2 Objectives Describe the Second Great Awakening. Explain why some religious groups suffered from discrimination in the mid-1800s. Trace the emergence of the utopian and Transcendentalist movements.
3 Terms and People Second Great Awakening a religious revival movement in the first half of the 1800s revivalist a preacher who works to renew the importance of religion in American life Charles Grandison Finney influential revivalist who dramatically proclaimed his own faith while urging others do likewise evangelical a style of worship meant to elicit powerful emotions to gain converts
4 Terms and People (continued) Joseph Smith founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints Mormon member of the Church of Latter Day Saints, which was organized in 1830 by Joseph Smith Unitarian members of the Unitarian religion, which is based on the belief that God is a single divine being rather than a trinity utopian community separate settlement established with the goal of moral perfection
5 Terms and People (continued) Transcendentalist person who follows the literary and philosophical movement based on finding spiritual reality through nature and consciousness of self Ralph Waldo Emerson leading Transcendentalist who celebrated the interplay between the individual and the universe Henry David Thoreau follower of Emerson who argued that a person should be true to his or her own conscience, even if it means breaking the law
6 How did the Second Great Awakening affect life in the United States? By the early 1800s, the United States was well established as an independent, growing country. Many Americans decided that the best future for the United States was one in which its citizens embraced religion.
7 In the early 1800s, a new burst of religious enthusiasm swept America. Second Great Awakening Believing that Americans had become immoral, revivalist preachers urged a renewal of faith. Religious fervor was fanned at outdoor religious inspiration services. As Church membership skyrocketed, a social reform movement closely followed.
8 Evangelical revivals began on the Kentucky frontier and spread to the cities of the Northeast by the 1820s. Charles Grandison Finney dramatically proclaimed his faith, urging followers to do the same. Lyman Beecher, later president of the Lane Theological Seminary, trained new evangelical preachers. Many sermons preached of millennialism and the belief that the U.S. was leading the world into this period of glory that would follow Jesus Second Coming.
9 Revival or camp meetings sometimes went on for days. They often included inspiring music and plentiful food.
10 As this religious fervor grew: some American said the government should endorse religion to encourage public morality, thus beginning the debate over church and state. African Americans embraced religion following their enslavement, it promised an afterlife of eternal freedom. slave revolts increased, with their leaders claiming religious inspiration.
11 Several new religious groups formed. Unitarians A liberal Christian group, which influenced many subsequent religious movements. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Also know as Mormons. This religion quickly attracted new members.
12 Most Americans were Protestant. Some were intolerant of other religions. One group targeted for intolerance was the Mormons, founded by Joseph Smith. The Mormons were attacked in New York, Ohio, and Missouri. They fled to Nauvoo, Illinois, where Smith was murdered in Finally, Brigham Young led them to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, far from hostile neighbors.
13 Catholics and Jewish people were also targeted. Some believed that Catholic loyalty to the Pope was incompatible with American democracy. State constitutions prohibited Jewish people from holding office.
14 Communal living settlements formed in the early 1800s. Their members envisioned a more perfect life by distancing themselves from society. Some 50 utopian communities, which sought to share property, labor, and family life, were organized. These settlements did not last long. The Shakers, however, flourished during the early 1800s, largely because they produced highquality crafts and produce.
15 Transcendentalists believed people could go beyond their senses, or transcend them, to learn universal truths and become closer to God. They found inspiration through nature and one s own conscience, rather than in religious doctrine. The leading Transcendentalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson, celebrated his beliefs in sermons, essays, and poems. Many of these were published in The Dial, the group s magazine.
16 Henry David Thoreau, one of the most important Transcendentalists, was jailed in 1846 for refusing to pay taxes to support an immoral war against Mexico. In Civil Disobedience, he argued that a person must be true to his conscience even if it means breaking the law. In Walden, he wrote about the religious inspiration he derived from nature by living alone in the woods for two years.
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18 Section 2
19 Objectives Describe the public school movement. Describe how reformers tried to improve the condition of prisoners and people with mental illness. Evaluate the effectiveness of the temperance movement.
20 Terms and People public school movement movement aimed at providing greater educational opportunities through the establishment of tax-supported public schools Horace Mann Massachusetts senator and leader of the public school movement who championed the creation of the first state board of education Dorothea Dix reformer who succeeded in improving how society treats the mentally ill
21 Terms and People (continued) penitentiary movement movement aimed at structuring prisons so that prisoners would feel sorry for their crimes temperance movement movement aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it Neal Dow mayor of Portland, Maine, who secured passage of Maine Laws restricting the sale of alcohol
22 What were the main features of the public school, penitentiary, and temperance reform movements? During the 1800s, many people began to put their religious ideals into practice by working to reform parts of American life. Their efforts would affect several groups of the most disadvantaged Americans.
23 Leaders of the Second Great Awakening preached the need to improve life on Earth through social reform. Many Americans saw a need to help the disadvantaged. Public education, the mentally ill, and prisoners were all beneficiaries of reformers. The temperance movement sought to moderate or end the use of alcohol.
