1 Muslim Friendly Tourism Best Practises in Non-Muslim countries By Dr. Mohamed battour
2 Outline Muslim friendly destination Treat Muslim tourists with respect Promote Taiwan to Muslim Travelers Some suggestions to Taiwan
3 Muslim Friendly- Halal Tourism?
4 Halal It means permissible according to Islamic teaching (Quran & Sunnah). Halal Tourism all Tourism activities, facilities, actions and objectives are permissible according to Islamic Law (Shariah).
5 Muslim Friendly Tourism It is an attempt to make the tourism experience enjoyable to Muslim Travelers and allowing them to perform religious duties.
6 Muslim Friendly Destination Muslim Travellers become sensitive to consume Halal products and services (Shariah compliant) awareness among Muslim increased to select Halal Travel options for their needs from the common of options currently offered
7 Muslim Friendly Destination Non-Muslim destination offered Muslim friendly solutions/options to scenario seen as problematic by Muslim travellers. Why? How to be?
8 Global Muslim Market
9 Global Muslim Travel Index
10 Global Muslim Travel Index
11 Global Muslim Travel Index
12 Global Muslim Travel Index
13 Muslim Travel Shopping Index
14 How to be Muslim Friendly Destination?
15 How to be Muslim Friendly Destination? Need to have (Ne) Good to have (G) Nice to have (Ni)
16 Muslim Friendly Hotel
18 Hotel Room Quran copy (Ne) Qibla Direction (Ne) Prayer mat (Ne) Prayer timetable (Ne) Family-friendly viewing TV (Ni) Alcohol-free beverages in fridge (Ne) Water usage friendly washroom (G)
19 Hotel Room Quran Copy Ne Ne
20 Hotel Room Qibla Direction
21 Hotel Room Qibla Direction Ne
22 Ne Hotel Room Prayer mat Ne
23 Hotel Room alcohol-free in mini fridge Ne Ni
24 Hotel Room family-friendly viewing TV Ni
25 Hotel Room Water usage friendly washroom G
26 Hotel services Certified Halal Food / kitchens(ne) Well trained staff to satisfy Muslims Female staff for women Ni Women only-floor/ family only-floor Session for ladies in swimming pool/gym Prayer Room (Surau) Ramadan services & facilities (Ne)
27 Halal food
28 Halal food it is not allowed for Muslim followers to eat Pork or pork by products Animals that were dead prior to slaughtering/carrion Animals not slaughtered properly Not slaughtered with pronouncing name of Allah Carnivorous animals, birds of prey Blood and blood by products / Alcohol
29 Halal cooking What are the basic requirements for Halal cooking? all the ingredients used in cooking should be in accordance with what is halal (permissible foods)
30 Halal cooking Are there any cooking methods that may not be used in halal cooking? No particular methods of cooking are forbidden
31 Halal cooking Must someone following halal use special equipment or prepare equipment for cooking in a special way? Can someone who follows halal use dishes, pots, pans, etc. from a kitchen that also prepares non-halal food? No, just clean the utensils before use.
32 Halal cooking Are all fresh fruits and vegetables acceptable to eat? Are all grains acceptable as halal? So long as the fruit or vegetable, grains has not be injected with or mixed with a non-halal product, ingredient. all fruits and vegetables, grains are halal to eat.
