5 BEFORE THE MONGOLS: PASTORALISTS IN HISTORY 1. Mounted warriors make nomadic empires possible 2. Xiongnu (in Mongolian steppes north of China) a. formed an early important confederacy b. from Manchuria to central Asia c. 3 rd to 2 nd centuries BCE 3. ruler Modun (r BCE) a. revolutionized nomadic life b. created a more centralized, hierarchical political system c. a divinely sanctioned ruler d. distinction between junior and senior clans becomes more important e. extracted tribute from both China and other nomads 4. Xiongnu Empire = a model copied by Turkic and Mongol empires
6 THE ARABS AND THE TURKS 1. nomads make greatest impact on world history between CE a. Arabs, Berbers, Turks and Mongols create largest empires b. Islam derived from largely nomadic Arabs, carried by the Turks c. Byzantium, Persia and China were ALL controlled by former nomadic people 2. Bedouin Arabs become effective fighters (camel saddle BCE) a. made controlling Arabian trade routes possible b. became Islamic shock troops
7 THE ARABS AND THE TURKS 3. Turkic-speaking nomads [from Mongolia and s. Siberia] a. gradual spread southward and westward b. series of short-lived nomadic empires from CE c. spread language and culture throughout Inner Asia d. convert to Islam between 10 th and 14 th centuries e. Seljuk Empire (11 th to 12 th centuries), claim Muslim title Sultan and exercise real power f. carry Islam to India and Anatolia
8 THE ARABS AND THE TURKS 4. Berber societies emerge in N. Africa with introduction of the camel a. adopt Islam b. Sanhaja Berbers build Almoravid Empire in the 1000s northwest Africa and Spain collapse by mid 12 th century
9 BREAKOUT: THE MONGOL EMPIRE A. The Mongols formed the greatest land-based empire in history following breakout of Mongolia in the 13 th century 1. extensive linkage with nomadic and agricultural societies 2. created far greater contact between Europe, China and Islamic world 3. total Mongol population only about 700, did not have a major cultural impact on the world a. did not spread their shamanism religion b. interested mostly in exploiting conquered peoples c. today, Mongol culture in Mongolia d. Mongol Empire was the last great nomadic state
11 1. Temujin ( ) empire s creator a. Mongols were feuding tribes and clans before very unstable 2. Temujin s rise: a. father was murdered before he was 10; was a minor chieftain b. allies with friends and other powerful clans Includes warriors from defeated tribes c. shifting series of alliances, betrayals, and military victories d. wins a reputation as a great leader Mongol tribal assembly recognizes Temujin as Chinggis Khan or Universal Ruler
12 4. Chinggis Khan begins expansion to hold together his new alliance a major attack on China started 50-year Mongol World War b. Chinggis, Ogodei, Mongke, and Khubilai created an empire that included China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, much of the Middle East and parts of Eastern Europe c. only setbacks eventually mark the empire s outer limits (*and geography!)
