1 Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe, Lesson 2: The Spread of Protestantism
2 World History Bell Ringer # What intellectual development of the Renaissance influenced the subsequent Protestant Reformation? A. Emphasis on classical Latin. C. Rise of vernacular literature. B. Spirit of individualism. D. Study of the humanities. 2. Why did Luther attack the Catholic Church in his Ninety-five Theses? A. He was angered by the Church s abuses in the sale of indulgences. B. He wanted to encourage followers to do good works. C. He believed that the papacy in Germany should be overthrown. D. He was seeking public support after his excommunication by the pope.
3 World History Bell Ringer #56 3. What was the significance of the Peace of Augsburg? A. It forced England to break with the pope and the Catholic Church. B. It led to the rise of more radical Protestant reformers, such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. C. It conducted negotiations between the Catholic and Protestant Churches to reach a peace treaty. D. It ended Christian unity in Europe by permitting German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. 4. Why was the Reformation a major turning point in world history? A. The Reformation divided western Christianity into Catholic and Protestant groups. B. The Reformation ended decades of violent religious conflict in Europe. C. The Reformation encouraged more people to convert to Catholicism. D. The Reformation sparked reforms in Catholicism and led to its domination in Europe.
4 World History Bell Ringer #56 5. What idea did Luther emphasize that led to the new Protestant faith of Lutheranism? A. The idea that good works assure salvation through Jesus. B. The idea that salvation could be achieved by faith alone. C. The idea that the Church must have a system of sacraments. D. The idea that Church and state must be completely separate. 6. The Holy Roman Empire had to make peace with Lutheran princes in order to A. Form a strategic alliance with Francis I, king of France. B. Encourage the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith. C. Reclaim territories that had been seized by state governments. D. Keep the empire unified against attacks from external enemies.
5 World History Bell Ringer #56 7. What impact did the printing press have on the beginning of the Reformation? A. It enabled the Catholic Church to print more bibles, so that people could read and interpret it for themselves. B. It encouraged more people to become faithful through the printing of inexpensive bibles. C. It made possible the printing of thousands of copies of Luther s Ninety-five Theses, which were printed and spread to all parts of Germany. D. It helped the Catholic Church become even more powerful in disseminating information about salvation.
6 It Matters Because Different forms of Protestantism emerged in Europe during the 1500 s. Calvinism challenged Lutheranism with new ideas about salvation, England s Henry VIII (8 th ) created a national church, and Anabaptists challenged both Catholics and other Protestants with ideas about separation of church and state. In response to Protestantism, the Catholic Church also underwent a reformation.
7 Protestantism in Switzerland Guiding Question: Why did Calvinism become an important form of Protestantism by the mid-sixteenth century? By permitting German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism, the Peace of Augsburg officially ended Christian unity in the Holy Roman Empire. Previously, however, divisions had appeared within Protestantism. One of these new groups arose in Switzerland.
8 Protestantism in Switzerland Ulrich Zwingli was a priest in the Swiss city of Zürich. The city council of Zürich, strongly influenced by Zwingli, began to introduce religious reforms. All paintings and decorations were removed from the churches and replaced by whitewashed walls. A new church service consisting of Scripture reading, prayer, and sermons replaced the Catholic mass. As Zwingli s movement began to spread to other cities in Switzerland, he sought an alliance with Luther and the other German reformers. The German and Swiss reformers saw the need for unity to defend themselves against Catholic authorities, but they could not agree on certain Christian rites.
10 Protestantism in Switzerland In October 1531, war broke out between the Protestant and Catholic states in Switzerland. Zürich s army was routed (withdrawn), and Zwingli was found wounded on the battlefield. His enemies killed him, cut up his body, burned the pieces, and scattered the ashes. The leadership of Protestantism in Switzerland passed to John Calvin. As a reformer and convert to Protestantism, Calvin had fled his native France for the safety of Switzerland. In 1536, Calvin published his Institutes of the Christian Religion- a summary of his understanding of Protestant thought. Because of the recent invention of the printing press, Calvin s work and the writings of other Protestant leaders could be distributed widely, helping spread Protestant ideas. Publication of Calvin s work immediately gained him a reputation as one of the new leaders of Protestantism.
12 Protestantism in Switzerland Like Luther, Calvin believed that faith alone was sufficient for justificationthe process of being deemed worthy of salvation by God. However, Calvin s belief in the all-powerful nature of God led him to other ideas, such as predestination- belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved (the elect) and who will be damned (the reprobate). This meant that God had selected some people to be saved and others to be damned. Although Calvin stressed that no one could ever be absolutely certain of salvation, his followers did not always heed this warning. The belief in predestination gave later Calvinists the firm conviction that they were doing God s work on Earth. Calvinism became a dynamic and activist faith.
