope~~ed our doors for ht~sine*~ May 11, 19Oi. I.oans mid discounts...% 6,6!15 01 Fixtures, furniture, etc..... :{I:{ 71 Cnsll duc frmn other banks.... ISM 85 In safe ill oftlre >-' L3r.n Other cush... 1,bW 00 Totnl.... $ IO,Si.! X7 -- National Nrgro Budness League, IStiG, PI) im-1. t Knliounl Negro Business League, 1!UK 1). 174.

147 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans cash cnpitel ,:3.i+ IY, Tl~ne deposits , Ikposits sul,jrct to ch~ck i Totnl $lo,?~# 87 FHOX MAY 11, TO J~Ec.?I, 1M4: Tlrtnl rrcrillts fro111 rill sources.... 4i,4?:1 5!1 Pnid out for all purposes... L1J Volulne of hnsiness.... $!ll,wl 10 Enrnings from rt'al estate lonns..... $ E:II.IL~IIK$ frim all other sources r E:rpcnnrs Hnlmy... Itrnts I~lterwt on time deposits..... Telephone... Rrc~~rtllug p:tpers Printing nrld Ads..... Suppiles nnd sulldrirs... Fuel I lolnlexp~nse... $ 90!1 24 Elninuce from enrllingn....$ ' U. 0. Galilean Fishermen Consolidated Bank, Hampton. Va. Rep~trt ut the rondltion of the (:rnrld 1Tnfted Order. c ~ f (:nhlenl~ E'lsliernien ('r,nsolidnted Bn~lk. nt tile close of I )UICIII~~B UII the 22d clay of Augu\t, irw: I.r,;~~is fmd rliwounts... 11!1.! Ovr~~lrnfts WI 4!l Other rslrlte..... G Ful'l~lture nnrl fixtures ,U11 46 I I t I t e. I;! I ti:^ I D11v froul Hrt~te 11nnks lid pr1- I t 11:lllkers wt2 $18 Sliw'ic. airk~'ls 11nii r,c~lts... 1,71!1 3 I'nper (.urr~n(.y......?,os!+ 1x1

148 W e st:tl.tcd out with oue salaried c8rni~lu-j ee, we I I O have ~ five. The Tusuranw Ikpart~nent, within less than two years, had passed throng11 tbe bauk %'~O,O~H), :~ntl)wicies, serving as a rinancial arljur~ot to the l~nk, fnrnishea elnploynient to 120 young Negroes. Salaries range from $!i t,o s2o per Sumlning up the whole thiug in a unkihell, get up and hustle, some money slid the co-operation of those int,erested, have made our hank a success.* There are, thru, in t h United ~ States forty-one Negro bank^;; twentysevell of these have n capital of $606,778 paid in; twenty-five have $l,hxi.429 on deposit, R I I the ~ total resources of twenty-seven of the banks are $1.197,005. Section 15. Go-operative Business The history of co-operative business atnong Nrgroes i~ long and interesting. To some it is simply a record of failure, jugt as similar a,ttempt~ were for SI) longa time amollg whites ill Fra.nce, England ar~d America.. Just as in the caw of these lntter.groups, however. failure was but education for growing SUCCPSS ir~ certniri limited directions, 90 au~oi~g Negl'oss ntr car1 ~ lready see t,he rduc~~tion of failure hepinning to tell. Haw oo-operation began ill church, school and beneficial societ.y, we have a11eittl.v seen. Durit~g slavery a kind of yua~i oo-operation mas t't~e buying of freedom by sliives or their re1n.tirc.s. In Ci~~cin~iati, for ~~IS~HIICH : In 1835 there were in CincinuaLi, the center of the colored population in Ohio, 2,503 colored people of this riumher, 1,1!l5 had once been slavefi, and had gained their freedom hy purc.hase, ~n~n~ur~ission or escnpe; 4% had bought their freedom at an expense of $SlS,?J9.04, making the average price of each persou $ Some had earned their purcl~ase money while still in slavery hy working S~~ndays,c~lltivating a litble l~at,ch of yroiiud which had been allowed them hy their masters, and by hoardiug the small gifts which would from time to time be given the alaves. Sou~eti~nes av inrlolgent master woold allow a favoriteslave to buy his time; he would then hire himself on a deigh- *National Negro Businebs League, l!ior, pp. 1K5-6

149 150 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans boring ~lantation, making some profit by the transaction. Others were permitted to go North, where t,hey would have more opportunity to earn money, and here, by dint of hard work and most exacting economy, they \vould manage to collect the price of their liberty there were a large uumber in C:incinnati thus working out their freedom, the masters retaining their rc free papers" for security. One woman paid for herself $400, and then earned enough to buy a little home valued at $600, every dollar earned by washing and ironing. The majority of freedom earners, as soon as their o\vu was paid for, at once began to work for the freedom of a father, mother, bruther or ter, who were still in slavery. Four-fifths of the colored people in that city had members of their families yet in bondage. Of course, it wns o11ly the kinder and more indulgent masters who WoLlld allow sla\.es to work their freedom. We can hest see the state of co-operative business among the Negroes by studying t'he experience of s single city, and then t'urniug to a "lore general surrey.. Baltimore f From the testimony of many persons, the colored people of Balti~nore appear to have been actively engaged in all manner of business ven t,iires e\-en hefore the Civil War. These ante-bellum enterprhes were carried on generally by individual ownership. Rut immediately after the Civil War, nu~~lerous operative movements sprang up among the people all over the city. cooperative grocery stores, coal yards, beneficial societies and other kinds of business met with marked success for short periods, hut each one in its turn finally failed owing either to lack of capital or trained business inanagelnent or both. The experience of these earlier business iu~dertakings, like that "f the later ones, seems to show t'hat the patronage of the colored people, both as st,ockholders and consumers, has never been withheld from :my business, launched by colored men, that showed the slightest stability or promised reasonable values for money expended. Indeed the faith of onr people in standing by co-operat,ive enterprises in face of the signal failures of co-operative undertakings among us here, is most rernarkal~le.,4nd at the present time, so ready and willing is t,he support of the inasses of t,he people, that the mort peesiiuistic would hesitate to say that tl~e doze11 or more ro-operative enterprism now doing husinesi will not come thruugli all right. Aside from two secaret ortlcrs, the M:tsous, \rho own a) public hall on Nort,ll Elltaw st,reet, and the Nazarites, w110 own one on North (-!slvert street, and :L few 1,haritable institutions, the only successful husiness carried on in the pant has been by individuals. Of flourishing establishments of all kinds, conducted by individuals, we hare a great many. Why the iudividual has succeeded while his co-operative neighbor failed is not to be answered here. Brit, that one, in reading the following sketches of co-operative undertakiugs, rnay nut marvel that tile same causes for failure are given in uc?:~rly every case, we will set forth briefly t,he cause of these recurring caoses. The first cnnse generally assigned for failure is lack of capital. This is certainly a real obstacle and well nigh impossible to heavoided. An organization on its first legs, so to speak, gets its capital from a people reluctnut to part for a short time with their hard wrought savings, and when t,he enterprise in the stress of losses and current demands needs additioual aid, its stockholders, Iilckok: The Kr~ro 111 Ohio, pp f Report by Mr. Meson A. Ht~wklnsof the Baltimore High Srilool. c t r t t e P in D e

150 Go-operative Business 151 hecomiup lmuic stricken, refuse to invest more mouey and thus lose all. It has hern a hard lessoil for the colored stockholder to learn, viz: that a nonpaying enterprise might be made prosperous by the addition of more capital. This, ho\vevrr, is not surprising wl~eu one couside~~s the porert,y of the etockholders. He clings every time to what he has. A second cause is t,he lack of trained managers and workers. This also is a real cause, which still obtains, because our small bnsineas concerns have not had time eit,her to graduate persouli capable of ~nanagiug large husinesfi or any large number of trained helpers, and the opportunity is not elsewhere afforded. Of the several causes aasigr~ed for failure these are the chief. Aud they IljUst continue the causes for some time to conie. And get in spite of these real canses, I helieve t,hat co-operative stores, like those of Euglaud, where the stoc-kholdarli are taught econotny, and co-operat,ive bnilding associations t'liat will build or remodel dwellifigs to house poor people comfortably aud cheaply, ought to be possible even now. one general crit,iciwm might be made against :111 co-operat,iye uioveineut~n of the past. 'I'l~,zt is, the promot,crs were too anxions to Iregin I~usiness and did not n'ait nutil the i;toclrholders l~atl paid in sufticient mouey to insnre a fair e g i n i i Of t,he enterprises c.itutl lielow, in IIO case was t.herc more t,hsu 25 1)er cant r~f the capital stock :1vailable at the opening of tl~e I)usine$s, and iu the majority of cases it was nluc.11 less. If the opcuing of t.lie businesn could be delayed until sufticient capital was actitally iu hand; if this capital could he held indefinitely and the tnanageulent placed in the hands of competent persous, the success of these inoven~ent~s w-ould have been assured. Hut in many cases there have heen uo con~petent managers. In other cases the stockholtlers either ignorantly or otherwise failed to select the hest men availahle. And in a uutnber of cases. especially is this true of huilding associations, the stociiliolders have withrlrawn their money l)reiiiaturely. Almost without eacelrtion t,l~esenterprises, without providiug a surplus for iucreasing business, declared exorbitant dividends. It is said iu some quarters that. dividends had to be made in order to satisfy bhe clamor of nubscriliern of stock. No doulrt t,his explanation is iu part true: hut ignorance of fiound husiness principles is the chief re~son for declaring divideudi so large and ao early in the history of a cotnpany. 'l'liere are some people, u:~turally, who think that the protnoters of these enterprises cheated the people a d t.he~nselves benefited. rn7it,hont attempting to prore (he honesty of every pro~noter-some have 11eeu dishonest-the causes already assigned, stuall capital, lack of trained managers, lack of trained helpers, lack of almost everything that means succens, are sutticient reason# for the failure of co-operative enterprises :~111oug us in the past. Without, fnrtlter colnment, I will give such information as has appeared to me reliable, although in some instancc.s it, may seem somewhat indetinite. Douglnss lnstltute Prior to t,lie war, the colored people of Raltirnore had uo place, aside fro111 the cl~arcl~er; in which to hold pnhlic entertainments. To nleet this ueed several colored men, John H. Butler, Simon Smith and Walter Sorrell, forrned a partnersl~ip and purchased in 18M a large three-story brick building on Lexiugtou street, near Norbl~, autl had it converted into a hall. They named it Douglass'Itlstitut~e, after t,lte grand old man from Maryland. Besides puhlic entertainmento: of all sorts, the hall was used as a meeting place for fraternal

151 Co-operative Business 153 ored ca~~lkers reft~sinp to work for a lower rate of wages. Neverthrless, I~nsiness mar; l~rosperous and in five years the entire mortgage of $:30,lloO wit.11 interest at ti per cent per annum, a bonus of $I,OIM) a year, which they l~atl agreed to pay so long as a part of the mortgage was unpaid, $!!(KM) a year ground rellt, and the \\.ages of from 100 to 200 men earning from $3 t,o $3.50 per day hesides other eqeuses, were paid with the he111 of a small additional loan. Iu the sixt,h year of the company's l~istory, a stock divitlend was declared ; that is, the remaiuing uusul~scriliecl stork was divided among the stockholders in proportion t.o the amoilnt and age of their holdings. There had Iwen subsori1)ed and paid in all told $14,000, In the seventh year a 10 per ceiit dividend was paid, and for fonr years thereaf1.e~ dividends of from 4 to I0 per cent were paid. Wraugliug over offices the first two years cawed loss. Desertion of the white hoss carpenter came next, followed l~y his 11ne11 and colored caulkers, together with the loss of a number of llatrons; the desertion df t,he colored managrr, Samuel Ilogherty, with his followers next oc8currecl, and other minor desertions ca~~wtl the vomp:luy loss of money and prestige. After t\vrlre ywrs ;I series of ~nishaps-we~~ring away of the tixed rtal~italfor wl~ir!li no prrct~ntio~~ ltarl lweu talien, orc~~rred. The larger c.f two railw-ays used for docking ships wore out. It took one year to repair it at a ctwt of $(i,cnlo. The \vhite tirul (1i:lt repaired it left :I flaw, which later ransed I11r rhip yard a loss of much money ancl prestige. Ships,in several instances, were wedge11 in the track and were extricated only at a great cost and delay. The lack oi trained managers was also ailother hindrance. The eoloretl caulkers were most exl~erienced workmen, hut none had had any training or experience in the rule of manager. Hut the Anal and greatest cause was the refnsal of the owners of the~round to release the yard to the colored compaug except st an enolmous rat,e of increase. The ground rent was do11b1ed; that is,instead of $",OoO they now demanded $-1,000. with the ch:tupe which had nmr come about in the coustruct,ion of ships from wooden hottc1111s to steel and with the inc~easiug uun1ber of ships of larger toruiage whish conltl not 11e accornn~uilated hy the company, the ~nanagemeut of t,he ('hesnpealie Marine and Dry I>ock ('0. gave up business. The stockholders lost outright. It is said, however, that the loss of no one person \\-as great as the st,ock w-as vcrj- widely distribntetl. The orgauizatiou of the ship cbonlpany saver1 the wloretl caulkers, for they are now memlivrs of the wl~it~e ca~~lker.;' t~nion. The failure of the whites in driviug out the colored caulkers put an eurl to their efforts to drive colored 1al)or ont of other fields. Ant1 althoupl~ the company failed, it lnust snrely have heen an object lesson to the whites as wcll as to the 1)lael;s crf tl~e power and capa1)ilit~ of the colored people in their illdustrial rlevelopruent. Cash accounts ot three later years follow,sl~owii~g the iuaiu cansas of ulti~nate fai1~11.p: I. High wages. 2. Few repairs. 3. Rrut. The collcerrl lost rnouey in the Freedman's Bank. * *('f. Section 11.

