1 Jackson and Manifest Destiny Jackson/Manifest Destiny Test
2 Manifest Destiny Name: Manifest Destiny 1. Define manifest destiny Texas: Independence and Annexation: 2. In what year did Mexico gain its independence from Spain? 3. Who came to power in Mexico in 1834 and promised to tighten his control over Texas? 4. Who lead the Texans in a rebellion against Mexico to gain Texas independence in 1836? 5. On what date did a convention of Texas delegates declare Texas to be an independent republic? 6. What historic battle was fought in March 1836 outside San Antonio, Texas? What famous frontiersman and former congressman was killed at this battle? 7. After a series of battles, the Texans eventually defeated Santa Anna and took him hostage. In exchange for his freedom Santa Anna agreed to the following (2) things: a) b) 8. Wanting to become part of the United States, Texas asked to be made part of the US. President Andrew Jackson was in favor of annexing Texas, but he could not overcome northern opposition. For what (2) reasons did northerners oppose the annexation of Texas? a) b) 9. What (2) candidates ran for president in the 1844 election? a) Democratic candidate: b) Whig Party candidate: 10. Who won the election of 1844? 11. In what year did Texas become the 28th state in Union? Which president did this? Texas became a [FREE STATE] or [SLAVE STATE] Oregon 12. What (2) countries disputed for control of the Oregon Territory? a) b) 13. The United States was prepared for war if necessary to gain the Oregon territory. What was the U.S. slogan to gain the Oregon Territory?
3 14. What became the official boundary line agreed upon by both England and the United States? War with Mexico and the Gadsden Purchase 15. Why was Mexico mad at the United States? 16. Who general did President Polk send to patrol the U.S.-Mexican border in June 1845? 17. Who did President Polk send to Mexico with an offer to purchase both California and New Mexico? What was the Mexican response to this offer? 18. What river did the US claim was the border between Mexico & the United States? What river did Mexico claim was the border? 19. What event started the war between the United States and Mexico? 20. On what date did the United States declare war on Mexico? 21. What U.S. general captured Mexico City on September 14, 1847? 22. What was the name of the treaty that ended the U.S.-Mexican War? On what date was it signed? 23. The treaty required Mexico to surrender the and territories to the United States in exchange for financial compensation. 24. What was the name of the territorial purchase which included parts of present-day New Mexico and Arizona the US bought from Mexico in 1853 so a southern transcontinental railroad to be built? How much did the United States pay for this territory? California 25. What was discovered that caused thousands of settlers in the US to go to California in 1848? Near what present-day city in California was this discovery made? 26. The nickname given to the thousands of settlers who rushed to California to strike it rich? 27. On what date did Congress admit California as a state? California became a [FREE STATE] or [SLAVE STATE]
4 Jacksonian Democracy Interpreting Primary Sources Reading 1: The aristocracy of our country...continually contrive to change their party name. It was first Tory, then Federalist, then no party...then National Republican, now Whig...But by whatever name they reorganize themselves, the true democracy of the country, the producing classes, ought to be able to distinguish the enemy. Ye may know them by their fruit. Ye may know them by their deportment toward the people. Ye may know them by their disposition to club together, and constitute societies and incorporations for the enjoyment of exclusive privileges and for countenancing and protecting each other in their monopolies...they are those, with some honorable exceptions, who have contrived to live without labor...and must consequently live on the labor of others. Frederick Robinson, a Democrat, 1834 Reading 2: We believe, then in the principle of democratic republicanism, in its strongest and purest sense. We have an abiding confidence in the virtue, intelligence, and full capacity for self-government, of the great mass of our people--our industrious, honest manly, intelligent millions of freemen. We are opposed to all self-styled "wholesome restraints" on the free action of the popular opinion and will, other than those which have for their sole object the prevention of precipitate legislation. Statement of Democratic principles Reading 3: Ours is a country, where men start from an humble origin, and from small beginnings rise gradually in the world, as the reward of merit and industry, and where they attain to the most elevated positions, or acquire a large amount of wealth, according to the pursuits they elect for themselves. No exclusive privileges of birth, no entailment of estates, no civil or political disqualifications, stand in their path; but one has as good a chance as another, according to his talents, prudence, and personal exertions. This is a country of selfmade men, than which nothing better could be said of any state of society. Calvin Colton, a Whig Questions To Think About 1. What are the basic values and assumptions of Jacksonian democracy? 2. What should be the social goals of a democratic America?
