1 HINDUISM By: Alex Chartrand, Sona Bavaria, Tvisha Baxi
2 ORIGINS OF HINDUISM: INDO-EUROPEAN SOURCES Brahmanism and Vedism Developed in India among Indo-European speaking peoples The original two religions that used the Rigveda, used a more primitive sacrificial religious system Heavily impacted the development of Hinduism and were very similar These religions were even more closely tied to the Rig-Veda then Hinduism as it describes the exact lifestyle that the text reflected. Early Iranian people The Vedic people were in close contact with early Iranians, this was proven by similarities in their language and the Sanskrit language of the Indo-European people
3 ORIGINS OF HINDUISM: INDO-EUROPEAN SOURCES CONT. Jainism and Buddhism Both Jainism and Buddhism emerged circa 700 B.C.E bringing with them new ideas that challenged the religious status quo at the time. They rejected the idea of ritual sacrifice and instead promoted asceticism, which is the practice of the denial of physical or psychological desires in order to obtain a spiritual goal. Aryans The first tracible roots of Hinduism lay with the invading Aryans The Aryans introduced the caste system and brahmins to the developing Hindu culture Passed down their gods and their sacred texts (Rig-Veda) to the Hindu religion
4 ORIGINAL PRACTICE OF HINDUISM Religious observance in Hinduism can happen anywhere at any time and does not have a specified time or place Puja Puja- the general term used to describe Hindu worship Puja normally takes place at a home or nearby temple Practices may change depending on locations but normally consist of: -Give thanks -give penance -ask for assistance -Contemplate the divine
5 ORIGINAL PRACTICE OF HINDUISM CONT. The Vedas (c.1500-c.500 BCE): The Vedas were developed they were ancient written texts that included elements; literature, mythological accounts, poems and prayers. They were transmitted orally for many generations until written down. Vedism is the oldest religious activity in India for which there exist written materials, it was one of the major traditions that shaped Hinduism.
6 KEY BELIEFS Main beliefs The following beliefs are upheld by almost all Hindus and contain but are not limited to: -A belief in many gods, that are all incarnations of a single unity, they are also linked to natural and universal processes -A preference in one deity over another, leading to the emergence of different sects in Hinduism. -A belief in a universal law of cause in effect known as karma -A belief in reincarnation (Samsara) and the possibility of liberation and release from the endless cycle of death and rebirth (Moksha)
7 KEY BELIEFS CONT. Dharma Observance of the dharma, or the way that someone is supposed to act based on caste, status, and age is spoken of in many early philosophical texts such as the Vedas. They believed it was just as important to observe good behavior as it was to have it. Caste Hierarchical categorization of a society into defined social classes Someone's position in the caste system was mostly determined by 'accumulated merit' gained in their past lives.
8 KEY BELIEFS CONT. Moksha The ultimate spiritual goal of Hinduism To achieve one must detach themselves from the world and realize the ultimate unity of all things Their soul must become connected to the universe To achieve moksha one can either: -Attain mass amounts of knowledge -have many appropriate actions or works -become completely devoted to their god(s)
9 TURNING POINTS IN HINDUISM The Aryan invasion begins (c.1500bce) The Aryans invade the Indus Valley civilization Brought: -The language of Sanskrit -Caste System -Cattle -Tribes Their influence on India was prominet as most Indians today speak and value the Indo-Aryan language and culture. Open-minded when it came to changes in their beliefs which may have also showed Indians that change is good.
11 CONTINUED... Temples/ Kindgoms The development of the great temples, dynasties, kingdoms. All these temples had deity installed, they were centers of religious and political power. Mandir/Mandiram Dedicated to Gods/Godesses Focus of religious life Inside they would pray and set down offerings to the gods as the sign of respect.
12 SWAMINARAYAN BARTLETT, IL MANDIR IN Hindu Temple of Greater Chicago in Lemont, IL
13 CASTE SYSTEM The Caste system(c1500bc) In India, such system was inspired by Hindu scriptures and Aryans to create a society in which all essential functions were addressed, and all people assumed vital roles based on their ability. Based on the social classes of society: -Education - Culture -Income levels
14 CONTINUED... Effect of the Caste System: Ran contrery to Democracy. Democracy fouced on human equality Caste Systems believed in inequality and heriarcheal arrangement. The worst part was the untouchabled (lower class) were not allowed to put their children through education.
15 THE CASTE SYSTEM Brahmin:priest Kshatriyas:warriors Vaishyas:merchants/landowers Shudras:servents Untouchables: street sweepers, latrine cleaners.
16 KEY EVENTS THAT CHANGED HOW THE RELIGION WAS PRACTICED BY FOLLOWERS Invasions from other reigions - introduced other new ways of life - taking those lifestyles and making their own - keeping an open-mind helped the expansion of the many groups of Hinduism Mirgation - when followers moved way from India, they adapted features and celebrations from the other religions, incorpertaing it with their own.
17 HOW LEADERS/FOLLOWERS CHANGED THE ORIGINAL PRACTICES OF HINDUISM. To show more devotion to their gods and cultures holidays and annual festivals would be held. Diwali - (Festival of lights) -honor the Godess of Harvest (Lakshmi) - also celebrated by the Buddhists and Jains Navrata-( Nine Nights) -is a time to cleanse evil, jealousy, anger, and greed
18 CONSEQUENCES OF THOSE CHANGES Although migration was a way to learn new rituals it caused people to lose their connection to their ritual sources. When moving to another country or reigon there were not the same ingredents they had used in their home. With the degrading of the connection their beliefs became weak.