152 1 I 154 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Tot~l ~U~~IICSS.... $ 2O,liU%78 s n.7m.42 Pnsh receipts 21nd I~LI'ID~C~S 1!1,!16W18 Pnid out- Wngrs ~ 1?,Hl2.43 C:rnunrl reut ,OHU.IXi Tnxra V.22 Rrpnirs ', ) Jlnterlal I T.:M 54! I s l l a n u... 23M.75 Divicie~~ds T(~tnl $ 25,R: Baler~ce I mc. 211 IK~? I ll-c.b~ 17%:,1I I Drc.?(~ 5jj.j Bills recrirahlr flll.6fl.5!?7.00 Meterial on hnnrl ?(III.lX) I ;mi.w Bllls pynhle.... l,%il.!w I$?:+ 91 Slnlring fund... I,(xKI.(Y)... Co-operative Stores, p)n thr testimony of several reliable persons we are info~'rnatl of tlie organization of i~u~nerons co-operative stores during the 1)eriod iminetliately folio\+-- i n the - a, -1iO. They are said to have lived for short periods hut appe:tretl 11rosl1erons while they lasted. A inan by the ilxlne of I)eaver is ~nentionecl as the nmuager for one of these stores. E'ollo\\-ii~g tlir period of co-operative stores there sprang 11p several years later a ('o-operative Buil~ling and Loan Assocint,ioo. Samerltsn Temple Abont ISSO asecret order kuown ap the (hod Sarn:tritans formed R joint stock ~.onipany. The ntock was sold t,o individuals mid loti~es. A Iwildinp, situated at the col'urr of Saratoga aud (:alrcrt streets, was pnrcl~ased for flo,o(x). The original l)rice,$2ll,lh)o, was li;llved by p1:~cing a mortpape of $lo,(m)o on tlie gronnd, s~ll>ject to auu11:11 g~~onnd rent. Tl~c hall w;ts un~~rually large, exte~itliilp Iialf the Idock on Sar:~toga ytreet, five sto~ir.? hig11, with a width uf 30 l'crt or more on ('alvert Atwet. The,rronod Ilo~rr \\.:in Irft for I)uii~wss porpore.<, the sr~v,!~tl and thirll doors for halls prol)er,:~~id tile rest of the huildinp :I? ~ C K I ~ l~ljlllll~. C Fro111 tire gvurral use made I I the ~ hutire builtling the conlpauy sliollld have realize11 a l~;~iltlson~e profit. It is now impossible to tlisco\-rr what the protit3 were or what losses tlie stockholdern s~istained. A\l'ter hnviup the llroperty for tweuty yea;s it slipprti out of colltrol of the stock r-oiupan-. Sonie of the lmo~noters of the project were: Ge~rge Meyers, Wni. 1:. Wilke?;, J. Seatoll, J.,\I. Ralph, 1. Oliver, nt. H.(~'lihste~. The Afro-American Lrd~er Tli~ A4,f'~~r~-d o~rrictr 11 Lecl,~/c~., a wwkly paper, nns st:~rtcrl in 1891 I g the Rev. \\'111. Alesauder and half a dozen others associated jvitli hi~il. The paper clrc*nlstetl at fir: t largely sinong the Baptist oorilmuoica~ts :tnd was regarded,l: the K:~l~tist orp;~n. From a financial st.:t~idpoiut it was very snccessful, u~linhering at the time of its failure 2,500 paid sul,~cril~ers. Its failure wa-i citusetl by the failnre of the Northweste~n Falllily Supply Co., which had I~t~ught a c~tntrulliug iuterest ill the paper and l):~itl for tllc same I'y :m issue of ils 6tot:l; to tlie original owners of the l)aper, resultiup, unfortunatel?, in 8

153 Co-operative Business 155 t'otal loss to them, as the stork of the SorLIiweitern Fitmily Sol)l)ly I!v. \\-:I;; wort l~less in Tlrr A,~IYJ-.-~ inwiccc~a Lerlgri., however, \\.a; revived 1111c1t.r anotl~er inan:rgen~ent, and is totlay the chief colored organ of the State. The North Baltimore Permanent Building and Loan Association This Associat~ion was organized in with a capit;il stock of $lu,ow. At its height it had aho~~t forty-five members. Of t,he $IO,O(KI capital not more tha,n $T,.INMJ was paid iu. At t,he exl~irnt,ion of six years the coinp:trly was di+aol\-ed withont, material loss to any one. Rev. I:. K. Waller \\-as for five years president of the Association. Other prominent inc~nbers were : IknJa~niu IIamilton, Wm. Fisher, Secret:~ry ;(3. I\'. Tlyer, Treasnrer. Tl~e Associatic~n owned in its own name one large rl\velling on i'1ru~t1and street,, near Franklin. This dwelling was nsed as the ofice of the Association and as a ~~ight school, which was conduct.ed by the President, Rlr. Wal.le:,antl ot.her menihers of the hsaoc-iation. Tl~e cnnse which I)roi~ghthe corlwration to an 1111timel.v end \v:xi the lending of ~iioiiey tc~ 111e1111)ers on their notcs wit.l~ their stock ;IS,srlBi~rity. Tlliz ~~ractic-(8 rrsnl1c.d in,z gratlual retiwmeut of tl~e stovk-tlle nole; \I crc ucvcr ~):iitl-and tl~e roll:~l)se of the cv)mpa.nj-. The Northwestern Family Supply Co. The Nortl~western Family Supply C'o., the largest co-operative ni~tlertakiug sii~w the faillure of the Chesapeake Rlarine Railway and Dry I)~wk Co., ant1 possibly the lar,cest in its circ~~lation among t.he 1)eople in the history of cooper:~tive enter1)riws among the Negroes of Baltimore, was started in 1W-l by a pork htcher,colured, of Lafayette Market. As thc name suggests, the company dealt in a fnll line of groceries, rneats and other necessit,ies. Tlic company was c:~pitalized at $.io,o(hi. Stock was sold at $5 a11tlj1o a share. It is cliliicnlt to s:~p j~ist how ~nucti was actually paid in when b~~sii~ess Iwgan ; 1~1t :it the high title of sucres* there are said to have heen 2,lIltO 11ien1l1el.s. Tlie main store was located on Fren~out avenue, near Lafa>-ette, and tlrree I~rxnch stores were lorated iu different sect,ions uf the city. That the com- 1)any did a very 1a.r~~ hiisiuezs is a1611 att,estetl LJ- the six or seven tlelivery \vagons whicl~ werc kept 1)11sy delivering goods to all parts of the vity. Tl~r ttl;lnsrer, Mr. Ilaly, says that. one ~nont.h the gross rereillti were!$lil.nolj. Exorl~itant dividends of from 10 to 31 per cent were paid. Frolo the extensive ineml~ersliip, fro~n the very natnre of t,he I-)n-iiitw, here was a conipany th;i.t promised flattering sllcoess. 1:nt ne\-el, Jvas permanent snccess less prohai)le nor wan ton ignorance of sirnple t)usine+ priuc.il11es IIllJr~ rmi~px~~t. H:ul there heen unly a fair arno~cnt of correct husiiir~.~ ~)riuciples applied iu tl~(? 1nauayelnent of its ~tores, the northwest en^ Fl:~~ni[y S11pply C'o. might have been in existence t~udity, a giant 1)nsiness estal~li;.l~ineiit of tl~r city and a credit to the race. Hnt nohotly knew anything. The clerks in the stores c:ould not wrap hun(lles or weigh out 11; uunces to tlir 11c~uurl. The t~utchers-they werr all butchers-could notcut meat; the buyer.+ lii~ew uotliiug of buj-iug; there vas needless loss on e\.ery hand. The genrrnl ma,nager, unalde to neglect his own I)osiness, left the ~~r~nieltly plant witl~l~ut actiw management. Add to these causes t,he kina1 blnntler, eaclh stockl~(nlder wns allowed to de:d out in gootls the amount he hail lmid in stock, and the wonder is that the corporation lasted two years. Tlie iuerittthle crash rnine with almost a total lays to the stockholtlera t,liat had not dealt out tl~cir stc~ck in goods.

154 156 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans -4 very great henetit, however, is chimed for the Northwestern Family suppl,v ('0. It is said to have implanted in the breasts of the colored people ;I hsnkeriug after t)usiness of their own. This m~ch is certain: the seed has heen sown hy some meau*, for nltlnerolls little stores of all kinds, chiefly grocery stores, are scaitered thronghout the northwt.ster~r sect'ion of the city, The Lexington Savlngs Bank Followill!& in the wake of the Northwestern Family Supply (!o., calne Lexington Savings Hank. It was organized in 18% by Lawyer E..I. Waring, w~lo was ma.(le its President. Some of the stockholders were: E. J. Wariug,,J. H. blurpl~y,.f ulins Jo11;lson ltud others. Its capital st,ock was $%,00(), hut it started l.~~lsiness with uot, more tl~an $5,000, $9,500 of which mas conttolletl by the Presitleut. Of the amouut held by Mr. Waling $!L,WJO belonged iu equal parts to two white men, hlessrs. Cooper and Singer. The I~anlr did Iiujiuesj satisfaot.orily for a short period. The first large clel)osit, a deposit of $100, made 1.)~ hlr. J. H. Murphy. After 801llethillg lrss t,lrall a year the Ijallk was <:ompellrd t,o close its doors. The failurewas caused by the loaning of 1TloneS on insufii~*ic.nt security. The loss to clepositors and stoclrholders was illsip ~~ifirant. It is said Messrs.('ool>er and Singer lost llotl~ing, but t,liat the President \vae l)aukrnptetl through his business manipulations. Although the nloney loss was sliyl~t., t'hc e~)ntitlence and vredit of Segru business enter1)rises nud tl~e faith of Negroes tlrenleelves in them, were shaken as hy nutl~ing else I~ecanse of the co~~fideuce and admiration in whichhlr. E. J. Waring was I~eltl. The Home Shoe Co., and The Lancet Publishing Co. The lait cht~pter of defunct stock companier c:m I)e told in :L word: lack of cal'ital, lnck of active husiuess n~auage~neut, and in case of tl~e first, lack of pr11denc.e on the part of the Board of Directors. Hot11 uf these companies mere st:trted i~i>ollt the same tiule, Fehruary, l!mj2, and were It~catecl in the same Iluilding, tiri Kurth Kut:tw street. The Home Shoe C'o. \\.as csl~italized at. $:i,ollo, to deal in men's, won~en'a nml cl~ildreu's shoes. 'Tl~e stirre w;ts olwnell in mid-seasun, tlie middle uf ;\ugust, Iwfore $l,flol) i~~f the cal,it:tl sto('li Ir:~c( I ~ ~ p:~irl I I in. Ihtl jutlyu~c~~t ill the selection of en~pluyec.~, Imrl ;ite f,,r itore ant1 innufticient c:lpitni, were c8aiiwn of the fnilure. Nor srwral ~no~lths R fi~irly p~od I ~ I S ~ I I ~ S S \\.as (l1)11e. l~ut t.he n1011e.y had sinil)l\' to Iw t.nrned 11:u:k into sti)~.k to invrea~e the liue of goutls. Wlrcn the tin~ecanlt. to p11t in t,lre spring stock, t.lw c:tpital was iust1fticie!1t ant1 husiness pratlnally tl\vintlletl until late ill the summer, tlrv corporation r~~ld out 11, one (~f it,s ~ ~~en~l~ers for fi cents on the dollar. The total amonntof cal)itnl paid in was $'l,iuu. The loss war confined allnost e5tirely to t,l~e twelve l)irectors, who were the original fotiuders. The LHIICC~ P11l~lisliing (!0., Job printers and 1)ul~Ii.ilrers of a weekly, la~ted nutil Nove~~Iwr, 1!W. The plant was owned by uine or ten men, who lost 93 per cent or more of all thvy hsd i~~vestetl. Theexact n~nount of t,l~e loss is not avni lable. One yo+sil)ly depressing feature about t,lrr failure of these two companies i* that they \\.ere lnauagetl :tud owued by the no st int~ lligent coloml of t,he city, I;t\\-yecs, doctors, school teachers and t~nsiue$s unen. But allllo6t without exce1,tiou these nlen hat1 no knowledge of the 1)artic:olnr husiuess at hand ; so that, so far as thew eutrrprises wereco~lc.erncd, the)- were illst as ignorant as the uule t tcretl masses.

