1 New Centers of Civilization C H A P T E R 3 S E C T I O N 3
2 The Role of Nomadic Peoples In the area of a civilization flourished around 4,000 years ago. On the edges of this civilization were, who occasionally overran settled communities and then created their own. These nomads used animals for food and clothing and used regular migratory routes to provide food for their animals.
3 Central Asia
4 The Role of Nomadic Peoples Settled communities often viewed nomadic people as. Nomads would interact with settled communities to trade and act as from one community to another. In times when normal patterns were disrupted for nomadic peoples they would often attack settled communities for food and supplies.
5 The Role of Nomadic Peoples One of the most important group of nomadic peoples were the Their languages included Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit and Germanic. Around 1750 B.C. a group of Indo-Europeans moved into and Anatolia and formed the with a capital located at. (Hattusas)
6 The Hittite Kingdom
7 The Role of Nomadic Peoples Between 1600 and 1200 B.C. the created an empire in western Asia and threatened the power of the Egyptians. The Hittites were the first to wield which were stronger than the commonly used bronze weapons. Around 1200 B.C. the Hittite Empire was destroyed by a group of people only known as the.
8 Extent of the Hittite Empire
9 The Phoenicians The Phoenicians lived in what is now modern day. Their main focus was overseas trade as they produced purple dye, glass and cedar for export to foreign markets. The main centers for the Phoenicians were the cities of,, and.
10 The Phoenicians The built ships from and established an extensive trade routes and throughout the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians ships, called, are thought to have reached as far as the coast of Great Britain.
11 Phoenician Trade
12 The Phoenicians The Phoenician culture is best known for its. The Phoenicians simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent the sounds of speech. It would eventually be passed on to the Greeks which was adopted and changed into the Roman alphabet which we use today.
13 The Phoenician Alphabet
14 The Israelites is considered to be the father of the nation. He and his household left the Mesopotamian city of and settled in. The land of contained rocky hills and desert, fertile plains, and grassy slopes, with the best farming in the
15 Abraham s Journey to Canaan
16 The Israelites The Hebrews believed in one God, or Jehovah. Their belief in one God, or, made them different than the surrounding cultures. God made a or agreement with telling him that he would make a great nation from Abraham s descendants if they would remain faithful to him. Abraham s Journey from Ur to Canaan (Jozsef Molnar, 1850)
17 Isaac was the subject of the most difficult test of Abraham's faith: G-d commanded Abraham to sacrifice Isaac as a burnt offering. (Gen 22). This test is known in Jewish tradition as the (the Binding, a reference to the fact that Isaac was bound on the altar). Isaac and Isaac
18 Jacob Jacob and and Jacob (Israel) wrestled with God sons and grandsons become the fathers of the
19 The Israelites Abraham s grandson Jacob, also known as, raised twelve sons in Canaan, each led a separate family group or tribe which became the 12 tribes of Israel and would become known as the Israelites.
20 Sojourn in Egypt BC Joseph Interpreter of dreams Coat of many colors Sold into slavery Prime Minister of Egypt
21 The Israelites During a severe drought in Canaan the Israelites or moved to Egypt. The Israelites lived in the Egyptian province of Goshen peacefully for several generations until the pharaohs decided to enslave them.
22 The Israelites The Hebrews life became hard as they were forced into hard labor. The Israelites believed that God would send them a deliver to lead them out of Egypt., a Hebrew raised in the royal palace would reject his Egyptian upbringing and lead his people out of captivity.
23 Departure of the Israelites (David Roberts, 1829)
24 The Israelites Moses would rally his people and lead them out of Egypt in a mass. During their time in the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, God renewed his covenant with the Israelite people and gave them the. In return for their loyalty the Israelites were promised the land of.
25 The Land of Canaan
26 The Israelites "The Children of Israel Crossing the Jordan" (Gustave Dore 1883) Moses would die before reaching the land of Canaan and the Israelites would be led across the River Jordan by, their new leader. The Israelites would spend over 200 years trying to gain control of the region. They at first would be ruled by a set of, who were temporary leaders in times of danger.
27 The Children of Israel Crossing the Jordan" (Gustave Dore 1883)
28 Possible Route of the Exodus
29 The Israelites The Israelites would spend over 200 years trying to gain control of the region. They at first would be ruled by a set of, who were temporary leaders in times of danger. The 12 tribes of Israel would settle in Canaan and divide the land among themselves.
30 The Israelites Saul and David (Rembrandt, 1670) Around 1020 B.C. the Israelite tribes would face pressure from the attacking. They would unite under one king,. Saul would be unable to defeat the Philistines. He would be succeeded by a shepherd named. David had once fought the Philistine giant named,.
31 The Israelites King David Playing the Harp (Gerard van Honthorst, 1622 David would take the throne of Israel in 1012 B.C. He set up a religious and political capital at, expanded Israel's borders, and centralized the government. Israel's borders would encompass all of from the desert to the sea.
32 King David s Kingdom
33 The Israelites David s son would rule after his father and would bring Israel to the height of its power. Solomon was responsible for building the in Jerusalem. It would become the center of worship in the Kingdom of Israel.
35 Solomon s Temple
36 The Israelites After the death of Solomon the ten northern tribes separated and formed an independent with a capital at, and the two southern tribes were known as the
37 The Israelites In 722 and 721 B.C. Israel was conquered by the who sent many Israelites to parts of the Assyrian Empire. It was during this time that they would merge or into surrounding cultures, losing their identity.
38 Assyrian Exile of Israel
39 The Israelites The Kingdom of Judah remained independent until the of Babylon defeated the Assyrians and conquered Judah. The people of Judah (Jews) were taken to Babylon. Their captivity lasted until the conquered Babylon and they were allowed to return to Judah.
40 Babylonian Exile By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, we also wept, when we remembered Zion. We hung our lyres on the willows in its midst. For there those who carried us away captive required of us a song; and those who tormented us required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion. How shall we sing the Lord's song in a foreign land? If I forget you, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. If I do not remember you, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I do not set Jerusalem above my highest joy. (Psalms 137:1-6)
41 Babylon in the lion s den. Daniel survives, prompting Nebuchadnezzar to issue a decree forbidding anyone to blaspheme or speak against the God of Israel. Writing on the wall. Nebuchadnezzar to Belshazar The last king of Babylon, Belshazzar, celebrates, thinking he has defeated the prophecy of the Israelites when the seventy years are over.
42 Judah s Exile to Babylon
43 The Return In 370 BC, issues a decree allowing all the indigenous peoples that had been exiled by the now-defunct Babylonian empire to go back to their homeland Many Jews return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple Major prophets: and Haggai Period ends with conquest of the region
44 Judaism God rules the world and all people are his servants (whether they know it or not) God created nature, but. God is good and.
45 Covenant, Law and Prophets God made a with his people when they left Egypt. God promised to protect his people if they followed his (Judaism s foundational laws) lasted from 1000s BC to 400s BC when the people were threatened or conquered. Faithlessness would bring catastrophe and obedience would bring mercy. Eventually all nations would come to the God of Israel to find peace.
46 While Judaism requires concern for all humanity, its laws prevented complete into surrounding communities. This may have fostered hostility, but also helped maintain identity after the loss of independence.
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