13 1. Mongol Empire grew without any grand scheme 2. by death of Chinggis goal of uniting the world 3. remember, Mongols vastly outnumbered by enemies 4. partly due to good timing and good luck a. China was again divided b. Abbasid Caliphate was in decline
14 5. military success due to well-led, disciplined & organized army a. military units of 10 / 100 / 1,000 / 10,000 warriors b. conquered tribes were broken up and scattered among units Took skilled inhabitants of settled lands to capital at Karakorum resulting in depopulation of some areas c. tribalism weakened by creation of the Imperial Guard d. flee in battle? recourse all others executed! e. leaders shared hardships with their troops (and wealth from plunder) Genghis took 10%, troops got 90%
15 5. military success due to well-led, disciplined & organized army f. elaborate tactics: encirclement, retreat, and deception [learning!] Employed the best siege engineers from Persia, China, and the Arab world Conquered China by destroying the countryside, reducing it to starvation g. vast numbers of conquered peoples were incorporated into army 6. Mongol reputation for brutality and destructiveness a. resist and be destroyed Massive psychological effect of techniques ex. Kingdom of Khwarizm murdered Mongol envoys oops
16 7. ability to mobilize resources a. elaborate census and taxation system b. good system of relay stations for communication and trade c. centralized bureaucracy began d. encouraged commerce and trade e. gave lower administrative posts to Chinese and Muslim officials f. practiced religious toleration
17 Create a chart that analyzes similarities and differences in the encounters between the Mongols and the Chinese, Persians and Russians. Be sure to include the following: a. state of the civilization on eve of invasion b. invasion dates c. Mongols responsible d. Goal(s) of invaders e. Diffusion remember it is a two-way street f. treatment of women g. important geographic locations and considerations h. and one other category of YOUR choosing
18 Create a chart that analyzes similarities and differences in the encounters between the Mongols and the Chinese, Persians and Russians. Be sure to include the following: a. state of the civilization on eve of invasion b. invasion dates c. Mongols responsible d. Goal(s) of invaders e. Diffusion remember it is a two-way street f. treatment of women g. important geographic locations and considerations h. and one other category of YOUR choosing write a thesis statement for the following prompt:
19 1) Why do pastoral peoples get a bad rap in world history? 2) Despite this aforementioned traditional view of pastoral peoples, why is it softening in modernity? 3) Become one with the map on page 535 Next: Wrap-up Mongol Lecture Economics and Impact
20 c.11 Wrap-Up: The Mongol Moment Impact of the Mongols on Dar-al Islam The Mongol Impact on China: Rise of the Yuan The Black Death
21 1. By 1320 s the Il-Khans dominated Armenia, Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran (parts of the Middle East) 2.Egypt independent Mamluks drove Mongols out 3. Il-Khan Mongols adopted Buddhism (possibly from Tibetans) 4. Murder of last Abbasid Caliph by Il-Khan brought conflict between: The Il-Khan and The Golden Horde (Occupied Russia, were Muslim)
22 1. Pope tried to make alliance with Buddhist Il-Khans against the Golden Horde (who were Muslim) 2. Il-Khans wanted to use Europeans to drive Golden Horde out of border area (Caucasus) 3. Mongol vs. Mongol war immanent (!!!) 1. The Il-Khan converted to Islam, pacifying the Golden Horde
23 1. Goal: collect as much taxes as possible 2. Method: Tax Farming Private companies or individuals are given contracts to collect a set amount of taxes. They get to keep anything more they collect. What were some of the advantages and disadvantages of this system?
24 1. Short term: Huge income 2. Long term effects: Major economic crisis Tax reduction programs failed too late! Paper money failed no one trusted it! Il-Khans fragmented with nobles fighting each other for scarce resources The Golden Horde attacked and dismembered the Il-Khan empire.
25 THE MONGOL IMPACT ON CHINA Rise of the Yuan
27 Inquiry Questions What was the impact of the Mongols on the political structure of China? What was the impact of the Mongols on the economic systems of China? What was the impact of the Mongols on the intellectual and artistic culture of China?
