1 Israel and the Middle East The Last Six Thousand Years
2 Two Parts 1. From 3800 B.C. to the birth of Jesus Christ 2. From the birth of Jesus Christ to the present
3 Lay the Groundwork for This Historical Survey
4 Israel and Its Neighbors Today
5 Egypt Sudan
6 Ancient Near East and Modern States
7 Modern Day Israel
8 Modern Political Boundaries
9 Theological Framework 1. The Bible indicates that God is the sovereign ruler of all human history.
10 Isaiah 46: Remember the former things long past, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is no one like Me, 10 Declaring the end from the beginning, And from ancient times things which have not been done, Saying, My purpose will be established, And I will accomplish all My good pleasure ; 11 Calling a bird of prey from the east, The man of My purpose from a far country. Truly I have spoken; truly I will bring it to pass. I have planned it, surely I will do it.
11 Theological Framework 1. The Bible indicates that God is the sovereign ruler of all human history. 2. The Bible provides us with an historical account of God and His relationship with especially one group of people, Abraham and his descendants, the Jews. 3. The land of Israel, Eretz Yisrael in the Hebrew scriptures, has been an important part of this relationship. 4. Through Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Messiah God is fulfilling His promises to His people, the Jews, and including Gentiles who believe in Jesus.
12 Two Important Terms Regarding Fertile Crescent the Middle East The land from Egypt to Iraq, excluding Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia, that is useable for growing food Because of three great rivers - Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile Because the area receives at least 200 mm of rain each year
13 Fertile Crescent
14 Mesopotamia and Fertile Crescent
15 Two Important Terms Regarding the Middle East Fertile Crescent The land from Egypt to Iraq, excluding Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia, that is useable for growing food Because of three great rivers - Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile Because the area receives at least 200 mm of rain each year Levant The land in the Middle East made up basically of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel
17 Modern Day Israel
18 Modern Day Israel At the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa The land bridge and trade route between the Mediterranean Sea and the desert of Jordan and Arabia 290 miles long 85 miles wide at its widest point, 35 miles wide at its narrowest point 8,367 square miles
19 Israel/Britain/U.S. Comparison
21 Comparative Populations Israel Syria Lebanon Jordan Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia Turkey 7 million 19 million 4 million 6 million 29 million 70 million 74 million 25 million 73 million
22 Comparative Populations Israel Surrounding Arab Countries Excluding Turkey (73 million) 7 million 217 million
23 Types of Governments Israel Syria Lebanon Jordan Iraq Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia Turkey Parliamentary Democracy Presidential Republic Republic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Democracy Islamic Republic Republic Absolute Monarchy (Sharia) Republic
24 blue - presidential republics, full presidential system green - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament yellow - presidential republics, semi-presidential system orange - parliamentary republics red - parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise power magenta - constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often alongside a weak parliament purple - absolute monarchies brown - republics whose constitutions grant only a single party the right to govern olive - military dictatorships
25 Greece Turkey Syria Lebanon Israel PA Jordan Iraq Iran Libya Egypt Saudi Arabia Oman Sudan Yemen blue - presidential republics, full presidential system yellow - presidential republics, semi-presidential system orange - parliamentary republics magenta - constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often alongside a weak parliament purple - absolute monarchies brown - republics whose constitutions grant only a single party the right to govern olive - military dictatorships
26 An Important Fact Land has always been an important commodity to man. First, because in the ANE people believed the land belonged to their gods so that if an invader sought to take a people s land, the battle took place not only on earth between the human combatants but also in the heavens between their gods with the more powerful gods prevailing and determining the outcome of the battle on earth. Second, because land is not only the most important tool for survival as the means to grow food and feed livestock, but it also provides an element of permanence and security in order to establish a nation or empire with cities and homes.
27 Four Important Questions To Ask 1. Who has ruled over the land of Israel during the course of history? 2. Who has lived on the land of Israel during the course of history?