155 Co-operative Business 157 The following is a list of certain typical co-optmtive bminess conr111ctt.d by Negroes in the United States. It is riot, of course, anything approaching a counl~lete list : , 4. Floridn Printing and Inlproveu~ent C!o., Jacksonville, Fla. Hill Horseshoe and Ovrrshue Co., Denver, (201. Hpncer Re,d Brlck Uo., Spencer, N. Y. Ya~~llllah Mattress Go., Savannah, Black Diaiuund rjevelopl~~ent no., Clilcngo, 111. fi. (:rescent Manufacturing Co., Lynchburg, Va. 7. Rrown Mnnufacturing Co., Lw -4ngrles, CW. 8. Western Repair Autonloblle Co., W~YIII~~$~OII, I). C. 8. (iolde~~ Chest and Freeman Minlng Ou.. Ijenver, Col. 10. Star Coal Co., DI'Y Moines, Iowa. 11. The Rolesrille Colored Saw Mlll C!o., Raleigh, N. C. 12. Bruno Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass. 13. Razor Strop and Leather Goods Co., New York, N. Y ,ewls Cigar (:o., Pblladelphla, Pa. I. Oolurrcl Knilrond,\\'il~11ington, N. (!. 2. Auto~nol~ile ('o., Nuhvllle,Tenn. 3. North J ~ o ~ s o I I v I I I Street ~ Rltilway, Town and Improve~nent Co., Jacksonville, Flu. Afro-Anierican CJo., Br~lti~nore, Md. Warren Hot Hprings Furuiture nud Unrlertnkl~~: C'o., Hot Springs, Ark. Rellef Jo111t Htock Co., Little Rock, Ark. C!or(lele Enterprise. Cnrdrle, Ga. Uolor~~do Sprlngs Morce~~tiln Uo., Colorado Hprings, col. ('onln~ercinl Ploneer Instl tutlon, Caul bridge, Mass. Wyandotte llrug Co., Kansas C!ity, Kau. Wolllen's Exchange, Frunkfort, Ky. Knnds W. Tricr &On., (:hic%go, Ill. Tril~une i'ubllrhlug (70.. Oklnhonm City, Okla. Stirnllnah Pharmacy, Hnvannnh, C;n. The People's Drug Store, Clerrland, Ohio. The Peoplr's Hhoe Uo., Atlanta, (+a. Iowrl State Bystander Co., Iws hitlines, Iow:~. Farnwrs' Improrement Go., Paris, TRX. Phtlndrlphla Storage and Olennlng Co., Philndelphla, Pa. Afro-Aluerioon News, hltlrlln,tex. The Artehian Drug Go., Albany, Gct. The Advocate Publlshing C!o., Port- Iand, Ore. Crxnnlerrinl Yboz Co., hlncon, (:a. 21. Colored Business Men's Assoclatlon, Indtann.polls, Ind. 2%. The Studeuts' Tea (lo., Rlchm(rlld, va. 23. The Kansas City Enrhal\ntng and Uaslirt (h., Kansus C:ity, Kan. 24. People's Trading Co., Albany, (;a. 26. Unlon Publlshing Go., Arlnntt~,(:a. 26. Gate City Drug Htore, Atlantn, Ga. %. People's Hhoe (!(I., Havnnuah, Ga t~vnnnah Shoe ar~d Merctmtlle Co., Harsnl~all. (:a. 29. Llttle Dan Publishing Co., Ameri- GUS, GIL. 30. Fronkll~i Uounty Colored Fair Assoclation, Frankfort. Ky. 31. Bugle Publishtug (!<I., Frankfort,Ky. S2. Woman's Loyal Lengue, Grand Rapids, Mlch. 33. The Weldon Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 34. New York Age Publishing Co., New York, N. Y. 85. Record Publishing Go., Itichinond, va. St;. Capltol Shoe Go., Rlchnlo~~d, Va t. John's Intermrdiat,e Iteltrf, Norfolk. Vn.. 8. People's 1)rug Co., Lynchburg, Vu. 39. Merc~ntiir Co., Marlin. Tex. 40. Langstou Mercrl.ntile Assoclntlon, Langston, Okln.

156 158 Economic Co-operatkn Among Negro Americans 41. The Raleigh Co-operatire Grocery Store, Rnlelgh, N. C. 4%. 00-operative Grocery Store, Loulsiana, Mo. 43. Pulllam Grocery Co., Tallndega, Ale. '14. American Baiss Commercial Go., Los Angeles, Oal. 45. Afro-American Co-operative Uo.. Los Angeles, Cal. 48. Clanadlan Second-Hand Store. Los Angeles, Cal. 47. Clollforula Puhllshing Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 48. Bunset Invest~nent Co., Los Angeleu, Cal. 41). Green Wlllow Park Association, Washlngton, D. C. 50. Lake View Park Association, Wash- Ington, D Nation81 Aniusenient Uo., Weshington, 1).C. 52. National Colored People'a Co-operatlve Unlon. Washlngton, D. C. 53. Jnne Moseley Stenlnboat Co., Washington, Y. C. 54. Sunny South Amusement Co., Washington, D The People's Advocate, Waahlngton, 1). C. 66. Colored Anlericnn Loan Co., Dellver. Col. 57. Afro-Amcrlcan 00-operative Concern, Athens, Ga. 5% Oanadlan Employment Co., Des Molnes, Iown. 5!4. Douglnss Improvement Co., I)es Moines, Ia. W. Superior Laundry Co., Des Moines, 1ow Electric Carpet Dusting Co.. Des Xoines, Iown. 62. Ilyde Onrprt (?lanuing ~ ~ Moth n d Erteriulnibtor (:o.. 1)as Molnes. In. 63. Colored Anirrlcnn gteamboat Co., Norlvlk. Va. 64. White Light Blcycle Go., Norfolk, vo Virginlo Laundry, Norfolk, VA. 6B. Women's Buslnesu Assoelation, Norfolk, Va. a?. Woluen's Escllnnge, Norfolk, Ve. 68. Satisfled Orchestra. Ft. Worth, Tex. 6!1. Ft. Worth sllver Cornet Band Co., Ft. Wrorth,Tex. 70. Woman's Grocery Oo., Richmond, Va. 71. Hercules Go., Huntlngton,, 79. Hnulpton Supply Oo., Hnmpton, va. 73. Weekly Snrlng Co., Lynrhburg, va. 74. Tidewater Unlon Undertakers,~~,- folk. Vn. 76. Tri-Oitg Auto Co., Nurfolk, Va. 76. Oil City Grocery Oo., Beaumont, Tex ty Drug 00.. Beaunlont,~~~. 78. Workingmen's Uo-oper~tlv~ union, Hampton, Va. 70. Bay Shore Hotel, Hampton, va. 80. Parkwood Cemetery ~ s ~ ~ ~ j ~ t i Chlct~go, Afro-Amerlcan News Offlee, chicago, % Wyandotte Mercantile Co., Kansas City, Knn. 83. Wgandotte Cemetery Co., Kansas Clity, Ran. 84. Excelsior Grocery Co., Boston,Mass. 85. Franklin Buriel Association, B~Ston, nxass. %. Puhllc Cash Grocery Store, Boston, Mass. 87. E. B. Haskins Tailoring Co., Boston, Mass. MY. Cofler & Jerldo, Ice Cream lkalers, Boston, Mass. MI. Armory Hill Clarpet Cleanlng Uo., Boston, Mass. MI. Arnory HI11 Carpet Clennlng Co., Sprlngflelcl, Mass. 01. People's Coal no., Baltimore. Md. '32. Queen Oon~merclal Enterprlae, Baltirntme, Md. 9% I>ruld HI11 Hand and Steam Laundry, B.zltlmore, Mtl.!d. Good Hope Jolnt Stock Assoclat ion. Bt~ltimore, Mrl. %. St. Pnul Wlnduw Washlng Co., St. Pt~ul, hllnn. 06. Colored C'o-operation of America, Itllaca, N. Y.!t7. New Amsterd~nl Musical Assoclatlon. New York, N. Y. 08. The Weldou Realty Co., New York, N.Y. 90. Trne Reformers'Burinl Assocl8tion. New York, N. Y. 1w. Unlted Benevolent Associntio~, New York, N. Y Colored ~roccre Co., Augusta, (;a. 1~1. Greeliwood(:rocel~y~~.,(~reen~oo~. 8. C. Iu'j, J. H. Zedrlcks & Co.. (?hlcako, Ill-

157 ((1) Real Estate and Credit. Co-operative Business Industrial Ren,lty and Investnlent Co., Terre Haute, Ind. Twin Ult? Realty Go., W1nsto11- Snlem, N. C. Western Realty and Land 00.. Tulsa, Ind. Ter. Masonlc Rulldlng Assoclatlon, Savannah, Ga. Plckeus Realty and Trust C!n., Muskogee, Ind. Ter. UnlOIl Investment Co., Jncksonville, Fla. The Pioneer Real EstateCo.,Oniaha, Nrh. The Queen Improvement Oo., Baltlmore, Md. Snmuritan Joint. Stock Ass~ci~tio~i, Haltirnore. Md. Nazarite Jolnt Stock Co., BalLiruorr, hid. West End Loan and Investinent Co., Bultlnic~re, Md. metropolitan Realty Uo., Balti~nore, Md. Industrial Loan Realty Co., Minneupolis. hlirlll. IJnited Realty Go., New York, N. P. Building and Loan Association, Hampton, Vs.. Cnmbrldgt? Itealty Associutlon,Oambridge, MRSS. The Orgen RWlty Investment Go., Houston, Tex. The Afro-Amerlcan Real Estate Co., Baltlmore. Md. Douglas Investment Co., Pittsburg. Pa. Plttsburg Ra~ingS and Investment Co., Plttsburg, Pa. Gold Red Estute and Investment 00, Pittuhurg, Pa. Eureka Inrrstn~ent Go.. Philadelphia, Pa. PaclAc Investment Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Home Extension OIL, Philadelphia, Pa. Banner Realty Oo., Phlladelphia. Pa. Rhodr Island Investment and Loan Uo, Nem port, R. I. Real Estate Co., hlontgumery, Ah. Routhern Sallfor~~la Rral Eslatr and Inve3tment Co., 1.0s Angeles, Cal. The Citlzen'b Investmeut Go., Denrer,L!nl. Western Loan Association, Denver, GOl. Hyde Reel Estate and Investment Co., Dee Moines, Iowa. Enterprl~e Investment Co., 1)es Molues. Iowa. Afro-~nierlcan Realty Go.. New York, N.Y. The Mohawk Realty Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Most of these are tiow in operation, altlwngli some few rnay have recently suspe~~drd. A great inany firms are of a semi-co-operative nature, but we are studying those with rt number ot co-operatnrs- always three orfour, rtnd usur~lly from ten to 100 or more. Tl~ere follow ineny inrtances of living and defunct enterprises, illustreting the vtiryi~lg kinds of attempts: Productive Co-operation This is, of course, the inost ra.rely ~uceesful, as the tiiatory of co-oprration ainoi~g all tlatio~ls proves: The Coleman Manufacturing Company was established in 1897, in Concord, N.C., by fieveral colored men, represented by a President and a Roard of Directors. They went to work calmly to see whether or not the colored people t,hrougliout the United States were interested in organizations of that kind, and the influx of letters and money that came in tells me, and tells you and every one, that t,he Negro is interested in a cot,ton factory and hafi one l~uilt there in North Carolina, aud is going to build another one next year. The plant of the Coleman Mauufacturing Cornpany is valued at $100,01XI, is a t,hree story brick st,ruct,ure that you can set Parker Memorial Hall in the corner of. It hafi a 270 horse power Corlisa engine there and machinery t,hat will compare favorable with any in or around Boston.,.....