33 Muslim Friendly Airport
34 Muslim Friendly Airport Prayer Rooms Washing space is provided to perform ablution Availability of Halal Restaurants Water friendly toilets
35 Other supply side themes 1. Shopping malls 2. Attractions/Theme parks 3. Conference and Event Venues 4. Sports events Prayer Rooms Washing space is provided to perform ablution Availability of Halal Restaurants Water friendly toilets
36 Spas & Wellness centers Separate facilities for males and females. Male staff attending to male customers, and females attending to females. Muslim-friendly dress code for staff. Halal-certified products (as far as possible)
37 Healthcare facilities and services Doctors and nurses of the same gender as the patient Halal medications (as far as possible) Prayer Rooms Rooms marked with the Qiblah direction. Availability of Halal Food Water friendly toilets
38 Travel agents/tour operators Need to have Trained Staff to understand and cater to Muslim clients Need to have trained Staff to look for Muslim friendly services when putting together packages
39 Human capital 1. Management 2. Customer service staff (i.e. front desk and reception staff) 3. Information Centre staff (Call center/ tourist information) 4. F&B staff at hotels and restaurants (kitchen staff)
40 Muslim Friendly Phone Application
41 Muslim Friendly Phone Application
42 Muslim Friendly tourism S
43 Muslim Friendly Tourism S
44 Muslim Friendly Tourism S
45 Muslim Friendly Tourism S
46 Halal Cruise
47 Halal Cruise No alcohol, pork-related products and gambling on board. Segregated sports centers, single-sex spa facilities. Separate baths and prayer rooms
48 Halal Holiday
49 Halal Holiday A travel package in the tourism industry which provided full holiday services in accordance with Islamic law Halal resorts and hotels include separate pools, spa and leisure facilities for men and women an open beach which separates males from females mixed beach areas for families
50 Taiwan as Muslim Friendly Destination 1. Does the government have any special initiatives or strategies to spread MFT awareness in tourism sector on both demand and supply side? 2. Are there any plans to take specific initiatives by the government in the area of MFT in the next few years?
51 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect?
52 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect? Always be ready to answer questions regarding prayer times, Qibla direction, near by mosques and Halal restaurants Educate Staff about cross-cultural communication, where are Muslim/ Arab country? Basic knowledge about Islam ("there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is a messenger of Allah. )
53 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect? Memorize some Arab/ Islamic words. كيف حالك How are you? Kaef Halalk أهال وسهال Welcome ahlan washlan صباح الخير Good morning sabah alekhaer السالم عليكم peace upon you aslam alekom
54 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect? Be ready for customization! Female taxi driver, female staff for family, session for female only in Gym, swimming pool.. Especially for Arab Tourists. Be ready with Arab cuisine
55 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect? Show respect to prayer facilities i.e take off shoes in prayer room. Smile Smile Smile
56 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect? Better not to shake Hand! Men to women, women to men. Don t discuss. Shia Vs Sunnah, politics. Arab revolution, Don t cross front of Muslims during praying
57 How to treat Muslim tourists with respect? Never look at women dressing Niqab (cloth that covers the face as a part of sartorial hijab) in a sarcastic way and make fun of that.
58 How to Promote Taiwan to Muslim Travelers?
59 How to Promote Taiwan to Muslim Travelers?
60 How to Promote Taiwan to Muslim Travelers?
61 Viral Marketing
62 How to Promote Taiwan to Muslim Travelers?
63 Billboard during Hajj and Ramadan Month Annual pilgrimage to Mecca and the largest mass gathering in the world (2 million Muslims from 183 countries)
64 Sponsorship during Hajj and Ramadan Month
65 Suggestions to Taiwan Innovative attraction for Muslims i.e mosque, resort, cruise Use technology image to promote Taiwan Joint tourism marketing, training with tourism (IT+Tour) Tax free during summer holiday.
Caring for a Muslim Patient with Mental Health Problems Religion: Islam Participants: Muslims Basic elements: the Five Pillars: PILLAR ONE: The Declaration of Faith (SHAHADA), by verbally promising the
Islam Respecting Diversity Put Yourself In My Shoes! Slide 2 The country with the largest Muslim population is. a. India b. Indonesia c. Saudi Arabia d. Iraq Slide 3 Who is American? Slide 4 Most Muslims
Analyzing Marketing Macro Environment of Islamic Tourism Industry in Malaysia JUNAINAH IDRIS Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor firstname.lastname@example.org SITI SYUHADA ABD RAHMAN Kolej Universiti Islam
ISBN 978-93-84422-37-0 11th International Conference on Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences and Corporate Social Responsibilities (AHSCSR-17) Dec. 25-26, 2017 Bangkok (Thailand) The Meaning of Muslim-Friendly
Islamic Beliefs and Practices Standard 7.2.3 Objective/Goal for learning today: To learn the Qur an and the Sunnah provide Muslims with important rules and examples on how to live a moral life. What system???