5 Indian Removal Interpreting Primary Sources Reading 1: Toward the aborigines of this country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself, or would go further in attempting to reclaim them from their wandering habits and make them a happy, prosperous people. Humanity has often wept over the fate of the aborigines of this country, and philanthropy has been long busily employed in devising means to avert it, but its progress has never for a moment been arrested, and one by one have many powerful tribes disappeared from the earth. To follow to the tomb the last of his race and to tread on the graves of extinct nations excites melancholy reflections. But true philanthropy reconciles the mind to these vicissitudes as it does to the extinction of one generation to make room for another...nor is there anything in this which, upon a comprehensive view of the general interests of the human race, is to be regretted. Philanthropy could not wish to see this continent restored to the condition in which it was found by our forebears. What good man would prefer a country covered with forests and ranged by a few thousand savages to our extensive Republic, studded with cities, towns, and prosperous farms? Andrew Jackson defends the removal policy, 1830 Reading 2: The Cherokees were happy and prosperous under a scrupulous observance of treaty stipulations by the government of the United States, and from the fostering hand extended over them, they made rapid advances in civilization, morals, and in the arts and sciences. Little did they anticipate, that when taught to think and feel as the American citizen, and to have with him a common interest, they were to be despoiled by their guardian, to become strangers and wanderers in the land of their fathers, forced to return to the savage life, and to seek a new home in the wilds of the far west, and that without their consent. We wish to remain on the land of our fathers. We have a perfect and original right to remain without interruption or molestation. The treaties with us, and laws of the United States made in pursuance of treaties, guaranty our residence and our privileges, and secure us against intruders. Memorial and Protest of the Cherokee Nation, 1836 Reading 3: The Cherokee nation...is a distinct community, occupying its own territories, with boundaries accurately described, in which the laws of Georgia can have no force, and which the citizens of Georgia have no right to enter. Chief Justice John Marshall Reading 1: The ingenuity of man might be challenged to show a single sentence of the Constitution of the United States giving power, either direct or implied, to the general government...to nullify the laws of a State...or coerce obedience, by force, to the mandates of the judiciary of the Union. Wilson Lumpkin, Governor of Georgia Questions To Think About 1. Could Indians and white Americans peacefully coexist? 2. How does Andrew Jackson defend his removal policy? 3. Was John Marshall's Supreme Court decision realistic? Can a president and states disregard a high court decision? 4. Was Jackson's policy unjust? What policy might have been better?
6 Antebellum Population Read the overview or sectional framework and then read the vignettes of three typical individuals. You will need to explain how each of three men, James Watson, Richard Fitzhugh, and George Hicks, would react to each of eight sectional issues of antebellum period. Complete the chart by writing each man s position and rationale on each issue. You will use your completed chart to help you in answering the concluding questions in the second part. Sectional Framework for the Ante-bellum Period East Political- The region developed a broad-based democracy as property qualifications for voting were either reduced or eliminated for white males. Economic- The area s diversified economy included commerce, banking, manufacturing, forest and mining products and stable, family-sized farms. Social- A wide class structure ranged from wealthy businessmen to a few remaining indentured servants. Public schools, as well as a number of universities, had developed, and urban centers with a cultural and intellectual base were emerging. South Political- An aristocratic form of government, which had existed since colonial times, was well-established by the nineteenth century. Economic- The planter aristocracy dominated the economy and produced a staple crop with slave labor. However, most whited lived in a marginal existence on small farms. Social- Few centers of learning or urban centers existed in this agrarian setting. A small percentage of white planters ran the establishment. Yeoman farmers yearned to become planters and supported slavery to keep African Americans in a subordinate position. West Political- A democratic society based on white suffrage developed, but African Americans and women were not granted the right to vote. Economic- Farms, owned and operated by the family, used large-scale