158 160 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans We employ between 2.00 and 230 colored boys and girls, and only last week sent to Charleaton for 50 more, and fllst a* boon as we begin the building of this other mill, in December, we intend to employ 101 colored mechanics. we there cotton goods and yarus. You call judge of the machinery there when the greatest machinist in the country, rcl)resentlng the great Parker Company, only last week pronounced the machinery in the Coleman Manufacturing Company's works the best in Cah:~rrus county, North Carolina.' Just as this mill was well ~tnrted, Mr. Coleman died, ant( a white company bought the mill and is running it with white help. The New Century Cotton Mills, L)allaS,Te~as, hegan operation and training of its operatives January 5,1903, superint,ended by trained expert officers from the mills of New England. The operatives were gatliered froln among the colored youth of our city, none of whom had ever before entered the door a cotton mill. The mill is equipped with 3,000 spindles, complete for making warp yarns, and has the latest improved machinery. The main building was a remodeled business block, cont,aining, with the new additions, XJ,(DO feet of floor space, with three acres of laud in the mill grounds. The t,extile equipment, sprinkler svsteln,private electric light plaut, railroad switc:h,eto., furnish every facility and appliance for economical and convenient operatiou. It has froln irs first inception and will ever be the object, of the management to make the mill strictly and purely a race institution, representing in every feature tlie actual accomplishments, in t,heir respective lineb, of the trndesrneu of our race. For example, every one of the %)O,lK)O bricks used in t,he construct,ion of buildings were laid by colored mechanics; every piece of lumber or timber frafiletl into this mill plaut is the work of colored men; the erection of all luachinerp, boilers, engines, lines of shafting and countt!r dlafts, the erection of all textile n~acilines, t,he erection of the complete automatic sprinkler system for tire protection and the inst,alliug of the complete electric: lighting system, were all accomplished by colored men, nuder proper supervision and instruction; and tlle mill stands today the pride of every lahoring man of color wit,liin our cit,y as the evidence of their abilit,y to do things Tlle inill is IIOW enll~loying sc?vn~ty-twol~eratives on Ihe clay ruu 111 its \-ariol~s tiepartments, and ill this, the uiglit months since training I~egm, they ;&re ~)utt,ing nut. dailg the stanc1;~rd protluct~iun for which the 111ill was de- signctl, viz: Three thousand puuncls of warp g:~rcls per day The Nelv Century Cott,on Mills has (rousnined bales of cotton iu the tirst seven months of its operation. The mill has paid more t,l~an $lo,thk, in wages to its employees. The mill has trained 1%) operatives, and c!onternplat,es running double time when tile new oral) of cotton is at hand. The protlnction is sold in Dallas,Sew 1-ork a~ld Boston. We have delivered to one cnstomer 225,000 pou~lds of yarn.t Both this 111ill and a similar Mis~issipl,i venture failed. The Sorltheru Stove Hollow-ware and Foundry ('ompany was temporarily organized on the 15th dmy of February, IS97 aud %;is perlnanently organlxed and incorporated at Chattanooga,under the laws ot the State of Tenuessee, on August 15,1897. Our chai.ter provides for a cnpltal stock of $5,OW, to he dl\ idea into shares of $25 each, which are sold only to rolowd people. elther for cash *Sattons1 Negro Bu~lness IAcngur, I!OU, p. W7. :National Negro Business League. 1W8, pp. ti4-,56.

159 Co-operative Business 161 or upou 111outl11y payments, hut in no case is a certificate issned uutil fully paid for. The Foundry was built and beran operations on a small wale 011 or ahont October 27, 1897, antl has now increased and been perfected until we manufactwe st,oves, hollow-ware of all kiuds, fire grat,es complete, boiler grate bars, refrigerator cnps, shoe lasts aud stauds, and other kinds of castings ge~erally made in fonndries. We also do a repair business which has ]low growu until it has become a 1)usiness that pays well and is oue of our chief sollrces of revenue. The land, buildiugs, machinery and all patterns are fully paid for except part of the stove patterns, and these we are paying for in prod~~ct,s of our foundr\r; and we call say that we are virtually free from debt. Of the c:~pital stock authorized we have sold $1,466 worth, and this has all been used strictiy in equippiug the plant; hut this slun does not represent now the worth of our plant, as all our protits hare been allo\red to accu~nulat,e and hn,vc been used in business.* The rntc.r'prise wa,s quite successful, b ~ ttt ~ last, t fa.iled for lack of capit,al; nevertheless, iu 1900 it was reported from Chatta.t~ooga: We have tw-o foundries there, owned, operated, cout~rolletl and worked and run by eolored men, capita1izt:d today at. $%,000. These foundries li:bve passed the stage of esperimentat,ion; they are now 'ertaiu ties ; they are i~aying institntions. Everything they manufacture they have orders for; Their work is in demand. They have not afi much capital as they need aurl as they wish, hut with that a~nouut of capital they succeeded in the manufac.t~nre of stoves and cooking nteusilr; and skillets, and grat,es for fnrnaces antl foundries; and right thore in Cl~attnnuoga they have a great demand for t,hat \I-ork. t Coal unining has been tried : Something over a year ago the idea got into the heads of some of us t,o orgauize and conduct a coal rniuing corporation, and we did, and the Rirmingham Grate (loal Milling Company came illto existence in the eity of Rir~~lingham,.Jefferwn county. By some accident of fortune it was my lot to he elerted president of this company. Onr capital stock was fixed at $lu,olkj. M'e leased a riel1 miue, which was at the time staurliog idle, and proceeded to get hold of some coa We leased thesc mines for five gears, pa,ying a royalty for the laud. We began working and began puttingout coal on the 27th of Septeinller last year, 1HW. We have ~niued from that t,ime, mining from 25 to 30 tons of coal per day, up to 125 t,om per day ; and soon we will roll from t,he earth to the top anrl put on the cars, 290 tons lwr day.+ Spencer Rccl Rricl; ('o., and the East Ithaca Red Brick anrl Tile t'o., have twelve a.nd three members, respectively. Both plants are equipl)ed with UIJto-date ~r~achinery and steam power. Their l>usine6s is making I~ricli antl clraiu We. Both plants were built, the machincry set and installed by George \Vashington Cook during t,he yeilrs The total paid 1tp ca.pita.l is $R,OOo and $Y!,(lllO, raq)ectively, and they own 15 acres end 8 acres. Mr. Cuok has Iwe11 in the brick busi~~ess for the last twen1.y-eight years antl for eleven years was rnaunyer am1 superintendent of the Tthacn E;uiltling and Paviug Brick ('o., at Newfield, which posit'ion he heltl at a salary of $1;UX) a * Atlmta TTnivrrsity P~~l~lica.tion, No. 4. t Nntionul Negro Buvlness Lengue. 1000, p. 68. f Natlon:rl Negro Business Leuguc. ISM, pp

160 162 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans year. The last year he was at Newfield he leased the plant with an opt,on and sold t,he same to the Scranton Fire Brick (lo., of Scranton, Pa. H~ then went to Ithaca and built a new plant near Cornell University at, E~~~ rthaca, on a brauch of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. As he Was unable to supply the trade with one plant, aud uot wishing to have any opposition in the trade, he t.ook up another in Spencer,N.Y., 13 miles South of Ithar:a, on two branches of the 1,ehigh Valley Railroad, and formed a Negro stock colnpauy. ~h~ machiuery of hoth plants was put 11p by Mr. Cook. The East Ithaca Red Brick and Tile Co. e~nploys 25 men and has a dailv,acity of 35,MM) aud 1,5W tile per hour. The Spencer Hrick ~!o., employs ;O tnen and has a daily capacity of 50,OM). Tile Hill Horseshoe and Owrslioe Co., Deuver, hl., manufact~~riu~ horseshoes; membership, 40. In 1!N7 hcgan manufacturing t,o the anlount of $m, 1~~viug a total paid up capital of '$!!,ON; originated in 1905, incorporated iu IYIJH, stock selling at 10 cents per share. The Black Diamond Development UOlnpany was organized October, 1!~)5, under the laws of Arizona, with a capital stock of.joo,o(h) shares at a par value of $1 per share, full paid aud non-assessable. Tile SQ acre leasehold, which it purphased oue year ago, being located six miles soutlieast of Chanute, Kansas, Neosha corlnt,y, and entirely surrounded 1,s good producers, has now five large gas wells all complete and their protluct ready for the market. These wells are decidedly alw~e the axrerage ill size, ha\dng a capacity of more than 12,0W,(NKI cnhic feet of gas per day. >larch 'LO! 1!N: Since the report ou the foregoiug pages was made to tile company there has been continuous development~doneou the property of this wmpany. Well No.6 hns been drilled and seems t.0 be another good gaa well, and is lorated oue-half liiile aouth of our other wells and on oue of our uew properties. The pipe line is nearing completion and it is only a matter of a few clays 1111t,il we will he delivering gas to the ICansas (:itg Natnral Gas Co,, and Iiausas t'ity friends will be 1,umiug Black Diamond bevelopment ('oml)xn)"a gas in tlleir homes and fac.tories. The price uf Black Diamond Development C:o!s stock has advanced to 50 cents. Kowallge rrhe Presitlrl,t.t,f the Title Gua.rimt~e mtl Trust Co., New Yolk, ~vrites the fo~ultlrr. W. E. Brnsun:.\bout 1it.e )!ears ago he rarne North with a propo3itiou to buy abont 6,lW acres of nl;tguificent timber and farming land surrounding Iiowaliga, organize an ind~~st,l.ial corporation with substantial capitial, 1~Nild cheap farmhouses, epta)jlisti ~~nwll mills, sell on easy terms or lease small farms, teach profit,ahle farlning :bud seusil~le lumbering, develop the tnrpeutine industry, and gnnernlly flu.nisll work through the winter for a population that otherwise mould l,e idle, or worse. A nuruber of us 11elped him organize his coinpany, buy llii I:Lntl, a~ld rolnmence the development.. At first$!41,ow was raised, of which $li~,t~)o w~rs fnrnished by his father and others at home. Suhseqnently he 3c.cllred Y(I0,IYlO Inore for addit,ional land and iinprovelllents, and six months ago he hough t 1,HOO acres of turpentine forest to round ant his plantation, now c~oltll)l.ising 11,0110 Scres, and secured $20,000 additional at~)ck subscriptions so tllat tile of his company now paid in is $.5O,IN)o. Its primary ollject is not to lllrke rnoney, snd those of na who suhscrilred were re pared to lose our mo~~ey, hnt uow do not expect t,o, and it looks as if it might be another

161 Co-operative Business 163 case of wise pliila~~throphy at 5 per cent or hetter. The ea~npaigu has not heen an easy one. The manager reports in 1907: The Dixie rudust,rial ('ompany was incorporated nuder the laws of illnbama in lcjoo, with acapital of $10,000, and secured its first tract of 5,000 acres of land with a few dilapidated cabins. The company now has a paid up capital of $53,000; owns nearly 9,000 acres of splendid farm and timber land, operates n saw-mill, shin~le-mill, burpentine still ancl s plantation store. It ha8 built 18 cottages and leases X, farms, furnishing employment to nearly 300 Negroes. The company has cleared over 20 per cent on the entire capital inrcstetl, having accumnlated a surplus of more than $12,000 up to date. At. the last of its direct,ors au annual dividend of 4 per cc~lt was declared and an additional capital st,ock issue of $47,0nl) was voted, placing the tots1 capitalization at $100,000. Two annual statements follow: 1st. December 3L, 1901 A ssels (!a~h VIL hand..... $ I,MR 16 Merchnndisr on hand HI Secured lornsnnd notes Hnwnill ~~lant cost mnchlnery, tools end bulldlng..'... 2,WO (XI Real estate actual cost 6478 ncres farm end timber la'nds.....'..'... 20,869 U) Preliminary and legal expense W2 till Total...S 31 Om 03 Liabelities Ua ital stock pnld in....$21,120 O(1 BIR~ payable iuotes and interest on deferred payments on real estate , Burplus balance on profit and loss nccount Total OX 6th. December 31, 1906 Assels Cash nn hnnd- Bank of Wetunlpka..... $ Bank of Alexander Oltg... Bank of hi ontgomery..... Clurrent cash... Bills receirahle.,... Accounts rrc:eirable... Aferchandlse aud supplles on hand.. Personal proprrtg.... Real estate... Preliminary expense..... Total.... $ *i,olli 115 Liabilities Bills pnyable- Unpaid installments for land nnd other bills payahlc... Accounts payrthle.... Cflpitft I stock.... Burplus, close lw Bnlance P. and L. statement..... Surplus t'hls date... $ OM 12, Totfll... SM

162 164 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Oyster Beds The Kegroes of 7~'arsaw, Ua., are, wi tll a few exceptions, engagecl in tile oyster industry, the men principally as 0pt)er gatherers and the women and children as oyster.~l~uc.kers. Ninety per cellt.of all t.he labor enlplo5-ed in the oyster itidustry of the Stat,e is Negro. The factories are encouraging t,he Negroes to lease and plant oyster land and many of them are taking ont leases. 1-1,~ nlost important lease is that of the Georgia Benevolent Fishermen's.4s,,lciation. Thv organization is fourteen years old aud is the oldest chartered organization alnoug the oyster Negroes for business purpows. The assuciatioll hai elnhers and a lease of 2,lllX) acres of oyster ground. The ctoinpauy is ds,ink well ant1 rcp>rtr~tl that they had over $l,(h)o in the I)auB. Six of the 757arsan Segroes are nlern1~el.s of this association. There is allot.l11-.r valnahle lease of oyster 1:tntl;; alsont 10 niiles from Warsaw that, is held hg Negroes.* This Irincl of co-operatio11 is widespread. Co-operation In Transportation Jim Crow street cars I,aw led to two intrre+ting experiments,,,no partial fa~lure and one ~~~ccessful for seven yc'ars: In Nasl~ville there was an attempt to ruu an automobile line of carriages, Ahout $"OJ'oO was raised 1)y geueral si~bscription and expended ; but the colllpany was Arit cheated hy the c'olnpauy selling t,he carriages, whirh 11roved too weak for the hills, and afterward the electjric colnpany broke its prolllise to fnrnisll llower. The co~npa~ly pluckily attenipt,ed a power 1)lant hut n.ns ncrt sucoe~sl'ul. The carriages ran regularly for several nloutlls, and a1.r still rim occa$ionall~ for special parties. North Jacksonville Street Railway. Town end Improvement Co., Jacksonville, Fle. In 1901 the vity council pa,esecl an ordinance Riving the couduct~ors of the rtrcet railwsy the right to nssi<n and reassign passengers to seats in the cars. This nrc1in:iuce \.a: looked upou by many to Ile worse than a direct separate car, for tl~e reason the conductors could seat you in a sent in the car and if he wanted tll:tt.;eat for :L white person, could make you get up with your wife :tucl your girl :ml vo~nl~el y1111 to take an~)ther. IIe w:ts also given police power to arrrit \-on. Tlli~ act \,rou~bt almnt a st.rike. (llllr l~coplr, nlrn*)st tv a inan, stopper1 rillill;: OII the cars. (.)ur 1eader:s met at St,. Paul A. AI. E. C'hurch in that vity at a ~!allrtl meetiug, and passed re~o1rltion.s t.1, start :L company, to pur- c9iase automobile carriages. I was asked hy s fricuil or two to go to t,l~is meet- ing. This I refnsed to do. I thought this to be nly time to go to t,he citycounci\ and for a franchise to huild a colored park and street ailw wag of our own to go to. This I did The Negroes tlle~nselves fongtit us from start to finish, hut the white men who had the gran tin^ of t,llis franchise, said: " Wc have actually made the cc~lored people ixatl for passiug this hill they callctl ol)nosious and hy giving this grant to them,it will pacify them. They will never bnild it. anyway, l~ut we shall clear ourselves." And, tuu, the then Presicleut. of the city council was a personal friend of your hulnl)le ser\aul, a man~mhom we hat1 worked with iu t,lie office t\vo vears previous to this time Everphwly hcgan to look upou the project tobe a pritctical one aud a money maker, provided it was properly handled; hence 1 had gotten a friend of