PRIVATE SECTOR PERSPERCTIVE ON REGULATING FT ACCOODATION ESTABLISHENT Hasya Amana Riyanto, Bcom BD Director Sofyan Hospitality International HALAL HOSPITALITY ANAGEENT AND CONSULTANT PROFILE HALAL TOURIS
Egypt Meghan McCulloch Period 1. LANGUAGE: Arabic LOCATION: Northeastern POPULATION: 60 million RELIGION: Islam, Coptic Christian, and other Christian denominations. One key event is the unification of
Growing up Muslim A PRESENTATION BY MS. RIZVI By now you all should have learned about the basics of Islam through your course of study with Ms. Sanfilippo. Hopefully I can also shed some light on my religion
MUSLIM FRIENDLY TOURISM (MFT) ZULKIFLY MD SAID DIRECTOR GENERAL ISLAMIC TOURISM CENTRE (ITC) ISLAMIC TOURISM CENTRE Approved by the government on 20 February 2009 Officially launched on 16 March 2009 Registered
NEW DIRECTIONS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR: ISLAMIC TOURISM IN THE OIC COUNTRIES ORGANISATION OF ISLAMIC COOPERATION STATISTICAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTRE FOR ISLAMIC COUNTRIES (SESRIC)
Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Where is the Arabian Peninsula located? a. the northwest corner of Asia c. the northeast corner of Asia
A STUDY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ISLAMIC HOTEL: ASSESSING ON KNOWLEDGE AND RELIGIOSITY Junainah Idris Azri Rizal Md Razali Business Management Department, Faculty of Management & Muamalah, International
JUDAISM MINI-QUIZ STUDY GUIDE The quiz will consist of approximately 20 short questions. Use the BBC Islam Guide as your resource. To be prepared, know the answers to the following. Questions are organized
Developing Halal Tourism Route In Sountern Thailand: An Exploratory Study Tawat Noipom 1 Ruslee Nuh 2 Reviewed by: Associate Prof. Dr. Salmy Edawati Yaacob Abstract Halal tourism is a global phenomenon
Islam Ms. McPeak What do you know about Islam? Islam Quick Facts *Adherents: 1.3-1.6 billion people and In North America there are 5-7 million muslims *Size Rank: Fastest growing religion in the world,
Key Skills to be covered: Taken from Level 1 Taken from Level 2 AT1: Learning about religion Pupils I can retell some parts of religious stories. I recognise religious people. I recognise religious places.
Business Etiquette, Languages & Culture Page 1 of 6 Business Etiquette, Languages & Culture Business Practices A lot of time has to be spent getting to know people and establishing relationships before
Palliative Care - A Muslim Perspective Ms Rehanah Sadiq Muslim Chaplain Copyright Reflection Training Ltd (UK) 2005 Muslim Beliefs 6 articles of faith Allah Arabic word for God Angels (unseen realm) Scriptures/books
World Islamic Tourism Forum (WITF), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 12-13 July 2011 VALUE OF ISLAMIC TOURISM OFFERING Perspectives from the Turkish Experience Teoman Duman, Ph.D. International Burch University
SPONSORSHIP PLAN Allah (SWT) says... And who is better in speech than he who says: My Lord is Allah (believes in His Oneness), and then stands firm (acts upon His Order), and invites (men) to Allah s (Islamic
Islam About the topic In this topic pupils will learn about their Islamic sisters and brothers, how they live as a family and how they worship Where this topic fits in This topic will be taught discretely
Big Idea Islam emerges in the Arabian Peninsula. Essential Question What are the beliefs of Islam? 1 Words To Know Islam a monotheistic religion that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula (Middle East) in the
1st International Conference on Tourism Gastronomy and Tourist Destination (ICTGTD 2016) What Makes Muslim Travellers Satisfied? An Empirical Study of Indonesian Muslim Travelers to West Europe on a Group
As I Enter Think about: Holy Quotes! You decide- is it from the bible, the Torah, or the Quran? Agenda: Notes on Islam Notes on Judaism Jerusalem Timeline Quotations from Holy Books Determine whether the