24 The public school movement advocated for a taxpayer-supported system of public schools. Supporters believed public education would provide the knowledge citizens needed. Educated citizens were seen as vital to economic growth. Without laws requiring an education, most children didn t attend school.
25 In the 1830s, Horace Mann of Massachusetts advocated for the first state board of education and for free public schools. He called for: state oversight of local schools. standardized school calendars. mandatory attendance. elimination of corporal punishment. creation of a body of well-educated teachers.
26 The public school movement faced opposition from reluctant taxpayers and those who wanted religion taught in public schools. Nevertheless, the public school movement succeeded. The percentage of American children in school doubled.
27 Women played a major role in the public education movement. Catherine Beecher and Emma Willard established schools for women in Connecticut, Ohio, and New York. Elizabeth Blackwell and Ann Preston established medical training for women in the 1850s.
28 Reformers had special concern for those with no voice. Dorothea Dix observed mentally ill individuals housed with hardened criminals, all living in harsh prison conditions. After visiting prisons, almshouses, and hospitals, Dix began a national campaign for the humane treatment of the mentally ill.
29 The penitentiary movement wanted prisoners to feel penitence, or sorrow, for their crimes. Two types of penitentiaries were proposed. Under the Pennsylvania System, prisoners lived in solitary confinement. This was costly and ultimately seen as cruel. Under the Auburn Model, prisoners worked together silently by day, but slept in individual cells at night.
30 Members of the temperance movement believed that alcohol consumption caused a number of social ills. Groups such as the American Temperance Society held meetings where members pledged sobriety. Some states passed laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. They were known as Maine Laws, in honor of Neal Dow of Portland, who lectured widely on the evils of alcohol abuse.
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32 Section 3
33 Objectives Describe the lives of enslaved and free African Americans in the 1800s. Identify the leaders and tactics of the abolition movement. Summarize the opposition to abolition.
34 Terms and People freedman a former or freed slave Nat Turner led a Virginia slave revolt in 1831 that killed nearly 60 people before he and his followers were caught and executed abolition movement reform movement for the abolition or end of slavery William Lloyd Garrison editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator
35 Terms and People (continued) Frederick Douglass escaped slave who spoke passionately about his experiences, also published in his autobiography Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass Gag Rule 1836 law that prohibited the debate or discussion of slavery in Congress
36 How did reformers try to help enslaved people? In the early and mid-1880s, reformers tried to improve life through campaigns to help children, families, and disadvantaged adults. Soon, some reformers also set out to help enslaved African Americans.
37 As the South s cotton-based economy grew, so did its reliance on slavery. By 1830, there were 2 million African American slaves in the South. One in three slaves was under the age of ten. Most did back-breaking labor: cultivating cotton fields, loading freight, or working in hot kitchens.
38 Brutal overseers enforced work routines with whipping, beating, maiming, and humiliation. Often, the basics for survival, including clothing, food, and shelter, were barely provided. Family members were often separated, and slaves could not be taught to read or write.
39 Most slaves found ways to maintain their hope and dignity. Many relied on their religious faith, based on a mix of traditional African and Christian beliefs. Others resisted their bondage by breaking tools or outwitting overseers. Thousands escaped to the North or to Mexico using a network of paths and safe houses called the Underground Railroad.
40 Some slaves fought back. Over 200 slave revolts occurred in the first half of the 1800s. In 1822, freedman Denmark Vesey plotted a huge uprising near Charleston. He and dozens of accomplices were captured and hanged. In 1831, slave Nat Turner and his co-conspirators killed 60 whites near Richmond, Virginia. Turner, who acted on what he believed was a sign from God, was executed. Undeterred, slaves still resisted their captivity. Many people in the North joined their cause.
41 By the early 1800s, there was a growing antislavery or abolition movement in the North. By 1804, all states north of Maryland outlawed slavery. In 1807, the importation of new slaves was outlawed.
42 As Northern states began to abolish slavery, the number of freed slaves, or freedmen, grew. In 1816, the American Colonization Society (ACS) was formed to encourage slaves to return to Africa. The ACS established the colony of Liberia in Africa. By 1830, more than 1,100 freedmen had relocated. Many freedmen distrusted the ACS, fearing that colonization was a plan to exile able black leaders.
43 Religious individuals fostered the growth of the abolition movement. Pamphleteer, David Walker, a free African American, called slavery incompatible with the Second Great Awakening s religious teachings. Baltimore Quaker, Benjamin Lundy, printed the first antislavery newspaper. William Lloyd Garrison, a leader of the abolitionist movement, began his own newspaper in 1831 The Liberator.
44 Garrison used dramatic arguments called moral suasion to advocate for immediate freedom and full political and social rights for African Americans. By 1840, over 150,000 belonged to abolition groups, such as the American Anti-Slavery Society.
45 In 1845, Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave, published his autobiography Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass. An eloquent and stirring speaker, he later became an advisor to Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War.