163 Co-operative Business 165 mine to assist in interesting tivn parties iu the ln:~tter, aud the same time I mas talking with i~vother parties. Wc had 11erfect.ell our arraugenieuts with two men to Imild t,l~e road fur a tlesrri1)etl rjnln. hl tlle same time :t 1~:~nlicr and an outside friend of his were tigurin~ wit11 me on a hasis to dl) tl~e constrlioting for $ZI,(HJO c!lle:~per t,hail tl~r origin:d people. The tirbt peol~lr heard of this null ~ntlert~ook to force me t,osig11 a c!oiitrac~r,agreei~lg to give tl~e~n tho price they nnntecl, wl~ich \vw $24?0,tX)l1 more t.hau tl~e Isst, l~arties were ask- iug The ro:id ],aid tl~e Ia..=t quarter as follow-6: ' 1 1 L...$ 1,Ul 05 To JUIIP, i'ollectcd ,*15 IYI Ti) July, culle~~tt~tl... 1, ) Our e) for tht: sairle time as :tbi~ve were $1,555, laving a dear (let protit, this q~~arlclr, of f:~,r Tlie whited h111d the principal of our I~rmd is2;uc, and ont of $150,(100 capital stock they nwu al)o~~t, $23,01)0, leaving in t,l~e treasury $~OO,MX) of t,l~c shnres ailti in the 11:1niln of the (YIIOIWI unen, as WIY I~~mlr-. will slio\v, p25,aoo. 'The tiri;t d:ty \ve rau onrcn;ws n.r Irantllrtl 7.22c1 lri.rstnqn, tt~olii? $$lo that rl:~~. In live ~lxj-s :~ftc~ this a. ]lark t11;lt udetl to :I six11 o ~er tl~c g:ito, saying: "Xi:.prrs nil ( 1~~:~ not ;~llo\ved,'!\vw i11r11 rl~~\v~i, ant1 the fullo\ving S~lur(1ny thr volururl Im.;el1~11 tram plaj-c~tl a ~ ; I I Iof I ~ hall out Ll~erc.* Wilmington. N. C. Tilere wan a11 effort in the years lhs3-84 lo l~uild i~ rsilroad from \\'ilinington, N. ('., to 1Yri~ht.svillr Soulld! a surnn~er resort or1 tllc sca roast, 9 or 10 ~riilrs frow Wili~~iiigton. It was the in tentiou of Rlr. hlartiu (tlir auperinte~~tleur) 1~rinie mover, to finally estond the road to Ne\v Reme, S. V., via Onsln\\-,N.('. Rrr. Jos~pli (:. Price was elected E'resident, RIr. J. (:. Daucey. Hecretal'y 311d Treasurer, and I our of the Board of L)irwt,ors. When!I n~iles were graded, solno bridges built m ~ crossties l 11ut do\\-n, 311. Martiu tlicil sud tl~ere being uo one fonnd wit11 :tuytl~iug like tlle pus11 wllivl~ lie showed, the i.oinpar~y \vent tn pieces. Several years after the w11il~:a secr~retl a charter, and csrricd out Mr. RIartin's plau.ii. T11e.v Ibuilt the road and arc UO\V o])eratin# it. Distribution I a111 iile~~tified with what may be termed a conlhine of co-vper;~,tive torrs. The tirst store was e~tnl~lialietl :bt I<eysville,Ya., lrjx!l. Tlie tirm name is Wilson & Co., wit11 :L cash capital of $125; and $75 \\-as used in 11uying a, sit,e. \Vr corn- 1nenc:ed then with $50 and the uiot,to l111ug out, " Sr~uarr I)e:~Iiug.." The src'oi~d store \r-as rstnt~lialiecl in thc winter of I89ii st E\-inpton,\'a., wit11 a cx:tpital of 5.K Here we were given t11r~ne ~nou ths to stay. The whitcs ;;aid to the hlacks. "They will ouly he there three!noutl~r;."

164 166 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Otl~er instances a,re : Qreenwood. S. C. The Palmetto Grocery Co., which is composed of Negroes, and is doing a sue cessful general grocery business. Dover. Del. ~o-ol~erative store in Dover, Del., which deals in food supplies. It tias heeu in operation two or three years and is succ~essful in a small way. Richmond, Va. The Students' Tea Co., wit,h about 15O stockholders, has hranch estahli~hlnents in Petemburp and Farmville, Va. It is a mercantile husiness dealing in teas, coffees, spices and extracts soh1 through agents. Rl~siuess l!w-1%);. $~O,(I(IIL Total paid up capi tal, $2,1)OU. Little Rock, Ark. Hrlief Joiut Stock (:a, a retail grocery sto~e on weekly aud monthly payincuts, haying :37 nicin1)ers. Busiuesc (lone IfNlIi,$5,(M)i.-l5; previooa ye:trs,$8,lnm); tot;ll lmid up c:~,pital, $3,Wo. The Iiusiness wn* orp:~nizecl in 1Wi. Duriug the two years and six ino~~ths in 1ru.iiuess we did a rery prospemnb lrusiucss until some dissatisfactiou arose ainougst the zl.orkl~ol(lers, theu we were forced toclose tlowu Juue 1, The True Ketonners grocery stores heloug in thib gronp. Retail dry goods stores are lecb fraque~rt, hut growing in IIIII~~PV. Chicago, Ill. Sandy W. Trice & Co., 1218 Stat,e street.-saudy \V. Trice, ljresident; A. J. Carey, Vice-Presideut ; W. M. Farmcr, Secretary ; Gee. \V. Nurrg, Treasurer. A rlepartunent store runon cash hasis. Business April, I!KNi-7, $14,4W); capitalization, $l.i,tltk); paid in, $lo,oik). Opened up.june, 1900, firm named Trice k \l'illiams. Corporated 1UOti ari Saudy W.Trioe $ (10.

165 Go-operative Business 167 J. H. Zedrirks & C:o., 9.79 J\:est Lake street.-a corporation. (:enera.l mail order h~~use, manufacturi~lg and wlling gcnrral ~nercl~anclisc, also selli~iy gudr by rat.alogue, c.orrrapondence :&nil ageuts. Husiness in I9O(i, YNlO; 1HlI7. 1,500. for tirst six months. This.;l~ows;lu increase over the same period last year. Tt~tal paid up capital, $2,5cMI. Estal1lisl1ed iu 1905 by Mr. John H. Zedricks, 848 West Madison street, with a capital of 60 wuts. Have nailed 3,000 four-page circulars, with an atlclitioual lll,o(jo lcttrrs, going to all l)art,s of the wol.l(l. Have shipped s~nallortlerr t,o all p.zrt$of tltv United States, as well as to Liberia, Africa, the Reyuhlic of Pmama, (hha and Hayti. Incorporated in 1Wi for $2,%llO under blre Rtate laws of Illil~ois. Tweut.y-tive pago catalog~w IIOW in l~a~ids of pri~~ter. Publishing Ii~a bee11 a fnvctritr rnetl~ltct of co-011erntio11. A few of t11~ newhpapers are owned ii~tlivitlually. but tuost of them by proups of stocliholder~. Negro j(1urna1ism in the United Stntes had its origin ill the asl>iratiol~ for freedo~n. The tirst Negro ne\\7aljalwr iu thrb Cnitetl Stat(*.< was t~egun iii Ne\v York C'ity, J1:~rnl1 HI), Inn, and was called Thr, JouI.)I,~/ oj- JTi.~,c,~lo~~~. Its editor was John ti. K.~~sswor~n, a gradnate 41f L)a,rt~noul,l~ ('ollepe of tl~e cla,~ of IsJi, perhapsthe first Weg1.o 1~ receive a desree from an iustit~~tion OI learui~~p. h~ro~iated with lii~u ill the rditiug was the RPV. Sarnnel E.Cor~~i.;h, a controversialist uf no mean powers. This jo11rn:rl had an existence of hut three )-ears, and other atteml~ts Ily licgrws to putllish newspapers failed of notable succrss until Fretlcrictk I)!x~glas$ started The Arortk Nfc~,r at Rochest,er, N. T., in 1x47. Tl~e uame %'as auhsequently changed to Frederick'.s Pnpcr, and Mr. I)oi~glars coutinned it up to the opening of the Civil War. For leugth of life, extent of circulatiou, ability of matter contributed and comnlanding talents of it,s edit,~, t.he poblicati~)~~ was one wliicli occ~~pies a conspicuous chapter in thc hist.ory of Negro journalism. The nu~nberof 1,apers and periutlical,$ devoted t,o tl~e interest of the Negru race has been variously estirilated at from 150 to 500. In t,he newspaper directories for 1!KJ5 was given 1-40 p~thlicat,ious of every class. Accessal,le data gi\-c reasous to believe that this nnml,er is at least 100 short. Iu the Sbatr of Rlissiwippi alone there are tweuty puhlicatior!~ appeariug at regular iutervals, while one newspaper directory give& Imt foitr.* Drufi'stores form a favorite lineof co-ope~atireffort. Au iucompl~te canvass in 1907 showcld the following, nearly all of wl~icl~ wercl co~rtlucted by comlmnies of three or more persons: AI~~bnmn.... \(I Arkansas... 8 Colorado )istrlct of (!olnrnbin.. 14 Florida... tf (feoruln ~llir~~is... B Iudlana... 1 Ioutl... 2 Indian Territory Drug Stores -- - Kenruckg.... Louisiana..... Mlssisslppi.... Mlssourl... hlar~lalld... M~smchusrt,ts... North Carolinn.. New Pork Pennsyl\-anla... 2 Rhode lalarid... 1 puth Carolina lrnnessee... s Texns... 2 Vlrglnln Totr~l liO L. M. Hershaw, In Chm.ilies, October, 1905.

166 168 Economlc Co-operation Among Negro Americans of these 43 reported $139,883 invested and 516 persotls employed. ~t~~ total investment may read1 $GOO,OCW. Four typical stores repo1.t: Tl,p Peol~le's D,'.rrg Co., C!leveland, Ohio.-Seventy dtockholder~. fillsiness opelled r'ehruary 1, 1YOli; business done during eleveu months of 1x6, $ 4, ~ ~ ; paid up capi t,al, $1,300, July 1, certain meu were led to believe that a drug store on a co-operative plau could he made to succeed among the colored people of Cleveland..%f [era. few preliminary meetings itmong t,hose chiefly interestcd, duriug wl~icll tilne scriptious of stock at $1 per ahare were solirited with fair success, it \vas decided to nudertake the enterprise. i\ 1harnl:irist was secured, and the hl1+ 11~~s w:ts lannchcd Fehruary 1, I!JOtj, iu a boilding leased for live years. ~h~ store is neat and ~ttractire, has a good Irwatim and is well furuishetl. Itwill (:ompare favorably with auy drug store of its size iu C'le~eland. I17?y~vdotte Drug Po., Kansas City, Km.-Flve n~embers. Ruainess 1 ~,.{ls,ih)ci; capital, $675. We have two clerks and a delivery hog., and hare what the C'ity Asses.;or says is tl~e thirtl drug store in this c~ly of 104,(IUl population, by tlre city census of 1907, 111 amount of stock. Undertaking has probably a larger i~~vested rapitill than the drug bnqillesc, hnt t11is kind of c~~te~prise I I S I I H ~ c~~i(i~~ted ~ ~ by ~~idivid~als rhtllpr than companies, There are, Ilonrver. lnwny groups like the following: li,-r!r,~p?? Hot,Y]~riu,q.s FIO.??~/ILIY,/1,1! ~??cc!~:~?~~~k;~c,q ('u., Hot Sprill~s, Ark.- Partners, 3. l.'ntlert;~liing, furniture, uexv wud srcond-ha~ld, bougl~t, sold a1111 esc:hnnged; cash or iur;lall~nent plan. Panned prtnership August, 1W. Capital ])aid II~, ).5fliJo..J. T.T. Warren has [)ern iu the bnsilless fifteen years. Each member of the firm are property owners. Yon willfind us rated in Uradstreet, I think.