Shariah Compliance Hospitality Building Design: A Malay Muslim Oriented Architecture Noor Hanita Abdul Majid 1, Zuraini Denan 1 Fauziah Hanum Abdullah 1 and Mohd Syukri Mohd Noor 1 Department of Architecture,
FACETS OF HALAL INDUSTRY Dato Dr. Ismail Ibrahim Chairman, Global Integrity Products & Services Sdn Bhd World Halal Research Summit 2010 KLCC Malaysia 23 June 2010, 10 Rejab 1431H Scope Introduction Principles
Name: Date: Block: Comparing Christianity, Judaism, and Islam Standard: SSWH5 The student will trace the origins and expansion of the Islamic World between 600 CE to 1300 CE. f. Analyze the relationship
DUBAI THE CAPITAL OF THE ISLAMIC ECONOMY THE VISION The ecosystem of the Islamic economy harmonizes ethics with innovation, and combines real commitment with actual development objectives in order to meet
UNDERSTANDING THE SHARI AH PRINCIPLES OF INVESTMENT & WEALTH GENERATIONS Organized by: Federation of Investment Managers Malaysia Date: 9 May 2012 Venue: Bukit Kiara Equestrian and Country Resort Arbayah
World Religion Review Each slide will have information on all three religions. Where: Region of the world religion began All three religions originated in: Southwest Asia Founder/ Leader Important Person
Meat of the People of the Book (part 2 of 2) Description: Two lessons will shed light on the Islamic rules and regulations of slaughtered meats and the prevailing practices in Western slaughterhouses and
Interview with an Islamic Australian law enforcement officer Interviewer: Thanks for chatting with me Ali. The first thing I d like to ask about is the Muslim faith. I m sure you re aware that there are
A CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION S GUIDE TO ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS PRACTICES Council on American-Islamic Relations The Council on American-Islamic Relations is a non-profit, membership organization dedicated to presenting
Islam An Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they call Allah. Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur an, is the word of
THE RISE OF ISLAM U N I T I I I MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET From Mecca in modern day Saudi Arabia Muhammad was a middle aged merchant who claimed the Angel Gabriel asked him to recite the word of God. As a Merchant,
The World Of Islam By: Hazar Jaber Islam : literally means Submission, Peace. Culture Politics Why is it complicated? The story how it all began Muhammad (pbuh) was born in Mecca (570-632 AD) At age 40
The Muslim Community in Scouting S Item Code FS185024 Dec/02 Edition no 2 0845 300 1818 The values, ethos, educational focus and international scope of the Movement are all compatible with Muslim teaching.
How To Better Serve Muslim Patients/Students Abdul S. Mukati, CCC-SLP. Dr. Ovetta Harris, CCC-SLP. Doctoral Candidate Associate Professor Purpose: To provide information Generate awareness amongst Speech-Language
Non-fiction: Islam The Principles of Islam Islam The Principles of Islam About 1/5 of the world s population 1 follows a religion called Islam. These people are called Muslims. There are about 6-8 million
Abraham s Genealogy 100-1500 HAGAR Islam-Quran ABRAHAM Judaism-Torah SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob/Israel Esau Muhammad (the last prophet) Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam Mecca (Muslims)
MAGAZINE What Indonesia teaches us about Islamic Marketing CULTURE ARINDAM BHATTACHARYYA, HEAD OF STRATEGY, MEDIACOM INDONESIA 30 MAR 2017 Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the world. But to really
I. The Rise of Islam A. Arabs come from the Arabian Peninsula. Most early Arabs were polytheistic. They recognized a god named Allah and other gods. 1. Mecca and Muhammad Mecca was a great trading center
Middle East 830,000 square miles Surrounding: Jordan Iraq Kuwait Qatar United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) Oman Yemen The Arabic writing is the Islamic statement of faith, "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad
Exercise 2: Are the following statements true or false? The Middle East is a region which is located in ;veral continents. 2) The Middle East is also known as the Arabic ( Peninsula. 3) The Middle East
Health Care and Cultural Understanding within the Arab, Middle Eastern, Muslim and South Asian Communities 1 Who We Are The Arab-American Family Support Center is a non-profit organization that empowers
Objectives Understand how Muhammad became the prophet of Islam. Describe the teachings of Islam. Explain how Islam helped shape the way of life of its believers. Terms and People Bedouins nomadic herders
The UAE A VISITOR S GUIDE The UAE has come a long way from its desert wilderness to a sophisticated destination highly soughtafter by business and leisure travellers from all over the world. THE UAE: A
4 The beliefs and practices of Islam are a way of life for Muslims. CHAPTER The Teachings of Islam 9.1 Introduction In Chapter 8, you learned about the prophet Muhammad and the early spread of Islam. Now
Green Academy Trust GREEN CRESCENT PRIMARY SCHOOL PROSPECTUS FOR 2010/11 Page 1 of 8 WELCOME TO GREEN CRESCENT PRIMARY SCHOOL PROSPECTUS INFORMATION FOR PARENTS 2010/2011 PRINCIPAL Maulana Abdullah Khan
ISLAM ON BACKGROUND Prof. Waleed el-ansary University of South Carolina Department of Religious Studies GABRIEL Hadith of Gabriel Link to pdf file 3 ASPECTS TAWHID Tawhid as doctrine of unity (also sometimes
Product Branding and Market Development Global Growth Opportunities Daud Vicary Abdullah 1 Agenda Facts and Figures Spreading the Word About Islamic Finance Opportunities Challenges to Development 2 What
Monotheistic Religions Judaism, Christianity, Islam Religion A system of belief or worship built around a God or gods or goddesses code of ethics a philosophy of life Monotheistic belief in only one god
INFORMATION and GUIDANCE ON RAMADHAN 10/11 th August 2010 9/10 th September 2010 INTRODUCTION This guide provides staff and managers with information regarding the Muslim month of Ramadan. Fasting during
Working with Muslim Patients HIV and Cultural Health December 9, 2016 Hasina Mohyuddin, MBA, MS Agenda Muslims & Cultural Competence Muslim Demographics Religious Beliefs Views on Illness & Care Religious
Introduction to Islam THE OPENING In the name of God, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful! Praise be to God, Lord of the Universe, the Mercygiving, the Merciful. Ruler on the Day of Judgment! You do
Implementing Big Scale Halal Tourism in Malaysia Siti Halimah Ab Hamid, Yuhanis Abdul Aziz, Azmawani Abd Rahman, Mass Hareeza Ali To Link this Article: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v8-i16/5134 DOI:
Ramadan in Dubai Guide Photos by ShuGa Photography www.shugaphotography.com A 30-day period to slow down your life and reflect upon what matters. That is essence of Ramadan in Dubai, and it s one of the
The Rise of Islam The Arabian Peninsula Farming limited in Arabia Commerce lively Mecca, near Red Sea, most important of coastal towns Middle East: Climate Regions Fresh Groundwater Sources Mountain Ranges
The Council on American-Islamic Relations is a non-profit, membership organization dedicated to presenting an Islamic perspective on issues of importance to the American public. CAIR Research Center conducts
THE ISLAMIC WORLD THROUGH 1450 Settle in this is going to be a long one Pre-Islamic Bedouin Culture Well-established on the Arabian Peninsula, mostly nomadic, tribal, and polytheistic The Sheikh was the
By Syed Fida Hussain Bukhari Information secetary M.U.S 1 The role of Islamic centers By Syed Fida Hussain Bukhari Our topic of this article is the role is Islamic centers and by this we mean a masjid,
ANSCHE CHESED KASHRUT POLICY Scope Ansche Chesed s kashrut policy applies to All individuals and groups in the synagogue, including employees Everywhere on the synagogue s premises, including the sukkahs
Islam SLMS/09 Islam is the third of the three major monotheistic religions. It is descended from both Judaism and Christianity. People who practice the religion of Islam are known as Muslims, not Islams.