agriculture and the new machinery of the period to produce food for eastern markets. Social- While a few cities developed as centers of commerce, most people lived a rural life. The Northwest Ordinance had placed an emphasis on education. In the early 1830 s, Oberlin College became the first college to admit women and African Americans. These descriptions characterized the typical individuals shown on the chart: James Watson A manufacturer of cotton textiles in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Watson is the son of an early factory owner who recognized the value of cotton spinning machine for which Samuel Slater smuggled plans out of England. The elder Mr. Watson started a small mill in 1812 and, with the help of his son, James, expanded the mill threefold and began spinning, weaving and dying cloth. James Watson sees the possibility of further expansion as transportation makes markets more readily available. George Hicks George Hicks recently moved t Indiana from Vermont where he had operated a small general farm. He purchased new farm machinery and two hundred acres on the Wabash River. With the help of his son, he grows wheat for sale in the East. He transports his produce via the Wabash and Erie Canal, the Great Lakes and the Erie Canal to eastern markets. With the influx of immigrants and the growth of cities in the East, Hicks is considering expanding his acreage in hopes of further increasing his profits. Richard Fitzhugh In 1849, Richard Fitzhugh inherited a plantation from his father. The nearly three thousand acres are situated on the banks of the Savannah River in Georgia. Fitzhugh has two hundred slaves, including 150 field hands. Mr. Fitzhugh is descended from an old line of southern plantation owners whose ancestors originally worked plantations in the tobacco lands of Virginia. He is a well-educated gentleman, having graduated from the College of William and Mary where he learned the values and practices of the southern code of Chivalry.
7 Issue Watson (North) Hicks (West) Fitzhugh (South) The national government should pass high tariffs The national government should encourage settlement of small western farms The national government should acquire new territories to the Pacific Ocean (Manifest Destiny) & prepare them for statehood The national government should promote and fund internal improvements including roads, canals, & railroads The national government should abolish slavery The national government should promote unlimited immigration to America The national government should promote universal education
8 1. How did Henry Clay s American System help promote national unity and a national market economy? 2. Change-over-time: Identify, using at least 3 specific historic examples, how the United States changed from 1800 to 1840 in each of the following ways: a. Democracy b. Transportation c. Technology and communication d. Economic growth e. Social reforms f. American foreign policy g. Immigration patterns h. Labor systems 3. Given your evidence from #2, which national change had the most significant impact on the U.S. from ? Why? 4. Change-over-time: Identify, using at least 3 specific historic examples, how each region of the United States changed from 1800 to For each region, consider economic, social, and political changes. a. The North b. The South c. The West 5. Given your evidence from #4, which region of the U.S. experienced the most profound changes from 1800 to 1840? 6. Which region of the United States (North, South, or West) was more vital to the American market economy by 1840? Why? 7. How might the increasing regionalization of the U.S. create difficulties for the national government by the 1850s?
9 Territorial Growth of the United States to 1853 Name of Territory (Color each territorial acquisition a different color, use boxes as key) Year Acquired by United States Prior Owner of Territory How we got it (Treaty, bought, etc.) States created from it The Thirteen Colonies United States After the Revolution Louisiana Purchase Florida Texas Annexation Oregon Territory Mexican Cession Gadsden Purchase Label the following political and geographic features: 1. The Great Lakes (5) 2. Atlantic Ocean 3. Pacific Ocean 4. Gulf of Mexico 5. Mississippi River 6. Ohio River 7. Missouri River 8. Appalachian Mountains 9. Rocky Mountains 10. Sierra Nevada Mountains