28 Who has ruled over the land of Israel? Who has lived on the land of Israel? 1. Canaanites ( B.C.) Canaanites 2. Canaanites ( B.C.) Canaanites, Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob) 3. Canaanites ( B.C.) Canaanites 4. Israelites ( B.C.) Israelites, Canaanites (Joshua, David, Isaiah) 5. Assyrians ( B.C.) Israelites, various Canaanites (Isaiah, Obadiah) 6. Babylonians ( B.C.) Mixed group 7. Persians ( B.C.) Israelites, Samaritans (Ezra, Nehemiah) 8. Greeks ( B.C.) Israelites, Samaritans 9. Ptolemies/Seleucids ( B.C.) Israelites, Samaritans 10. Hasmoneans/Maccabees ( B.C.) Israelites, Samaritans 11. Romans (60 B.C-A.D. 313) Jews, but sparsely populated after A.D Byzantines ( ) Jews, but sparsely populated 13. Arab Muslims ( ) Jews, Arab Muslims & Christians 14. Crusaders ( ) Jews, Arab Muslims & Christians, Crusaders 15. Mamluk Muslims ( ) Jews, Arab Muslims & Christians 16. Ottoman Muslims ( ) Jews, Arab Muslims & Christians 17. British ( ) Jews, Arab Muslims & Christians 18. Israelis (1948-Present) Israeli Jews, Arab Muslims & Christians
29 Four Important Questions To Ask 1. Who has ruled over the land of Israel during the course of history? 2. Who has lived on the land of Israel during the course of history? 3. Who has the theological right to rule over and live on the land of Israel now? 4. What effect does a nation s/people s past have on their current mentality?
30 Ten Divisions of History 1. Pre-Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 2. Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 3. Egyptian Sojourn ( B.C.) 4. Exodus and Settlement of the Land ( B.C.) 5. Monarchy and Exiles ( B.C.) 6. Return and Pre-Roman Period ( B.C.) 7. Roman/Byzantine Period (60 B.C.-A.D. 630) 8. Muslim/Christian Period ( ) 9. British Period ( ) 10. State of Israel (1948-Present)
31 Ever-Widening Circle of Influence on the Land of Israel Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia (Asia Minor, Turkey), and Immediate Neighbors ( B.C.) Persia ( B.C.) Greece ( B.C.) Rome and Constantinople (60 B.C.-A.D. 630) Arabian Peninsula (630-Present) Asia (Turks and Mongols) ( ) Europe (1099-Present) United Nations (1947-Present) America (1948-Present)
32 Ancient Mediterranean World
33 Ancient Near East
34 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
35 Table of Nations Genesis 10 Noah Shem Ham Japheth Semitic Peoples Africans Indo-Europeans Abraham Egyptians Canaanites Persians Isaac Ishmael Jews Arabs
37 Historical Survey of the Middle East Part 1 (3800 B.C.-the birth of Jesus Christ) From the Sumerians To the Romans
38 First Division of History 1. Pre-Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) Ø Ø Patriarch comes from the Greek words pater = father and arche = ruler, leader The Patriarchs of the Jewish faith were Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
39 General Flow of Slides Within Each First Section Division of History Areas of Outside Influence on Palestine/Israel Second Section Palestine/Israel
40 Ever-Widening Circle of Influence on the Land of Israel Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia (Asia Minor, Turkey), and Immediate Neighbors ( B.C.)
41 Three Areas of Outside Influence during the Pre-Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 1. Mesopotamia (Iraq) 2. Egypt 3. Anatolia (Turkey)
42 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
43 Mesopotamia Means Land Between Two Rivers Modern Iraq Baghdad is on the Tigris River Babylon was on the Euphrates River Eventually in constant conflict in the ancient world for control of the land of Israel for economic and trade purposes
44 Mesopotamia Sumerians Akkadians
45 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
46 Sumerians B.C. Southern Mesopotamia - southern Iraq Invented the wheel and plow Invented writing Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus = wedge) on clay tablets Polytheists and syncretists
47 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
48 Akkadians B.C. Central Mesopotamia - central Iraq Conquered the Sumerians Religiously similar to the Sumerians so that Abraham may have begun his life as a pagan polytheist around 2000 B.C.
49 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
50 Egyptians B.C. Thirty-One Dynasties of Kings ( B.C.) Kings were called Pharoahs (from per aa = Great House) who were considered gods Polytheists like the others of the ANE Hieroglyphics means priestly writing; pictographs, i.e., picture writing Eventually in constant conflict with Mesopotamians for control of the land of Israel Great Pyramid of Giza and the Sphinx built around 2500 B.C.
51 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
52 Anatolia Modern day Turkey or Asia Minor Hittite Kingdom Descendants of Heth, son of Canaan, son of Ham, son of Noah (Genesis 10:6-15) Mentioned also in Genesis 15 as inhabitants of the land of Canaan So a group must have migrated north from the land of Canaan to form this empire
53 Hittite Empire
54 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
55 Palestine/Israel during the Pre-Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) The biblical land of Canaan Mentioned first in Genesis 11:31 in the midst of God s call to Abraham Inhabited by Canaanites Descendants of Ham, son of Noah
56 Second Division of History 1. Pre-Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 2. Patriarchal Period ( B.C.)
57 Ever-Widening Circle of Influence on the Land of Israel Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia (Asia Minor, Turkey), and Immediate Neighbors ( B.C.)