28 Chibu Khan Kublai Khan
29 1271 conquered China and moved capital to Beijing Massive walls built around city Streets made broader and wider Artificial lakes and islands in closed complex ( forbidden city ) Summer palace at Shangdu (Xanadu) In southern Song period - relatively dis-unified Re-united China Brought experts from Middle East, Central Asia to administer China Did a census for tax collection purposes Re-Districted provinces, put under control of governors, increased central control
30 Tax Farming Foreigners brought in to collect taxes Some cities prospered: esp. cities on Silk Roads Re-unification of China revitalized north-south trade along Grand Canal Ports in South China revived due to grain trade Businesses managed by corporations representing investors Paper money issued failed (no trust) Copper coins came back when trade with Japan terminated, helped economy Gentry moved into cities (URBANIZATION) Cities became cosmopolitan, catered to merchant class (like city-states of Italy) New infrastructure improvements: Waterwheels Dams Irrigation systems Many farmers suffered under Mongols: Evictions Brutal Tax Farming Changes to Tax Farming too late (as in Middle East) Farmers forced into servitude Dams and dikes broken Flooding in Yellow River area severe
31 Social status depended on ancestry (end of civil service exam system) Highest to lowest: Mongols Central Asians and Middle Easterners Northern Chinese Southern Chinese INVERSION of old SOCIAL STRATIFICATION\ Confucians alienated from Yuan, disagreed with social ranking system: Merchants given too much status, esp. foreigners Doctors given too much status Doctor s status increased Chinese medicine began integrating native and foreign practices (SYNCRETISM) New literature in Mandarin introduced Impact of Mongolian language on Chinese still present today Manuals on farming, etc. increased yield Syncretism under Pax Mongolica Mongol leaders kept in touch, exchanged new technologies and ideas Il-Khan science & technology exported to China Scholars and texts imported from China to Middle East Observatories set up across Central Asia Algebra and Trig to China; Fractions to Middle East Islamic and Persian medicine to China
32 1. Elevation of status of merchants meant less opportunities for traditional Confucian elite 2. Gentry families went into business instead 3. In countryside, population declined: Bubonic plague Migrations South to avoid the Mongols and flooding 40% of population lost during Yuan ( )
34 Micro-predators and human history From the first human ancestors, disease has been a primary threat to life Micro-predators (diseases) undergo a process of natural selection whereby mutations change their infectiousness Most disease start with other species and spread to humans The Avian Flu going around today (a virus limited to birds) has scientists worried
35 Disease has greatly influenced history Major empires were limited or brought down in part by disease: armies decided to pass on India because of the threat of smallpox and malaria suffered from a horrible plague that killed 30% of the population, marking the end of Athenian dominance suffered from disease epidemics, contributing to their downfall
36 After WWI 30 Million died when soldiers returned from the front (20 million Indians) Until very recently, epidemic diseases were a predictable cause of mortality Recent outbreaks of the Ebola Virus in Africa and SARS in Asia have scientists and physicians worried HIV/AIDS in Africa and elsewhere Known diseases develop resistance to antibiotics (as they mutate and adapt); old cures don t always work (e.g. Gonorrhea)
37 Smallpox and Anthrax virus specimens exist and can be made into weapons
38 Y. Pestis bacterium transferred from rodents in central Asia along Silk Road Mongols facilitated trade, which aided the spread of disease Mongols used biological warfare against residents of Kaffa, a Genovese trade entrepot Genovese merchants fled the city into the ports of Italy and France, setting off an epidemic
40 Plague Art The Burials
41 Flagellants on march
42 Plague Art: Life and Death
43 Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Riots
47 1. The most difficult and protracted of the Mongols many conquests was in A) Persia. B) Russia. C) China. D) Japan. 2. Which of the following was a way in which the Mongols contributed to the globalization of the Eurasian world? A) In providing a secure environment for traders, they facilitated long-distance international commerce. B) Their immunity to several deadly diseases allowed them to maintain long-distance trade routes even as agricultural societies along them succumbed to epidemics. C) Their promotion of Islam as the only true faith in the empire gave the whole empire a shared culture. D) The Mongol conquest of Vietnam and Japan allowed these two regions to fully integrate into the Eurasian trade networks for the first time. 3. In comparison to the Mongol conquests of Persia and China, Mongol rule in Russia A) did not use local elites to govern. B) was not accompanied by Mongol occupation. C) penetrated to the village level. D) created a mixed race population.
48 4. Key Term: A way of life in which people depend on herding of domesticated animals for their food; generally speaking these cultures exist in areas where farming is impossible. 5. Their arms are bows and arrows, sword and mace; but above all the bow, for they are capital archers, indeed the best that are known... When they are going on a distant expedition that take no gear with them except two leather bottles for mild, a little earthen ware pot to cook their meat in, and a little tent to shelter them from rain... Their horses are trained so perfectly that they will double hither and thither, just like a dog, in a way that is quite astonishing In truth, they are stout and valiant soldiers, and inured by war. This quote is referring to whom?
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