11 Andrew Jackson The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Andrew Jackson the man! Born in March 1767 on NC/SC Border -- He was orphaned at Self-educated with no formal education Emotional, Arrogant and Passionate man Involved in countless Duels -- Killed Charles Dickenson in a duel over a horse racing bet and an insult to his wife Jackson s Military Service Defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 Defeated the British at New Orleans in 1815 Took Florida and Claimed it for the US in 1819 Loved by his soldiers who called him Old Hickory The Election of 1824 Regional and personality differences led to a multi-candidate race The Participants: : Sought to continue conservative course set by Monroe, supported strong national gov t : Emerged as rival of Clay for West vote; appealed to the common man due to his upbringing and war record : Sought support from N and W for his American System of tariffs and support for internal improvements : Competed with Calhoun for the regional vote of the South; Supported Jefferson s strict construction The Election of 1824 Even though Jackson won the popular vote, he didn t receive a majority of electoral votes. Sent to the to choose the President The Corrupt Bargain Jackson -v- Quincy Adams Jackson appeals to West and South voters Henry Clay gives his support to Adams and the House chooses Adams as President and two weeks later.adams appoints Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. Quincy Adams Tangent One of the ablest, hardest working Presidents. Not popular failed to relate to the common man Often irritated those around him Supported protective tariffs and National Bank o Passed the tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations) o Tariff upset those in the South Minority president, last of the Federalists leaning, and last connection to Founding Fathers.. The Rematch of 1828 Jackson -v- Quincy Adams II Rise in the Common Man Property qualifications and education dropped as voting requirement Population shifts to West and South Jackson Wins, Jackson Wins -- Jacksonian Democracy Whatever governing needed to be done, it should be done by the common man. Government by the majority of people; instead of a gov t governed by the upper class Man of the People Spoils System Eaton Affair Wife of Jackson s sec of defense, target of gossip by other cabinet wives Tried to force cabinet wives to accept her, and led to resignation of most of his Cabinet
12 Jackson s Kitchen Cabinet Group of unofficial advisors Often consulted instead of actual cabinet Did you say Veto? Jackson vetoed more bills than the previous six presidents combined (1830) - Vetoed the use of federal money to construct the Maysville Road because it fell within one state (KY) Most of Jackson s policy sought to balance sectional interests, but were clearly entrenched in Southern and Western motives Nullification Crisis of 1832 Jackson supported states rights, especially in the South, but when pressed would defend the rights of the National Government and Tariff of 1832 led to the South Carolina challenging federal law through interposition and nullification Conflict with John C. Calhoun (former Jackson VP) Appealed to South Carolina to obey federal law and obtained authority from Congress ( ) to enforce the laws any way necessary Clay negotiated a compromise (Tariff of 1833) You can Bank on it! Jackson vetoed Congress s attempt to re-charter the national bank Jackson distrusted Northern commercial interests -- Nicholas Biddle represented these interests South and West blamed the national bank for Panic of 1819 preferred & of state banks Jackson removed government deposits and placed them in local (pet) banks loyal to the Democratic party Panic of 1837 Easy lending of the Pet Banks led to speculative boom in the early 1830 s Jackson became concerned that the banks were issuing too much paper money -- Issued (1836) requiring gold and silver for land purchases These policies (combined with other issues) led to a rapid bursting of the bubble, that caused a nationwide depression -- Plagued Martin Van Buren s time in office And now for the Ugly Jackson s Native American Policy Forced resettlement of Native Americans west of the Mississippi Created the Bureau of Indian Affairs created to oversee resettlement Cherokee claimed the relocation was wrong and it went to the supreme court. Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokee Tribe. Jackson s response -- Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it Trail of Tears Forced relocation of the Cherokee tribe. Before the journey was over ¼ of the tribe perished. Reflected Jackson s personal apathy toward Native Americans Jackson s Legacy The Good The Common Man involvement in Government Strong Executive Power The Bad The Spoils System Banking Instability Massive Voter Turnout Sparked Re-Creation of 2 Party System Excessive Check of the Supreme Court Greater Sectionalism Result of Split with Calhoun The Ugly Native American Policy Trail of Tears
