1 Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds: The Beneficent, The Merciful: Owner of the Day of Judgement... The Qur ān, surah 1:1-7 The Qur'ān (which means recitation) is the holy book of Islam.
2 how, where, and when Islam began...
3 Under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad (c CE), and his successors, Islam spread rapidly throughout northern Africa, Europe, and much of Asia. Immediate needs: places to worship holy books
4 Upon his conversion to Islam, al-amin called himself Muhammad. - b. 570 CE CE Muhammad received revelations that led him to establish the religion called Islam (Mecca) CE He flees to Medina, built a house for the converted thus establishing the first Mosque CE He returns to Mecca with an army of 10,000. Islam: submission to God s will Muslims: those who have submitted to God
5 The Kaaba, Mecca Symbolic center of the Islamic world - - at the time of Al-Amin s conversion, worship to God was centered - around a shrine in Mecca at the sacred site of the Ka'bah - - A cubical textile-draped shrine said to have been built by Adam - and after the Deluge rebuilt by Abraham & Ishmael - _ Muhammad destroys pagan idols - - Becomes direction of prayer, ultimate destination of the hajj
6 Hijira emigration, Mohammad's flight from Mecca to Medina. Met with hostility and forced to flee to Medina, There he built a house that became a gathering place for the converted first Islamic mosque. 630 CE, returned to Mecca with an army of 10k, Emptied the shrine (Ka'bah)...
7 Muhammad s act of emptying the Kaaba of its pagan idols instituted the fundamental concept of aniconism Aniconism: the avoidance of figural imagery in Islamic Art, particularly the representation of figures in religious texts.
8 from the Khamsa (five poems) of Nizami c.1494 Hammam- bathhouse, imp. social center frequently located near a mosque.
9 Islamic art consists of non-figural ornament, complex geometric designs, scrolling vines, pattern, organic forms, and script.
10 The Holy Qur'an is said to have been revealed to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, thus viewed as inspired. The revelations were memorized so that he could repeat and recite them.
11 Since the manufacture of paper was unknown to the Arabs, Muhammad had the revelations written down by scribes on primitive materials then available. Shoulder blades of camels, palm leaves, wood & parchment Many scholars refuse to translate the Qur'an, considering Arabic its purest form.
12 The Opening, the first surah of the Qur'an, among the most recited words on earth. Repeated more than once in all 5 prayers. 114 Surahs Often written in complex patterns to delight the eye
13 Calligraphy The art of fine hand lettering is held in high esteem. Since the Qur an is believed to reveal the word of God, it must be written accurately, with devotion and embellishment. Tugra-imperial ciphers, figure
14 The Qur'an was usually written on treated animal skin called parchment and vellum (or calfskin).
15 Two roles of the written word: 1- convey verbal information 2- delight the eye Formal Kufic script = blocky, angular, strong upright strokes & long horizontals. Clear + practical. Black ink pigments, and gold on vellum
16 -Apprentice scribes had to learn secret formulas for inks & paints -Become skilled in the proper ways to sit, breath, and manipulate their tools -Calligraphers enjoyed the highest status of all artists -absorb the complex literary traditions and number symbolism By 10 th cent. More than 20 cursive scripts had come into use.
17 One of the most beautiful forms of calligraphy is known as naskhi,and was thought to have been revealed and taught to scribes in a vision.
18 Headings are in ornamental Kufic With a background of scrolling vines, while text is written horizontally + vertically in Kufic script. Artist: Attributed to Galinus, medical treatise Title: Arabic manuscript page Date: 1199
19 The Five Pillars (duties) of Islam 1. Repeat the creed (shahadah): No god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah Surah 33:40 2. Prayer (salat) toward Mecca five times a day. Surah 2: Charity (zakah), the obligation to give a percentage of one's income and the value of some Property. Surah 24: Fasting (sawm), especially during the month-long celebration of Ramadan. Surah 2: Pilgrimage (hajj). Once in a lifetime, every Muslim must make the journey to Mecca. Only illness and poverty are illicit excuses.
20 1. Repeat the creed (shahadah): No god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah Surah 33:40 Several national flags display the Shahada. Saudi Arabia Afghanistan, Somaliland Shahadah is a saying professing monotheism and accepting Muhammad as God's messenger. The shahadah is a set statement normally recited in Arabic
21 2. Prayer (salat) toward Mecca five times a day. Surah 2: 144 Fajr, Dhuhr, Asr, Magrib, and Isha'a. Fajr is said at dawn, Dhuhr is a noon prayer, Asr is said in the afternoon, Maghrib is the sunset prayer, and Isha'a is the evening prayer. All of these prayers are recited while facing Mecca. Muslims must wash themselves before prayer. They are also accompanied by a series of set positions including; bowing, standing, prostrating and sitting. the oldest standing minaret. Kairouan, Tunisia
22 3. Charity (zakah), the obligation to give a percentage of one's income and the value of some Property. Surah 24: 56
23 4. Fasting (sawm), especially during the month-long celebration of Ramadan. Surah 2: Many Muslims traditionally break their fasts in Ramadan with dates (like those offered by this date seller in Kuwait City), as was the recorded practice (Sunnah) of Muhammad.
24 5. Pilgrimage (hajj). Once in a lifetime, every Muslim must make the journey to Mecca. Only illness and poverty are illicit excuses. The hajj to the Kaaba, in Mecca, is an important practice in Islam.
25 The Ka' bah, Mecca (Saudi Arabia) Represents the center of the Islamic world. Its cubical form is draped with a black textile that Is embroidered with a few Qur'anic verses in gold.
26 Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Third most holy site in Islam 1. believed to be the site where Muhammad ascended to heaven 2. Jews & Christians associate the same site with King Solomon's Temple 3. place where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac
27 Aerial view of Haram Al-Sharif, Jerusalem noble sanctuary
28 Circular aisles, ambulatories, allow the visitor to circumambulate the rock Inscriptions from the Qur'an allow the visitor to read passages -oldest surviving written Qur'an verses - first monumental use of inscriptions in architecture
29 The Foundation Stone is the holiest site in Judaism. Just as Muslims pray towards the Kaaba at Mecca, the holiest site in Islam, Jews pray towards the Foundation Stone.
30 The First Temple in Jerusalem- Built by Jewish King Solomon to house the Ark of the Covenant. Spiritual center for Jewish life. Ancient Near East: Assyrians, Babylonians 10th Century BCE Nebuchadnezzar ( BCE) Notorious for his suppression of the Jews (Daniel)
31 The Foundation Stone - actual location of Mohammad's ascension - location of the holiest of holies (innermost Sanctuary of the 1 st temple of Jerusalem)
32 Western Wall It has been a site for Jewish prayer and pilgrimage for centuries; the earliest source mentioning Jewish attachment to the site dates back to the 4th century.
33 Dome of the Rock -Stands atop the temple mount in Jerusalem (Temple of Jerusalem once stood) -Site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac/Ishmael -Site of the creation of Adam -Site of the oldest text of the Qur'an to have survived -Spot where Muhammad ascended to heaven
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