46 Southerners defended slavery from abolitionist attacks. They maintained that northern textile mills also depended on southern cotton. They claimed that slaves were treated better than northern factory workers. They declared that slavery was supported by the Bible.
47 As abolitionist rhetoric grew more strident, Southern support for manumission decreased. Anti-abolitionist leaders pressed harder in their defense of slavery in the South. Post offices refused to deliver abolitionist newspapers. Even Southerners who did not own slaves saw slavery as vital to their way of life.
48 Most northerners were also opposed to abolition. White workers feared that freedmen were going to take their jobs. Northern businessmen resented black competitors. Factory owners worried about the loss of Southern cotton for their mills.
49 Most in the North disliked southerners, but did not care to fight over slavery. Politicians from both regions passed the Gag Rule in It prohibited debate or discussion on slavery in Congress. Abolition and slavery continued to drive a wedge between the increasingly industrialized and urban North and the rural agricultural South.
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51 Section 4
52 Objectives Identify the limits faced by American women in the early 1800s. Trace the development of the women s movement. Describe the Seneca Falls Convention and its effects.
53 Terms and People matrilineal when inheritance is passed down through the female side of the family Sojourner Truth former slave from New York who gave spellbinding speeches on slavery women s movement movement beginning in the mid-1800s in the United States that sought greater rights and opportunities for women Lucretia Mott abolitionist who was angered by the lack of equality for women; co-organizer the Seneca Falls Convention
54 Terms and People (continued) Elizabeth Cady Stanton abolitionist who pushed for suffrage; co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention Seneca Falls Convention held in New York in 1848, the first women s rights convention in the United States Amelia Bloomer publisher of The Lily who advocated for complete equality, including in dress; long pants worn under a skirt were nicknamed Bloomers in her honor
55 Terms and People (continued) suffrage the right to vote Married Women s Property Act 1848 New York State law that guaranteed greater property rights for women; used as a model in other states
56 What steps did American women take to advance their rights in the mid-1800s? In the early and mid-1800s, women took active roles in the abolition and other reform movements. Some also worked to gain equality for women, laying the groundwork for the equal rights struggle over the next hundred years.
57 In the 1800s, women s rights and freedoms rights were severely limited. Women could not own property. Women rarely received a formal education. Women were deprived of the right to vote. Women could not hold office. Women contributed to society privately by influencing their husbands and raising good children.
58 Some cultural groups living in America, Native American, African Americans, and Mexican Americans, traditionally allowed women more power and freedom. Some were also matrilineal societies, which permitted women to inherit family property and names. Most American women were denied these rights.
59 New opportunities for women grew from the Second Great Awakening reform movements. Many women joined churchsponsored reform groups. Women played key roles in reforming the treatment of the mentally ill, public education, abolition, and temperance. Similarities in the plight of women and of slaves led many abolitionists to support women s rights.
60 Famous women reformers included: Public School Movement: Catherine Beecher, Emma Willard, Ann Preston, and Elizabeth Blackwell Treatment of mentally ill: Dorothea Dix (at right) Abolition: Sojourner Truth, Angelina and Sarah Grimké
61 Industrialization brought women into the workplace in the 1820s and 1830s. Factories and mills provided the first jobs that women held outside of the home. Though their pay was lower than men s, and their husbands or fathers typically collected their wages, women developed a new degree of independence. By the 1830s, some women had even joined labor unions and participated in strikes.
62 Still, little changed in the status of women until two trends coincided in the 1830s. Urban middle class women began to hire poor women to do their housework, allowing them time for activism. Women working for abolition began to compare their own condition with that of slaves.
63 The women s movement began when a few men and women questioned the lack of rights and opportunities for women. In Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, the Grimké sisters argued that God made men and women equal. In Women in the Nineteenth Century, Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller argued that men and women were intellectually equal.
64 A few women advocated full equality. Two that did were active abolitionists. Lucretia Mott had helped found the American Anti- Slavery Society. Elizabeth Cady Stanton At an abolitionist convention in London, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were outraged by the limits placed on their participation in the proceedings.
65 In 1848, Mott and Stanton organized the first Women s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls. Hundreds of men and women attended, including Frederick Douglass. Delegates adopted a Declaration of Sentiments modeled after the Declaration of Independence. Although it produced few real changes in women s rights, the convention marked the beginning of the women s movement in the United States.
66 Amelia Bloomer was so inspired at Seneca Falls that she went on to publish her own newspaper, The Lily, advocating women s equality. She also advocated equality in dress: long pants worn under a shorter skirt came to be called bloomers after her. Also inspired by the convention was Susan B. Anthony, who would go on to become a leader in the suffrage movement the most critical of all women s rights.
67 In 1848, New York passed the Married Women s Property Act, guaranteeing women property rights for the first time. This act became a model for laws enacted in other states for many years. By the mid-1800s, a new course was set. Their gains were small and slowly won, but women s fight for equality had begun.
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Chapter 89. The Second Great Awakening Ignites The White Abolitionist Movement Date: 1827 Forward Sections: Theodore Weld And The Tappan Brothers Initiate An Abolition Movement In New York William Lloyd