167 Co-operative Business Fourth Annual Re~ort, Flscal Year Endlng July 31, 1907 Receiptsfro~~~ ccrneterv etc..... $ 1,785 1'5 Receipts from sale of stdck Tota.1... Rnlnuce brought forward... $ 1!%7 (lo 1$147ii Totnl receipts..... $ '3, IJisbursemcn tu- Interest ou bonds..... C.. M. l'hilltos... (:encrai BXI~IIYPS. etc I7 Total... $ %,$I (IY By balance... '0 71 Total... Balance due C. M. Phillips on account purchme... Balance due on bouds... $ 2,081 7ti 8 I lit7 (MI I?I:WUXW) IYL Total... $ 24, Assets.... $3cl,235 Ill1 1,iabtlities , Capital Stock Original uunlher shnres... l',,oik) Total number sold... B:il Balance... 5,:3n!4 FRANK H. ANTLE, necret,arg. E. C!.,MALONFI, President, 1940 Grayyon street Nineteenth street. Discrimination in certain lines of retail busin~ss often lend to colored shres. Clerks sometimes refuse to fit Negroes' shoes, hence enterprises like the following: COVL?IIP~.C~~~~ Shne Co., Macon, Ga.-Bnsiness 1908 and 1907, $3,47li.44 ; 11aid up capital, $1,500. Began June 26, 1906, and has steadily gained patronage. Thl: People's ~yhoe Co. (Incorporated), Atlanta, On.-Nnml~er of parfilers or members, about fifty-seven (57): husiuess , approxiniately $15,000. Tlic charter was granted under the laws of Georgin in the year 1!N1 hut remained dormant uutil October, 1905, wheu it was purchased by the present owners, who sold enough stock to open the lrusiuess in March, l!hn3. The otticers are elected by the stockholders at a ineetiug held in Oct.ol)er of each year for bhat purpose and for transacting any other business specitierl in the coustiturion of the corporation. The husineas has met with the success expect,ed of it. hy those who we tinancially interested in it, and is gradually increasing. 4 few millinery stores are starting, like the following: Tiromr~~'.s Exchtcng~, Frankfort,, Icy.-Number of partners or ~nelnl~e~s, five (.i); bnsiuess 1' , $1,500; paitl up capital, $500. Opened hiarc11 1, I!r(Jli, with $260. We simply desired to awaken interest aniung our people along huaiuess lines for women, as there had been so many failures (men) here. We are all housekeepers. Had we the entire charge we could soon bnild a fine business ; employ one girl. Each rnemher has a day on "dut,yl' to give direct personal atteution to work. Unusual, with women, we have never had one unkind word or unpleaaan t feeling. Various forms of house service have developed into cu-operative

168 R/:fu{/~es' Home, Il'i~idsor, Con., I8.i.L-Forty truoght the tirst year. Co-operative Business 171 Iota of 25 ;tcsres each were, Ohio ii'rttlr:~~~~,~ts.-these were made before the \var, autl with little or nc, outside aid, except ill Brown county. Iu 1840 there were owned iu- Recr~lt, effort,s are: Ciilhom,,4l,r., I.Y!d;.-The $Z5,IM~O. Plkc nount.p... 2,225 acres Shelby county... 4.Wl nnres r)ark oouuty....~jki<(i(i acrcas Brown rouuty hilying of R,(M)O acre* by 51 nieu. Pru1)erty nwrt.11 :11oro1~l Brryou. M~:rs.-Mound Hayou is situated nea.r the center of the gyeat razoo [)elt,a, in Bolivar couuty, Miha., about inidway between Jlernphis aud Ticksl~urp, and near 21) ~niles east of the Misnissii~pi river and ;L like distauce from the hills that form the western I~oundn.r;\- of the delta, the ualne is tlvri\-ed from a large inr)~~ud (relic. of a true lrictorit. peol~le), situa~led at tht.,j~invlioli of two promiueut hi~yous ro~np~~iiing R nioht ~III~IDI t:ant p1.t uf the oatnral dri~iuage system of t,hat lunality. 111 I'ehruary, IN%, tlir fir.=t settlers Iregan to ino\-e iii>nc~t to stop in tl~e town. Ilut to occnpy 10: shanties on I~nrls that they had l~e~~in tcr clear; ahout :I month Inber ground was for asmall,store house and two d~.elliii&?i, one to he occupied hg the family of my rousiu and tlrr: other Ily u~y own family-. There was liar~lly a spare inch of earth's snrfave ~~noccupirtl t1.v vigorous routs, driveu foi t,h hy t,he wonderful 1)ower of tl~e virgin soil. IVe hwl ttu grub a small spot in the front yard tv form a,safe 11l:tygrouu~i for the children. There heiug no lands availahle for c.ult,ivati(ru, the conlli~unity l~ad tu adapt itself to timlrer work for snhsistenc~e mil gr~duitlly eulrlrge far111 work as lands were cleared. Ahout the year IS%) the original snrvey of AIo~u~rl Hsyuu \\;as ~nade.einlrraring ahout 20 acrea,ancl a few years later tl~c tnwu was regulwly incorporxtctl, t.he charter I)eiug signed by Governor A. J. MeLaureu and Hou..Joseph F. Power, Secretary of that tillit? there was one fxir coiintry store and two small ln~siuess I~ouset: altogether, employing :t capital of about $3,000 and doing an annnal Irnsiue2is of pos.iit)ly $%,INHI. During a l~eriotl of ten years, various additions have heen ~nnclc t,ill the tu\vu 11c1w emhritces ahont i9 acres, regularly laid out, haring more than ilc.s of plank sicl?walk, lightcd with large oil and gasoline street lamps, a populat~ioii of 40(1, msuy lirinl: in neat and cosy homes, surro~mrlecl hy :a neigl~horiug population of ovw?,600, largely occupying their own farnia, ranging from 20 to NN, acrcs, co~uprising altogether W,0W aarcr, over oue-fourth of which is in cultivation, prod~~cing itvariety of crops, mostly eotbon, pre..ienta\7erape protlnct'iou of the 1attr.r ahont 3,500 hales. The sixth aii~lilal report to the League shoxvs over forty Iruainrss c=itablishluents cuvering nearly every vece~~ity of the retail and supply trade, and e111-1)ltuyinp an aggregate capit,al of over p!ro,wll, autl doing an anuual business of abo~~t $T5,(KO, tu w-hich may he atldetl a post office money order husinens of $2U,IH)o and cleariugs of the local bank of over $3~0,10~ :tii~iunlly. AIouurl Bayou ranks allout tent,h aruoug the incer~nerliate st;~tio~is on the lnaiu line of railroad between Vic:kr:l>nrg and Rieinpl~is, aud r,hr depot husiu~ss a1110unts bu aonletl~ing like $W,OW per year, inakiug a total of near three-quarters of a ~uillion dollars of businens, where twenty years ago there was prartically none wl~atever. Tlicrc are eleve11 credil~le public builtliugs, iuclucling twu graded

169 172 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans scsl~ools, one public school and town hall, altogether valued at exceedil,~ $20,1K)O. Of the 44 l)usiness proprietors, 17 own their 1)lnces of business, as well :is lwines, whilr 12 of the remainder own homes or plaiitations. Only one of tile lxincipal ~nerehnnts is not a property holder iu the settlemeut. He u\ylls a hume and property iu an adjoining St,ate. The principal additions to tl~e rank of ~~iercha~lt; vumes from I)rosperous, energetic f:~rnlers \vho have il?~l)r(,\-~(l their places. Ira.*e to teuants, a11d remove to t,own for I,usiness, t~tl~tcatic)nsl :~r~il social :~dv,z~~t:~grs.* TIIP ICowalipa exptivi~nent 1ln.s ber11 ~~~t?~itio~lrtl.: Otlrer effort.s are inaki~ig a.t T ~~slrr~ee, Ala.., Hilton Hrarl. 8. C., a.11ti t.lsewhere. 4 r~.n~nr~li:~bl~ h-egru orga.niza.tio11 is the following: Ilrp Z'~1~1~11, I, Meo~he)~- 1st. To liglrt tl~e credit or mortgage system, which is the Negro's sec.v~~il slavery..'ti. To il~iprove our mcthotl of farming, we want. closer ;~ttention to I~ll,<ine;,:, i~np~u\-etl stock, better crops and hetter tinanci;~l returlls. Rtl. 'To co-operate in 1)uyinq and selli9g. n'c c:~~i l111y clleapcr l)y I,uyill!4 together. By aelliug t,ogether we can sell higher. Hy c:o-operatiou,storc.s call 1)e estahlisllerl :mcl mauufactories built ant1 our boy* ; r ~ girls l given elulllo~-- men t. National Nt'gru Busiuess League, l!ro5, p11 1'4-5. +Report of Miss Jutli~~ Jaclrson :it the EInlllpturl (!onfrrellce. 1 Cf. p. 112.

170 Co-operative Business 173 4th. To care for the sick and 1,ul.y tile dead. I11 t,liis the Farmers1 Improvellletlt Society excels ally org:~uizatic~~i OII earth for the muouut of niolley enpeltded. For instance: Any I~r:turh, no niattrr how small, can at the end of the first year gire $1.60 a week for sickness autl $30 for death, if you organize early enough in the year to follow the General Order No. 6. All this at a cost of only 11) cel~ts per ~t~onth. 13y sending only $1.05 to the Anu~~al Convocat,io~~ you will give yoorheirs as much as $100. Besides this you will be cared for in sickness ;IS tenderly a.s though you were paying 55 cents or n~ore per niontl~, the nsnal cost in otller societies. A man occasion:~lly gets down at a critical period in his crop. Your fellow meinhers will save yonr crop free of charge. 5t.h. '1'0 11uy and iinprove hoiues. The Cliristi:~~i borne is t,he uuit of civilization. We believe in good hon~es anrl good people inside of them with plenty of good food raised at homo or bonglit for cash. We are uniting the race for these grand purposes. Besides all this and best of all the Farmers' Improve- Inen t Society has established an Agricnl tural and Intl~~strial College in which your rhildren will receive a first-claw t,raining at a cost of only $50 a year. I3ranches are estahlished in abo~~t frlur l~undretl different communities in Texas :tud )lilahouia~. hlretings art: 11eld ren~i-n~o~itlil\ ; supl)lics are 1)oupht under co-operative syst.elli in Fel~ruarg e~td No\-e~nl~er of each year. C'ompctition among ~neiuherr in raising liest c.rol)s and i;t,rwk; agricultural fairs and lec*ture.;. h~nount raised aud +pnt uuder co-operation iu 1906, $%,(HlO, in ronnd numbers; 1'905, S15,OtKI; IW1, $7,000. ICo real estate isowued by tlle organization except halls t,o n~eet in owned by ))ranches, estimated value $20,000, and about ten atores with average stock of about Or~auizetl 11y R. L. Smith, December, 1SW The effect of t,he ma\-ernent to iwealr up the credit system was so ~riarkcd that in six years other ~:orninuitie~ were induced to accept the plan. There are large numbers of red estate co1np;tuies: al./).o-,i~~~+:~.i(a~~7~ Remlt?y C?omj)n.rr~, ($7 West 134th St., New York City.-Three hundred and fifty stockholders. Real estate along lines that will better the housingco~~tlitionsof Negro tenants. Methods of operation: buying and leasing of city tenant property. Paid up capital, F71,:LXl. Real estate owned, $4W,IKfl-Noa. 24,26. 2X and 30 W. IMth street: 24,26 anrl 28 W. 140th street,; 303 \V. 149th street, and 302 W. 160th street, New York City. This coillparly has recently bee11 ill fi11ancia.l difficulties but still survives. lllohawk Rrrrll,fl Co., Cleveland, 0.-Capital, $lo,(k)o; 4 years old. Cu~~~mevcirrl Pio~~ecr l~wtittctiorr, Cumhridge Mass.-Business: com~nerciat, rea,l estatcs, employment, printing, rtc. The husiness is uuder the tlirectiou of the President as manager, wit,h the assistance of the Directors and Tr~~st~ees. 13usiness has averaged from $1,000 to 91;!00, l!lo(i-lwi. Paitl up capital, about $750; real est,ate owned, $5,400. Ttrti,i Ci(!/ Kea?ty, Winston-Salem, N. (:.-Business IMXi,'$2,000; 1907, $3,000. Krdty Co., Terre Haute, 1nd.-Eighty-two stockholders. Ueli- ~ral loun and investment, collecting rents, acting as agents to buy and sell real estate. Business is inanaged by a Board of Directors, consisting of seven members. Board of Directors is elected by stockholders. The Board elects from its own number a President, Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary. We have been organized just two months. Our net earnings the first month were gl.%? the second month $16.60; capital, $W..%