19 CHANGES AND DEVELOPMENTS WHILE HINDUISM SPREAD Other regions followed the Hinduism way of life Southeast Asia started to develop writing after the start of scriptures. In the begging of the Common era, Indian merchants were likely settled in the area bringing Brahmins and Buddhist monks with them, to share beliefs. Many early kingdoms adapted Hindu texts, theology, rituals and architecture. Spread through out - Bangladesh - Nepal - Indonesia
20 SECTS OF HINDUISM: Vaishnavism Devotion to Vishnu Shaivism Devotion to Shiva Shaktism Devotion to Shakti
21 HINDUISM: VAISHNAVISM Vaishnavism Monotheistic: belief in one supreme god known as Vishnu Supreme God Vishnu: protect humans, who simultaneously infuses all creation Preserver god with 10 avatars ( Krishna and Rama with escorts Radha and Sita) Believe in 6 qualities of god: all knowledge, all power, supreme majesty, supreme strength, unlimited energy and total self-sufficiency Beliefs God is someone you can know and have a relationship with Believe in Bhagvad: religious scripture It is important to believe and devout than to study doctrines and focus on religious knowledge Cycle of birth and death
22 HINDUISM: VAISHNAVISM Texts Texts include The Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, etc. Famous epics: Mahabharata and Ramayan
24 HINDUISM: SHAIVISM Shaivism (Saivism) Major groups like the Lingayats and the Kashmiri Shaivism contributed to the making of Shaivism principles Supreme God Shiva is the Supreme God, meaning auspicious, pure, kind, and gracious Seen as the invisible force behind destruction, catastrophes and other mishappenings Destroyer; wife Parvati and son Ganesha ( elephant headed) In the Vedic period, Shiva was called Rudra who has the power to ruler over heaven and earth Beliefs Shiva the destroyer is a necessary part of the trinity because, without destruction, there can be no recreation Each soul is created by Lord Shiva and is identical to him Texts
25 HINDUISM: SHAKTISM Shaktism Arose around the fifth century BCE Supreme God Goddess Shakti; the feminine divine, Shakti means power both latent and manifest Depicted in her green form, radiates beauty, energy, compassion, and protection for followers The Divine Mother; she has many names Beliefs Worship the goddess and empower and release both mind and body The Divine Mother does incarnate this world Emphasis on Bhakti and Tantra The "left-hand" path: somewhat occult to nature, path for few, not many The "right-hand" path: more conservative in nature
26 SHAKTI SCULPTURES
27 HINDUISM: SHAKTISM Texts Doctrines and rituals are contained in a branch of Holy Scriptures of India called Tantra Shastra Includes: Vedas, Shakta Agamas (Tantras) and Puranas
28 DIFFERENCES OF THE SECTS The different sects have different gods they worship and differences in major texts/scriptures. They all do poojas, dersan, and many more in similar ways but for a different god/goddess. All of them believe in karma, reincarnation and in a Supreme Being who creates, sustains and destroys the universe only to create it again in continual cycles. The nature of the gods each one worships is different. The spiritual practices are different (still has bhakti in common) Where each one is majorly practiced is also different (Vaishnavism: north and south India, Shaivism: south and north India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Shaktism: northeast India, Bengal, Assam Paths of Attainment are also different, but have common points It split due to differences in beliefs of which god to worship, the nature of the god, the path of Hinduism, and more
29 HINDUISM TODAY It is one of the oldest religions practiced There are many deities but a single, impersonal Ultimate Reality- Brahman A philosophy and a way of life focused on both on this world and beyond Beliefs True essence of life- Atman, the soul, is Brahman trapped in matter Reincarnation- atman is continually born into this world (Samsara) Karma- spiritual impurity due to actions, keeps us bound to this world (good and bad) Ultimate Goal of Life- to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one Brahman
30 HINDUISM TODAY Practices The Four Yogas- seeking union with the divine Karma Yoga- the path of action through selfless service Jnana Yoga- the path of knowledge Raja Yoga- the path of meditation Bhakti Yoga- the path of devotion Guru- a spiritual teacher especially helpful for Jnana and Raja Yoga Worships Puja (pooja)- making offerings to and decorating the deity images and statues Prasad- taking the divine within your own being through eating food shared with the deity Darsan- "seeing" the god and paying respects Bajan- prayers in form of a song, songs sung about the god and the religion
32 PRIMARY SOURCES Religious Studies: Find Primary Sources. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2018, from 228&p=
33 SOURCES Britannica, T. E. (2017, July 18). Vedic religion. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from Violatti, C. (2018, May 8). The Vedas. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from Religions - Hinduism: History of Hinduism. (2009, August 24). Retrieved October 17, 2018, from Berkley Center for Religion, & Georgetown University. (n.d.). Hinduism. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from V, J. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2018, from
34 SOURCES Basu, A. (2016, August 25). Mahabharata. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from Smith, B. K., Buitenen, J. V., Gold, A. G., Dimock, E. C., Doniger, W., & Basham, A. L. (February). Hinduism. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from Pande, R. (n.d.). Hinduism, Vaishnav, Shaiva and Shakt Religion. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from Shakt_Religion Monastery, K. H. (n.d.). The Four Denominations of Hinduism. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from
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