58 Three Areas of Outside Influence during the Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 1. Mesopotamia (Iraq) Ø Old Assyrian Empire ( B.C.) with capital at Nineveh in northern Iraq (now occupied by the Kurds) 2. Egypt Ø Middle Kingdom 3. Anatolia (Turkey) Ø Hittites
59 Palestine/Israel during the Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) Inhabited mostly by Canaanites
60 Canaanite Nations
61 Canaanites Neighbors
62 Palestine/Israel during the Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) Inhabited mostly by Canaanites The Patriarchs of the Jews Abraham (Genesis 12-25) Isaac (Genesis 25-28) Jacob (Genesis 25-50)
63 Abraham Genesis The first Jew Called by God in Genesis 12:1-3 out of Ur of the Chaldees (southern Iraq) to the land of Canaan Given four promises by God
64 Genesis 12:1-3 1 Now the LORD said to Abram, Go forth from your country, and from your relatives and from your father s house, to the land which I will show you; 2 And I will make you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great; and so you shall be a blessing; 3 And I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.
65 Promises of God in Genesis 12: Land of Canaan (Palestine/Israel) - to Abraham and to his descendants 2. Descendants 3. Blessing to him personally 4. Blessing to those associated with him
66 Description of the Promised Land Genesis 15:18 18 On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.
68 Abraham Genesis Called by God in Genesis 12:1-3 out of Ur of the Chaldees (southern Iraq) to the land of Canaan Given four promises by God Journeyed from Ur to Canaan
69 Abraham s Journeys
70 Abraham Genesis Called by God in Genesis 12:1-3 out of Ur of the Chaldees (southern Iraq) to the land of Canaan Given four promises by God Journeyed from Ur to Canaan Had two sons Ishmael Isaac
71 Genesis 21: Therefore she [Sarah] said to Abraham, Drive out this maid [Hagar] and her son [Ishmael], for the son of this maid shall not be an heir with my son Isaac. 11 The matter distressed Abraham greatly because of his son. 12 But God said to Abraham, Do not be distressed because of the lad and your maid; whatever Sarah tells you, listen to her, for through Isaac your descendants shall be named.
72 Abraham s Two Sons Genesis Ishmael Born to Hagar, Sarah s Egyptian maid Therefore outside the promises of God according to Genesis 21:10-12 Descendants are the Arabs Isaac Born to Sarah Therefore inside the promises of God according to Genesis 21:10-12 Descendants are the Jews
73 Isaac s Two Sons Genesis Esau Declared by God not to be the one who would inherit the promises of Abraham Descendants are the Edomites Jacob Declared by God to be the one who would inherit the promises of Abraham Descendants are the twelve tribes of Israel, the Jews God changed his name to Israel (Yisrael), which means He Who Struggles With God
74 Jacob s (Israel s) Twelve Sons Genesis The twelve tribes of Israel Joseph The second youngest Sold into slavery and taken down to Egypt Became Vice-Pharaoh of Egypt His father, Jacob, and his brothers moved to Egypt during a famine The Israelites spent 400 years there, from about B.C.
75 Third Division of History 1. Pre-Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 2. Patriarchal Period ( B.C.) 3. Egyptian Sojourn ( B.C.)
76 Ever-Widening Circle of Influence on the Land of Israel Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia (Asia Minor, Turkey), and Immediate Neighbors ( B.C.)
77 Three Areas of Outside Influence during the Egyptian Sojourn ( B.C.) Mesopotamia Old Babylonian Empire ( B.C.) Code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest sets of laws (in the Louvre Museum in Paris) Anatolia Hittites Egypt Intermediate Dynasties ( B.C.) New Kingdom ( B.C.)
78 Za gr os M ou nt ai ns
79 Palestine/Israel during the Egyptian Sojourn ( B.C.) Inhabited by Canaanites Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, (Genesis 15:19-21) Phoenicians (Semites?) Name means purple - sold a purple dye Coastal cities of Lebanon and Syria (Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, Beirut) Planted trading colonies as far away as Carthage Philistines (Hamites according to Genesis 10:14) Sea Peoples - from northern Greece (?) around 1500 B.C.
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