171 Co=operative Business 175 There have hen secured tl~r~)ugl~ its aid olnes for as Inally Negro fal~iilies ill the city of I'hiladclphie, \\-hic:li haw au average va1u:ttion of $",.i(lo, or au agprtipat.e value of $S50,0110. The average ~llonthly receipts ol the aswcialiou is C:,OOO, and Lhe assets $125,0110. The associxtion has paid In the dto(-klioltlerr of ma.turot1 stock within the last six years $75,2tn). 011 Thursdi~g, Ll~e 24t'h iu5ta.u t, t,hc eleventh acsries will h:rve in:lt.ured, w1ie1~ $7,5Ml will be l):licl, makiup :I grand totd of $X',',i.ill 1)airl to the str~ckholders witl~iu the last six years, n'l~icl~ represent6 the aocou~ulaterl saviugsof t,hc.ilnl members connected with it. The li:vtr:r~t Bfcildr'r~j ur111 Lotctc A sur~rint iolr, JIi~r;kogee, I. T.-Members, 44. TT'c sell shares oil montl~ly in.;tallments and 1)uilcl for ~nemlrers, takiup fiwt ~uortgxpe ou yrol)erty. Twenty-fuur hu~~rlred dollars u-orth of Itnsiuess in I!HKi,V2,5lKl in 1W; capital, $2,500. Two lots in Reeves Addition, hfujkogec, I. 'r. Organized Ja11u:rry 27, I'JcK; incurl)oratctl Fchruary 7, 1901;. A-o~:fr,lk Home HfiI'Idi?~!] (rrt(l Lo((?&,I~.w('if~lio~~, Norfolk, Ta.-About. XI11 shares of stock suliscribed; rnakitig loiz~is to sl~orkllolders for home huildi~lr iu~l~rovement; husincss, $3,500 for l!u:li; for 1C107 to.july 1, $:;,500; i~lltllorized ~~apital, $F,O,IHlO: weekly l)ay~uente '15 cents per slr~tre ou st~)ck. The cntei-p~k? w:ls oryxuiaed.jxnnary 1, IRcJi. Tl~e growtll wirs \-pry slow first year; 1nuc11 Inure rapid Illis year. 1,o:ills are ulnde to sr.ockholders ou t,heir stocsk sccured I J inort,gape ~ on real estate. 1I:lr.c 1oa11ctl ;~hout ffi,(x)lj in slims ranging from $50 to $I,Ouil. Kulnlters are availil~p tlletnselves of t,hii opportu~ity to purcliase or I~uild small homes and pay for them ou weekly ~>aylllen t*. t'itrtf.r~i. Hu ild ircg rcwl Lo(~?L A ~.sociltti~r~, C+reensl~oro, N. ('.-Eight huudrrd and tire shnxs held hg ahout I00 members. Hr:~nc:hes at High Point and Ashlroro, N. C!. Tweuty-five cents 1)er zl1;~re per week collected from illeml~ers and put t.o purchase and improve homes. Each shareat maturity will 1)e 1 I 1%-e lend ou real estate :~nd on stock, but. ~rial~e it a point to own more direct,ly. Organized in 1903 by a IXLU who h ~ previoll.;ly d orgauized two in Wihningtoll, N. ('.-the first Negro associatiuu in thi? Rt,at,e. Now we hare Illore t,hau a dozeu iu this State. :\ssociat,ion is r.o~nposerl exclusively of h-egro st,erck- I~rrlders, exce1)t two white men, who are experieuced bookkeepers :~ntl accollrltimts, aud who serve upou our tin:u~r:e committee. This association has lent to it.s stoc:kholders for t.he purchase of homes, etc., nearly $12,000. It is earning larger profits per share thau sng uther organization of its kind in the St,ate. It proposes to estaldisl~ a bank iu Greensboro as soon as the proposed out. now uutler c-o~~sideration in Winston is finidly finished or disposed of; t.hat is, as soon as the permanent orpauiz~tion 11as been well perfected. Cash Espr~lsr Bills pasable Ad1111ssiou fnr Withdl.n.n.111 fee Transfer fee Bills recei7-ahl~ Real estate loans

172 176 Economic Co-opewtion Among Negro Americans Assets Liabilities Onsh on hand January 1, $ Dues.... Htook loans.... Uues adrnnced..... S 10, Real estate loans... Interest Dues unpaid.... ~ i ~ pspa.ble.. l s... Fines ProHts... ],B(u 1,710 41; 15 Interest unpaid..,.... lnxes advanced..... Insurance... Bills receivable.... Offlce sumlies Total Total Exhibit of Series 1 P~.nfi(r sharcs week? per s are ~ P sha~e T SERIES I Nu. n/ r%. / Amlt~aid Pirat Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth... :%I Reven th... I!Y3 Elghth xinth Profits.Pe7. Neric* Flrst S67.06 Second YO Third R!I Fourth... li8.96 Fifth Sixth '2 Seventh Eighth Ninth U~ldistrlbuted....O5 T,~nin city Rtrilrliny (t?~d Lon.7~ ds.socirrtion, Winston-Salem, N. C!.- person^ s\lhscribe for so many, al~d pay weekly nntil the stock lrlaturee. We work along building and loan liuea. h~nonnt of business done since October 10, 1W3, $30, Tile Tmiu (~!it,y Roilding and toau As6ociatiun was orgsnized Octolrer Since this time it has built. more than twenty homes for our pcople. THIRD ANNUAL REPOET OF TUE Twln City Bulldlng and Loan Assoclatlon (For the Year Ending Jkcrn~brr Il,l!XX.r Asscla Receipts Loans on luortgagrs......$ (r,w26.(kl Cnsh on hand Dec. 81,1W $ 2X'.!W Loans on shares... 8lS.33 I~lstt~llnients yald... 3,1HA.L5 Re8.l estate nc~~uired by yur- Loons or shares paid..... %!).50 chase Jli'l.69 Interest received... 61l.!rP (!ash In hank Fines received... I!.:$? Furnlture nnd Hsturrs Ent~rnce Iers..... ; Interest due and upnld Trnnsfrr fees... I.'% Fines due nnd unpnld Borrowed money... :j,n*.(y' Stock loan fees Total... $ li,%ox.k5 Pr~ssI,ooks.... XtiO Heal estatt !6 Total.....$ i;lll.(fi

173 Go-operative Business 177 Licrbilitzrs Diuburscmrnts Ilue shareholders, instnllments Lnnns r111 nlol'tgnges..... $ 4,%%.lUl pnid $ Locrns (IIL shares.... 6IilL:R Ilue sl~arehold&s, earnings Pnid nil withtlrnwnlu, dues ,2'iB.!lfi credited... Bnlnries p&id... WOO 1)ue shnreh~~lders, mntured Ad~ertlslng nlld printing... l%.?x sl~nres... Interest vnld Borrowed iilonev... Kent mid..... ;i4.fio Interest on borhwed ninney.... Taxed...?i'!li Rnlnncr to 11e paid oil Ior~iis 1)lvirlrnds nn redeellied %l.llll mnde... Purl. etc ~ur])lus... I ~nld'on~renl estate... lt~~i.t>l Divldmdsdue and unp~id (Ml Cash oil hand Ilec. 51, IROA Assessinent Totn\...$ 7,211.ofi Totnl...$ ll,2oh.&5 Cr~2fwl Tw\t U~r~ldi~g (o~d Loctn A.r.~oc~nr~o~!,.Jackson\ille, F1a.-Lends ou 30, 00 or H) days' tlme. Bu8iness: lm, $12,500; 1%17, $15,000; capital,!plojkni 0rg:tniaed 1!0L to oper;~te a building R I I ~ loan a%soci&tion ~ O t11v I p~wtectmn of our people. Loans I mount paid per share S UO 59 Nl In SR ti0 en rll 10 UI (X) 8 In 5 I!!!!lo 3 tin Ill1!Ill frwh??~y~nc??'s L~~CIL r(?~tz Bu~ldi~~g A8.wcmtio11, 111 Seventh street, Augusta, (;a.-c'orporation, 75 stochkliolders. Building holnes for stoclrholtlers and dealing generally in real estate. Rereipts: 1903, $5,773.16; l!mci, $4,809.47; lwi, $4,547.15; dividend declared, ti per cent par aunum. We have a surplus of $li,o&.35; cspital, $9,4.W; real estate, $7,152. Organized April 1, 1HX4.

174 78 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans. Profits... I 571.S5 Tlrr Pitt.sbuv!/ Novae Brtil~liu.9 Po., 5635 Penn arenue, Pittihurg, P~.-F,,~~~t,hree stoc:kholdrrs. Real estate. buying, huilrling xucl selliug, :llld also rrurinq. ('olnl~nny's business is conducted hy a Hoard of J)irectura of nine nlelll- Ilers. Rents cc~llevtetl for company, $3,573.63; rents collecte~l for client.;, $2,1;;2.81 ; capital,,$~j,(tllo; owns 3 flats. Tlie colored citizens came toget.her.july 1, l(!ol, t,o buy x ~ d I)uiltl better hi~uses for our people in the city of Pitisburg, as this city had very poor nccon~mocl;ttiou for the citizens of this race. They only c!onltl get oltl I ~ o ~ unimlwm-ed. Otlier associations we operated a.t New Alha.ny, rntl. ("prosperous. with ralunblr property"); Raleigh, N. C.; Baltiinorr, Md. (five a.rc;oc*iation~); C'la~emont, Va., ant1 Pl~ila,tlelphia (nine, iucluding tllose ~nr~~tionetl ). The secret societies have many building aseoci a t'.ions: Pyth ir1.1~ ill 1(1 v(t1 111 P~S~III P?I~ -1 ~~ociutio?~, ((ha~.le3:ton, \\r. \-:&.-Fire I~unclred ;1n~1 sereuty at~)ckholtlers. Hrauch est;ll.~lish~~lenta,hul~tingto~~, W, Va. Heal cstnte and investment. Husiness lw $4!),OOti.l)i; pair1 up c'apit,al, $21;%!1.-11!; rp;ii estate owned,.$h,li,3hx.i!i. Organized and incorp~~r:~tetl January!I, lrw, 11nrler the Inws of tlre State of West Virginia. B~~sil~ess has lwen s~wcessfull~c.rmtlucted, a ti per cent dividend paid each year. Y'hc Orit! F~~llr,,c,.r' flu11 Assr)c8iratior), conlpoietl of the varions I~ranc.l~es of the or.tler ~LIIII the intliritl~tal 1iir~m1,ers tllcreof, ww orpallizcd Ilec'rnll~er Yo, IWI, :t1111 snltieq~~rntly tluly incoi,lmrated ~untler the laws of the Uistril,t of ('ol )la. 'The pricnctnf racll share of st~~ck was tised at $10, and the uun~her of sl1are.i isaued was not to exceed 5,UOO. nor the real or personal property to escecrl $RII,OtIO. It,s income is f'i,(lou a pear and it,s callital f35,thlli. It owns a hall. Tl~e Ilistrict of ('olulnbia has a Masc~nic Hall Ruilrling Association wit.11 HOO ~nemherr;, whicli does a business of renting honses and halls. Shares at $10 eacl~ are suld. From Septen1l)er 1, I'JOti, t,o Sept.emlrer 1, 1907, a l~usiness of $11,87537 wasdone. The property owned is vallied at $is,ik)o :~nd rousistsof a large hall, corner Fifth and Virginia nrenue, S. E., 3 houses, 743,745,745 Fifth street,ancl a hall at 1111 Kineteenth street N. W.,\Vasl~ington. The organization was fonnc\etl in It was out of tleht by Ko\-e~nl~el., 1905, and ir; still out of tleht. Therl; are many tmde unions like the followillg: The I'olr~rerl Long~horeiueu of New Orleans will hc~ld tl~eir annual election 011 the Z!lth instant. They hare one of the largest orgunizationa in existellce