13 Expansion into the West: Texas, Oregon, & California Western Exploration Manifest Destiny The spread of settlers beyond U.S. borders led to widespread calls for annexation of newly-settled lands The term Manifest Destiny was 1 st used in 1845 by newspaper editor, who said: God wants the USA ( ) to become stronger Expansion of American democracy & economic opportunities were a good thing Texas In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain The new Mexican government opted for a free-trade policy with USA Thousands of U.S. speculators moved to Texas The Texas Revolution In the 1820s, Mexico encouraged U.S. immigration to Texas but problems emerged between Anglos & the new Mexican gov t Texans never fully accepted Mexican rules Texans ignored the Texans refused to convert to Catholicism Texans refused to Texans wanted self-rule like in the U.S. In 1834, became dictator & was viewed as threat to Texans interests An armed rebellion broke out in 1835, led by The Republic of Texas ( ) In 1836 Texans declared their independence from Mexico & wrote a national constitution But the war for independence still had to be fought Texans were defeated at the Texans were defeated at Goliad Texans won at & captured General Santa Anna In May 1836, Santa Anna recognized Texas independence & its territory to the Rio Grande The Republic of Texas was the 1 st president of the Republic of Texas & asked the U.S. to make Texas a state Presidents Jackson & Van Buren both refused to annex Texas (to avoid arguments over slavery) Texas offered free land grants to U.S. settlers; white families in search of land & opportunity moved to Texas in 1830s & 1840s Mexican-American War Causes of the Mexican War: Mexico recognized Texas independence & U.S. annexation, but disagreed In May 1846, Polk sent U.S. General Zachary Taylor beyond the Rio Grande River which led to the Mexican- American War
14 The Mexican-American War John C Fremont won in California Zachary Taylor won in northern Mexico Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico Winfield Scott captured Mexico City Ending the Mexican War In 1848, U.S. & Mexico ended the war with the : The U.S. grew 20% by adding the (present-day NM, AZ, CA, Utah, NV, & parts of CO & WY) Added the in 1853 to build a southern transcontinental railroad The Rio Grande became the recognized U.S. southern border Oregon U.S. & Britain jointly occupied Oregon (Spain relinquished its claims to Oregon in the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819) Britain claimed a greater stake of Oregon via Hudson Bay Co. (fur trade) The Oregon Boundary Dispute In 1846, President Polk notified Britain that the U.S. wanted full control of Oregon Oregon residents demanded the entire territory: England compromised & divided Oregon along 49 th parallel in 1846 Benefits of Oregon: the U.S. gained its 1 st deep-water port in the Pacific & Northern abolitionists saw Oregon as a balance to slave-state Texas California -- California settlers used John Fremont s occupation of California during the Mexican-American War as an opportunity to revolt from Mexico in 1846 Like Texas, California operated as an independent nation; the California Republic existed for one month from June 1846 to July 1846 when it was annexed by the United States California became a U.S. state as part of the The California Gold Rush The discovery of gold in 1848 led to a massive influx of prospectors in 1849 (the forty-niners ): Discover was made at Few miners struck it rich The real money made in CA was in supplying miners with food, saloons, & provisions The gold rush led to a population boom, increase in agriculture, & multicultural Californian society Conclusions: The impact of territorial expansion: Historian noted in the 1890s that expansion shaped Americans into an adventurous, optimistic, & democratic people But, expansion created sectional conflicts between the North & South, especially over slavery
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Section Preview As you read, look for: the concept of manifest destiny, the westward expansion of the United States, and vocabulary terms: manifest destiny, annex, and skirmish. Below: Revolting against
Essential Question: Champion of the Common Man? OR King Andrew? Voting Requirements in the Early 19c Voter Turnout: 1820-1860 1 Why Increased Democratization? 3 White male suffrage increased 3 Party nominating
Current Events Article Assignment Due Oct 20 (next week) Follow directions on worksheet NOTE: Write ALL answers in complete sentences! Topic should be about a current event that happened in Tennessee and
APUSH Unit 6 Study Guide (Ch. 13 15) Name Date Make some notes about each item listed below. This assignment is a grade due at the time of notebook check (test day). Chapter 13 Political Parties in the
Jacksonian Era and the Rise of Mass Democracy America 1824 to 1860 The Election of 1824: The Corrupt Bargain Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote Andrew Jackson 43% 99 J.Q. Adams 31% 32 William Crawford
Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation How justifiable was U.S. expansion in the 1800s? P R E V I E W Your teacher will display a painting that is also reproduced at the beginning of this lesson in the
Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation (1783 1850) America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 7: Life in the New Nation (1783 1850) Section 1: Cultural, Social, and Religious Life Section 2: Trails to the West