# Verification and Validation

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1 Verification and Validation Part III : Proof-based Verification Burkhart Wolff Département Informatique Université Paris-Sud / Orsay

2 " Now, can we build a Logic for Programs??? 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 2

3 " Now, can we build a Logic for Programs??? Well, yes! There are actually lots of possibilities... " We consider the Hoare-Logic (Sir Anthony Hoare...), technically an inference system PL + E + A + Hoare 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 3

4 " Basis: IMP, (following Glenn Wynskell's Book) We have the following commands (cmd) # the empty command SKIP # the assignment x:== E (x # V) # the sequential compos. c 1 ; c 2 # the conditional IF cond THEN c 1 ELSE c 2 # the loop WHILE cond DO c where c, c 1, c 2, are cmd's, V variables, E an arithmetic expression, cond a boolean expr. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 4

5 " Core Concept: A Hoare Triple consisting... # of a pre-condition Pre # a post-condition Post # and a piece of program cmd written: {Pre} cmd {Post} P and Q are formulas over the variables V, so they can be seen as set of possible states. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 5

6 Hoare Logic vs. Symbolic Execution HL is also based notion of a symbolic state. state sym = V " Set(D) As usual, we denote sets by x E where E is a boolean expression. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 6

7 Hoare Logic vs. Symbolic Execution However, instead of: σ::state sym Pre(σ(X 1 ),..., σ (X n ) cmd σ::state sym Post(σ(X 1 ),..., σ (X n ) where Pre and Post are sets of states. we just write: {Pre} cmd {Post} where Pre and Post are expressions over program variables. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 7

8 Hoare Logic vs. Symbolic Execution Intuitively: means: {Pre} cmd {Post} If a program cmd starts in a state admitted by Pre if it terminates, that the program must reach a state that satisfies Post. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 8

9 " PL + E + A + Hoare (simplified binding) at a glance: 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 9

10 " The rule for the empty statement: well, states do not change... Therefore, valid states remain valid. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 10

11 " The rule for the assignment: Example (1): {1!x x!10} x:== x+2 {3!x x!12} 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 11

12 " The rule for the assignment Example (2): {true} x:== 2 {x=2} 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 12

13 " The rule for the conditional: is essentially a case-split. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 13

14 " The rule for the conditional: Example (3): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 14

15 " The rule for the conditional: Example (3): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 15

16 " The rule for the sequence: essentially relational composition on state sets. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 16

17 The rule for the sequence. Example (4): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 17

18 The rule for the sequence. Example (4): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 18

19 " The rule for the while-loop. Critical: The invention of an Invariant P. If we have an invariant (a predicate that remains stable during loop taversal), then it must be true after the loop. And if states after the loop exist, the negation of the condition must be true. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 19

20 " The consequence rule: Reflects the intuition that P' is a subset of legal states P and Q is a subset of legal states Q'. The only rule that is not determined by the syntax of the program; it can be applied anywhere in the (Hoare-) proof. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 20

21 " The consequence rule: Example (5) (continuation of Example ()): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 21

22 " A handy derived rule (False): Proof: by induction over cmd! (At the Blackboard) A very handy corollary of this and the consequence is rule (FalseE): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 22

23 " Another handy corollary of (False): Proof: by consequence, while-rule, P and cond-contradiction, False-rule. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 23

24 " Yet another handy corollary of (consequence): Proof: by consequence and the fact that P =P' infers P P' Note: We will apply this rule implicitly, allowing local massage of pre- and postconditions. 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 24

25 " Example (6): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 25

26 " Example (6): Proof: 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 26

27 " Example (6): Note: Hoare-Logic is a calculus for partial correctness; on non-terminating programs, it is possible to prove anything! 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 27

28 " Example (7): 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 28

29 " Example (7): Proof: where I'' = I'[x x+1] and where we need solutions to: A = true I B = I \$(x < 2) 2! x C = I x <2 I'[x x+1] D = I' I 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 29

30 " Example (7): Proof: A = true I B = I \$(x < 2) 2! x C = I x <2 I'[x x+1] D = I' I # I must be true, this solves A, B, D # we are fairly free with an invariant I'; e.g. x! 2 or x! 5 would do the trick! 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 30

31 " Example (7): Remarks: # This proof rises the idea of particular construction method of Hoare-Proofs, which can be automated: - apply the consequence rule only at entry points of (the body of) loops (deterministic!) - extract the implications used in these consequence rule - try to find solutions for these implications (worst case: ask the user...) # Essence of all: constraint solving of formulas... 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 31

32 Hoare Logic: Summary "... in the essence, the Hoare Calculus is an entirely syntactic game that constructs a labelling of the program with assertions P, Q, etc... 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 32

33 Hoare-Logic : Summary " Note: Validity is a «partial correctness notion» proof under condition that the program terminates. For non-terminating programs, the calculus allows to prove anything " The Proof-Method is therefore two-staged: # verify termination (find mesures for loops and recursive calls that strictly decrease for each iteration) # prove partial correctness of the spec for the program via a Hoare-Calculus (or a wp-calculus)! total correctness = partial correctness + termination 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 33

34 Hoare Logic: Summary Theorem: Correctness of the Hoare-Calculus Theorem: Relative Completeness of the Hoare-Calculus where we define for a given semantic function C: 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 34

35 Hoare Logic: Summary Formal Proof # Can be very hard up to infeasible (no one will probably ever prove correctness of MS Word!) # Proof Work typically exceeds Programming work by a factor 10! # Tools and Tool-Chains necessary # Makes assumptions on language, method, toolcorrectness, too! 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 35

36 Hoare Logic: Outlook " Can we be sure, that the logical systems are consistent? Well, yes, practically. (See Hales Article in AMS: Formal Proof, # Can we ever be sure, that a specification means what we intend? Well, no. But when can we ever be entirely sure that we know what we have in mind? But at least, we can gain confidence validating specs, i.e. by animation and test, thus, by experimenting with them... 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 36

37 Verification : Test or Proof Test # Requires Testability of Programs (initialisable, reproducible behaviour, sufficient control over non-determinism) # Can be also Work-Intensive!!! # Requires Test-Tools # Requires a Formal Specification # Makes Test-Hypothesis, which can be hard to justify! 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 37

38 Validation : Test or Proof (end) Test and Proof are Complementary... "... and extreme ends of a continuum : from static analysis to formal proof of deep system properties " In practice, a good verification plan will be necessary to get the best results with a (usually limited) budget!!! # detect parts which are easy to test # detect parts which are easy to prove # good start: maintained formal specification! this leaves room for changes in the conception!... and for different implementation of sub-components 05/11/14 B. Wolff - Ingé. 2 - Proof-Based Verification I 38

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