175 Group Economy 179 iu all thc Sontl~. The active mernlrership is u1)ward of 1,NO in ~ootl standing. 'rli~+g have tlit?ir owu drug store, antl ernploy several pllysivia~~s to at,tend tl~eir sick. Oue of the physicians gets :I sa1:il.y of $1,100 per year, autl auothe~. gets $!W, p:tyal)le quarterly. The affairs of the association 11:lve Irren put in tirst-class shape during tho p:~st two years. A great debt wllicl~ accu~nul:itc~ti under previous ad~niuistratio~is has 1we11 pnitl off,and t,uday t,he longnhorc?~nc~n of New Orleal~s are iu hotter shape than ever. The (~IIBC, fees, assessments :uid taxes of t,llis association amuunt to up\vardd of $25,lNW per :tnnum, and the expenrlit~~rtrs lor sick Ireuelits, ~rrnsiou,s, funerals. drur.s, rent, sa1aric.s of pl~yaici:~tls, druggi~t :and other officials, an~ount to al~r~ost :is rnucli. h glance :~t. the tigores fur one year's tra~~sactio~~ aloue, will prure t,l~nt the longshoremen :wrociatiun ol New Orleans is prnl)&l>ly hauclling more tinauccs tlinn any other colored concerli of the kind in this cou~~ try. All this hnsiuens is contlnctecl by Negro int,elligsnce aud hraius. Section 16. The aroup Economy \Ye have st~~tlied tl~c, va,rions lornis of co-operat,io~~, but- tliern is a larger forn~ whicl~ I hare elsewhere callfd the G~wnlr Eco~~owy. It co~~rists of s~~ch a co-opol.ativr art;~ng:.rnlent of intlustrirs antl srrvices \\'ithill the Negro group t,lin.t the group tr~~ds to Iwco~ne a closed econo~nic circle largely itltlepe~lde~it of the sur~.ounciing white \vorltl. The rrcoguition of tliis Sact explains Ilinny of t,lrr ~~lo~i~alies \vhic.ll puzzlr~ the stutlent of tile Negm Ali~erica~~. You used to see 1111m1)ersof coloretl barbers; goo are te~t~ptrtl to tlril~k tlley a,re a.ll gol~e-get t,oclaq- there a.rr Inor(: Segro harhers in the U~ii tecl Strates tlmn ever before, hut also at thr salne timea larger uumlwr t1ra11 ever hefore ca.t,er solely to colored trade wl~err they hare a t~~onopoly. Hecanse the Kegro lawyer, physician, and teacher serve a.l~nost, rxelusively a colored clientage, their very existence is half forgotten. Tl~e new Kegro busi~~ess men are not successors of the old ; there used t,o he Xegro husiness Inen in New York. Philadelphia at~ti Baltimore ca,terirrg to white t,r~cle. The new Kegro hnsinrss lnall c,a ters to colored t,rade. So fa.r hn,s this gone that toda,y ill evcry city of the United States with a considerable Negro populatiol~, the colored group is serving it.srlf with religious mil~i~tration, mrd ica,l care, lega,l advice, i1,11ti edurat,iou of childre~i: to it growing degree with food, Iiouses, books. nntl newspapers. So estraordir~ary has bec?l~ this developnlent t,hat it farms a, large antl growi~~g part. in tire ecollomy ill the case of f~tlly onrhalf of the Negroes of t,he United States and ill the case of somethiny between,w,000 md 100,000 tow:^ and Kegroes; representing at, least, 3OO.(UX)perso11s the group economy approaches rt complete systenl. Tliie study can best be closed by a picture of this group economy of one city of Nrgroes: The Negro arouv Economy of Philadel~his, 1907 Lawyers Artists ti C'blropodlstr... 4 Druggist (Jcculistu...? Physicians Electrical englnsers... 1

176 180 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Teachers Graduate nurses Rlilslc Ceechrrs...%2 Advertisers...? Antiques... 2 Bank... 1 Brers Bands of mnhic... 3 Bicyclea... 3 Bamtblark parlors Root and shoen+kers Blhcks~~liths... 2 Brass tnelter... I Bulkiltlg and lofill fissoci~t~olls... 9 Brokers... 4 (.nrper~ters... 8 Stennl cnq~et r.leanlng... Y Ullterrrs... RO (!atrrers n.nd confectloners... 2 (Xgur nlnnufacturers... 7 Vlgar nnd rohactco drnlers (:lrnnlng and (lying....5 (hul and ice rlenlrrs Cemeteries... 4 ('lothlrrs... 2 (.!on tractors... tj I:ol~fectioners... I; (!rockery... 2 'hi lora Ilry Gwds... 4 Elllployn~ent ngenrirs Express nild hrrullng Florlsts... 3 Fruit nnd produce... 9 Furnll.ure c3rnts' furnishing... 2 I r e... 4H Ha~r cnlturr und n~nlllcurc Hotel8... Ill Ice... ti 1 e t r r tt~surt~nce agrnts Il~surnrire cu~uptinies... 5.Jewelry... 4 Job printrrs Junk tlpalers Laundries... I'? Llvery stal~leu... 6 Loans... v Mn~~ufacturers Nasseurs....5 Meat rlrtxlers... 3 Mrtnl signs... i Mllk defilers... 6 Mllllnery... 2 Moving pictures... Newsdealers...!I Newspspers t'che;itrlb~... 4 Paint, ers... 2 Ptkperhaligors... 4 Fhot, ogrnpliers... 4 Poolroouls... u Pl'ovlalull scorrs Real rstate... I8 Rrstnur~~,nts... si Pa tent medlclnes... 1 Flnloons... 4 Second-hand goods... 4 Shoe drnler... I Mtutio~lery... 3 Stoves...? Undertakers ITpholst.erers Whit. ewnshlng... 8 Wholrsi~le niedicine... 1 Uorporntiol~s Renl estate owr~ers... 8(r? Clergynitm l heads of churches wlth 28, 000 mr~trbrrs)... Xll Secret. soc.l(:tles (lodges) Id Politicxl clul, s... 4 Other clubs... :1H C'hnritahle nrganlztltlo~rs tospit;rls... 2 l)ay ~iurserlrs Soeit~l settle~ne~l t9... Y When one remembers that in every city and town in the U~~~tett Statrs where Pu'e~roes live a similar co-o1)erative rcononly is growing up and developing. o~le gets ill lnlcrocwsrn a picture of t. lle co-ol)erative tlrvelop~lir~nt lwpinniug among Negro Amrric;~ns Above ant1 beyond this is the effort. to rt~old Eegro opinioti by news- 11;'. pers a~iil organizations. The chief Nat. iorinl Negro Coriverit~ions h:~ve 1h90. Philadelpllia (annually until about 1P3) Troy. N. Y. IS:,.?, Rochester. N. Y. l8.x. ('hathibin. Cansda..

177 Twelfth Atlanta Conference , Syracuse, N. Y. 1879, Nashville, Tenn. 1890, Rochester, N.Y.-The Afro-American Couucil. (Annually since). 1900, Boston, Mass.-The h'egru R~~iiners League. (Annually since). 1905, Niagara Falls, N. Y.-The Niagara Movemelit. (Annually since). Section 17. The Twelfth Atlanta Conference The Twelfth Atlanta Conference met in Ware Memorial Chapel, May 2H. 1907, President Horace Buntstead, presiding. The following was the : Programme First Sesslon, 10:OO a. m. President Horace Humstead, presiding. So1)ject: '' Busines~ as a Career." Address: Mr. E. P. Siins, Hlueticlds, I\'. Vn. Subject: "Healtl~ and Rusiness." Address : Dr. L. R. Palmer. Second Sesslon. 11:30 s. rn. Thlrd Sesslon. 3:00 p, m. Tenth Ann~ial Mothers' hleeting. (In charge of the (Gate City Free Kindergarten A~sociation), Mrs. Hattie Laudrum Orcell, prediding. Sulrject: "(lo-operat,ion for t,he Children." 1. Kindergarten songs, games and exercises by 100 children of tile fonr Kiudergartens : East Cain Strect-Miss Ola Perry. Bradley Street-Mrs..T. P. Willian~sun. White's Alley-Miss Et,hel Evans. Snmmerhill-Mrs. John Rush. '1. Paper-Mrs. John Rnsh. 3. Paper-Mrs. Irene Stnallwc~ud Rowen..L Repork of C?o~tril~~~t,ions to the Kindergartens. Fourth Session, 8:00 p. m. President Horace Bumstead, presiding. 8111~)ect: 'I C'o-operative Rosiness." I' The RIeaniug of ('0-operation "-Mr. W. E. R. 1h Ho~s. " ('0-operation"-hfr. N. 0. Nelson, St. Louis, Mo. "('0-operation and 1inmigration1'-Mr. Geurgc Craw-ford. New Haven, ('onn. Remarks: Eel-. Byron Gunner, ('oluntbia, S. C. The Resolutions adopted are printed 011 page 4.

178 182 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Index Alabama. Migration from, Alabama Penny Savings Bank, Afrlca, African TrareIlers, Testimony of, African Migration, African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist Epi~copal Z~on Church, Agriculture in Africa, American Colonization Society, The, Ashanti, Atlanta, Ga., Atlauta University Conference, Baltlmore, Md.. Banks, Bank Statements, Baptists, Baptist Schoolr:, Beneficial aud Insurauce Societies, Beneficial Societies, Benevolence, Bibliography, Black Diamond Development Co., Boston Schools, Brown, John, Building and Loan Associations, Burean Rulltling and Loan Associatio~~, Canada, Capital City Savings Baiik, C'arey, Lott, Cunegie Iilstitution, Ceineteries, Chatham Convention, Cherry Building and Loan hssociat~on, Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock C'o., The, Church Schools, Church, The Negro, Cincinnati, Co-operation in Transportation, Co-operation Among Negroeq, Co-operation of Freedmen, Co-operative Bwiness, Coleman Cotton Mllle, C'olored Methodist Episcopal Church, Confereuces, ('onventlous, Cottou Mills, IS, fi , 72, , , % , W2-85 & !&134 ti E %ff.,47,4y,!l7,hb ,4G, ti!) 5 l3l-l3$168-16$ RO , 164, li!) 159, , 1liO

179 Cost of Negro Schools, Cuffe, John and Paul, Davis Bend, Miss., Denominations, Other, Development of Co-operation, Development of Negro Churches, Distributive Co-operation, Douglass, Frederick, Drug Stores, Eaton, Col. John, Economic Conditions of Africa. Elks, Emancipation, Emigrant Aid Societ,ies, Farmers' improvement Society, Free African Society, Freedmen's Rank, Freedmen's Bureau, Freedmeu, Schools for, Fugi tire Slaves, aalilean Fishermen, Gileadites, League of, Group Economy, The, Hall, Prince, Hayti, Rligratiou to, Heuson, Josiah, Homes and Orphanages, Hospitals, Howard, General 0. O., Income of Insurance Societies, Iuconie of Churches, Insurance and Beneficial Societies, Insurauce Societies, Insurance in Virginia, Insurrectious, Iron in Africa, Jamaica, Kansas, Knights of Py thias, Kowaliga, Land Buying, Liberia, Louisiana, Migration from, Markets in Africa, Maroons in Jamaica, hlasous, hlasous, Origiu of, Rleclianics' Savings Bank, Migration of Negroes, Money in Africa, Mound Bayou, Mound Bayou, Miss., Index , 1E ff , 158, , lfi8 3.3 ff. 13 E. 125, 1% 25, z;, , 54 L72, ff., :X is, 7'1 "- i,-hi 32 12<; , ff , ff :1 99, lw, 104, 109 'LO '25 13 ff. I!, 49-.j ,44,170 45,46,47 49,50 li ff , TJ 14:;

180 184 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans Nashville Convention, National Baptist Publishing Board, Negro Church and Co-operation, Negro (:onventions, Negro Exodus, 1879, Negro Governors, Negro Missionaries, Negro Union of Newport, R. I., Segroes and Public Schools, New York, Kewspaper~, Nortti Carolina, Migrat,ion from, Obeah Worship, Odd Fellows, Ohio, Orph anaye, Petersburg, Va., Philadelphia, Pa., Pioueer Building and Loan Associat,ion, Private Schools, Productive Co-operation, Pul)lic Schools, Real Estate and Credit, Ross, Dr. A. &I., Rusawurm, J. R,, Saint Luke's Order, Schools, Secret Societies, Scope of this Study, The, Shoe Stores, Siugleton Colony, Sons and I?aughters of Peace, Spencer Red Brick Company, Texas, Migration from, 'l'rntle iu Afrit';~, True Reformer~, True Reformers' Bank, Tuhlnan, Harriet,, Twin City Building aud Loan Assotriation, 'Pyl)es of Co-nperatjou, Underground Railroad, The [Jnited Brothers of Frientl*l~ip, Virginia, V (roclooism, Warsaw, an., West in die,^, Western Realty and Land Company, Xenla. Ohio. Zion Methodlsts ' 54 fl. 54 ti-. 4% XO 96,87, ,52 18,N '38 95, 'X,liO ,159 Y1, , %,B ,109-1?P lij!) llil 49, 50 lli ff , ZR,29 17li 51 ff. 26 ff. 124, 12.5!)8-1Ml I*W 17-1 I I2 il,z, 81

181 No. ' 1, Mottality arnang Negroes in 'Citide : 5 1 pp., Out of, + priht. Mo~t&ty amdm Isfegrow iri Cities; 24 pp., Q2d pd., abridged, ' t'w) coqie*, at 25~. + Np 2. spcisj and Physical Gnditioq df Negroes ir Cities ; 86 p.. ' IS97 ; 737 copies at 50 Cents. * No.''% Serge ~fforts of Negroes for %Gal Bemrment; 66 pp., - + No Out of ptink. I No. 47' The Nagm in binesa ; 78 pp OutLof $rid. * ko. 5, h e Cjollege-bred Negro ; 1 15 pp,, Out af pririt. (24 edition, abridged). The College-bred Negro; 32 g.,,,s, Tha Negro common School ;-120 pp.~ copies at $2.00. ' No. 7, The Negro Artisan: 200 pp., copiy at 75e. ' No. 8, The Nqro Chutch ; 2 12 pp., 1903, 363 edpias at $1.00.,hi R ~onsdn Negro Wde; 75' pb.. 19W 1,126 copies at 50~. No. 1.0, A %led &bliagrafihp of the N&o American; 72 pp., ,281 copies at 25 ten*, No. 1 1, Health and.physique of the N&O American ; 112 ppb,. l copies at $ Ho. Co-operation among Wegrq Americans, 1.8! pp,, ,500 capies at $1.00. #. I


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