ISLAM & JUDAISM MAP HISTORY OF ISLAM Islam means peace through submission to the will of Allah. Those who practice the religion are called Muslims. There is only one God, Allah. Allah was symbolized by
בס"ד November, 2009 Dear Friend, The Davidman Family invites you to join us once again for another SPECTACULAR PESACH PROGRAM We have been successfully running English Speaking Pesach programs in Israel
Website: www.alrahma-mosque.com Liverpool Islamic Cultural Centre املركز الثقايف االسالمي ليفربول 31-29 هادرلي ستريت ليفربول 8/ بريطانيا 29-31 Hatherley Street Liverpool L8 2TJ UK Tel: 0151 709-2560 Fax:
Montreal Religious Site Project Canadian Islamic Center Al-Jamieh By Mumtaz H. Rehman Montreal Religious Site Project 1 Contents 1.0 The Institution 1.1 History 1.2 Description of the Centre 1.3 Objectives
Islam: Beliefs and Teachings CORE KNOWLEDGE: 1. What is tawhid? Tawhid is the oneness and unity of God. Muslims repeat this idea daily in the Shahadah. No one else has God s qualities or attributes his
Index 235 Index A Abee Lahab 113, 233-238 Abee Lahab, wife of 204 Ablution 98, 113, 126-127, 131, 238 Abraham 16, 26, 97-98, 105, 113, 118, 124, 183-184, 233, 235 Abrogation of Quran 93, 95 Abu Bakr 20
What is Shariah Compliant Hospital Criteria and Scope? Raimi Rahmat Yahaya To Link this Article: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v8-i5/4483 DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i5/4483 Received: 10 March 2018, Revised:
3 Major Monotheistic Religions the Abrahamic Religions Monotheism a belief in one god The 3 major monotheistic religions are: Judaism Christianity Islam Overview All 3 monotheistic religions view Jerusalem
How Does Islam Develop? Questions to Consider What is the nature of G-d? What does God want? Which areas of the world are holy? How is Islamic tradition passed down? What is the role of women? How should
Chapter 9: Islam & the Arab Empire, 600 1000 Lesson 1: The First Muslims World History Bell Ringer #39 11-28-17 Write down what you know about Islam in the lines provided below. It Matters Because Early
Chapter 1: Merits of Good Akhlaq 1. In how many groups can we divide people? A. Two Groups: good people and bad people 2. What makes some people good and some bad? A. Their Manners 3. What is the exact
ISLAMIC COMMUNITY MILLI GORUS SYDNEY INC. 2015 ANNUAL ACTIVITY REPORT Educational Activities Saturday Turkish School: 70 students are enrolled into our Saturday Turkish school. 5 teachers and 1 secretary
What Is This Module About? Do you believe in God? What name do you use when you refer to Him? What religion are you a member of? What are the basic teachings of your church? Do you know that the Philippines
The Guinness Storehouse Story MY JOURNEY ARRIVING AT A BUILDING SITE DEVELOPING A WORLD CLASS GUINNESS HOME OUR BRAND PURPOSE THE ORIGINAL VISION Elevate GIG & reflect major commitment to tourism... Link
xiii Preface It is a great pleasure and honour to introduce the Emerging Research on Islamic Marketing and Tourism in the Global Economy book to academic societies and scholars in the field. Islamic studies
TURKEY SUMMER RETREAT 8 day rejuvenating Hatha Yoga retreat in Datça, Mugla Join Yasemin an Ravi for a week in the Turkish sunshine TURKEY YOGA RETREAT: 8 DAY REJUVENATING HATHA YOGA To take a peaceful
Islamic World Standard: Trace the origins and expansion of the Islamic World between 600 CE and 1300 CE. Essential Question: What were the origins and expansion of the Islamic World? Islam Element: Explain
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY by Dr. Zakir Naik Al-Qur'an 3:64 Al-Qur'an 20:25-28 Greet you in the same manner as Jesus (pbuh) greeted in Hebrew Luke 24:36 Sholam alay kum or Islamic greeting
USEFUL INFORMATION GENERAL INFORMATION From the tramway station in Avenue de France Agdal, you go always straight on Fal Ould Oumeir Street in the direction of Badr Mosque. When you see a restaurant called
The Islamic Religion Distribution and Diffusion of Islam Spread out of Medina through military conquest and relocation diffusion. Concentrated in the Middle East, Iberian Peninsula, and Northern Africa.