13 Protestantism in Switzerland In a reflection of his political philosophy, Calvin created a type of theocracyor government by divine authority, in the Swiss city of Geneva. Calvin believed church teachings were the foundation of government functions, though he did not believe the church should control the state. Calvin did hold, however, that a government lost its right to rule if it rejected the teachings of God. For Calvin, it was the responsibility of church and state to work together for the benefit of the people. Additionally, in order to limit the abuse of power, Calvin believed that different responsibilities of government should be divided among different government bodies. This is perhaps a foreshadowing of the concept of a separation of powers.
14 Reformation in England Guiding Question: What made the English Reformation different from the Reformation in the rest of Europe? The English Reformation was rooted in politics. King Henry VIII (8 th ) wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, with whom he had not yet had a son and heir (successor). The pope was unwilling to annul (declare invalid) the king s marriage, so Henry turned to England s highest church courts. These courts ruled in May 1533 that the king s marriage was null and absolutely void. At the beginning of June, Henry s new wife, Anne, was made queen. 3 months later their child, the future Queen Elizabeth I, was born.
16 Reformation in England In 1534 at Henry s request, Parliament finalized England s break with the pope and the Catholic Church. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared that the king was "the only supreme head on earth of the [new] Church of England. The king now had control over religious doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline. Thomas More- a Christian humanist and devout Catholic, opposed the king s action and was beheaded.
18 Reformation in England Henry used his new powers to close (dissolve) monasteries. He sold their lands and possessions to landowners and merchants. The English nobility had disliked papal control of the Church, and now they had a financial interest in the new order. Additionally, the king received a boost to his treasury. In most matters of doctrine, however, Henry stayed close to Catholic teachings. When the king died in 1547, Henry was succeeded by Edward VI (6 th )- his 9 year old son by his third wife. During the brief reign of King Edward VI, church officials who favored Protestant doctrines moved the Church of England, or the Anglican Church, in a Protestant direction. New acts of Parliament gave clergy the right to marry and created a Protestant church service. Before he turned 16, Edward died of tuberculosis- an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the tissues, especially the lungs.
19 Reformation in England The rapid changes in doctrine and policy during Edward s reign aroused opposition. When Henry VIII s daughter Mary I came to the throne in 1553, England was ready for a reaction. Mary was a Catholic who wanted to restore England to Roman Catholicism, but her efforts had the opposite effect. Among other actions, Mary ordered the burning of almost 300 Protestants as heretics (a person holding an opinion at odds with what is generally accepted), earning her the nickname Bloody Mary. As a result of her policies, England was even more committed to Protestantism by the end of Mary s reign.
22 Anabaptists Guiding Question: Why did both Catholics and Protestants consider Anabaptists dangerous radicals? Reformers such as Luther had allowed the state to play an important, if not dominant, role in church affairs. However, some people strongly disliked giving such power to the state. These were radicals known as Anabaptists. Most Anabaptists believed in the complete separation of church and state. Not only was government to be kept out of the realm of religion, it was not supposed to have any political authority over real Christians. Anabaptists refused to hold political office or bear arms because many took literally the biblical commandment "Thou shall not kill."
23 Anabaptists To Anabaptists, the true Christian church was a voluntary community of adult believers who had undergone spiritual rebirth and then had been baptized. This belief in adult baptism separated the Anabaptists from Catholics and other Protestants, who baptized infants. Anabaptists also believed in following the practices and the spirit of early Christianity. Anabaptists considered all believers to be equal. Anabaptists based this belief on the accounts of early Christian communities in the New Testament of the Bible. Each Anabaptist church chose its own minister- or spiritual leader. Because all Christians were considered to be priests, any member of the community was eligible to be a minister though women were often excluded.
24 Anabaptists Their political beliefs, as much as their religious beliefs, caused the Anabaptists to be regarded as dangerous radicals who threatened the very fabric of 16 th century society. The chief thing other Protestants and Catholics could agree on was the need to persecute (subject [someone] to hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of their race or political or religious beliefs) Anabaptists. Many of the persecuted Anabaptists settled in Münster- a city in Westphalia in modern-day Germany, in the 1530 s. Under John of Leiden, the city, Münster, became a sanctuary for Anabaptists. In 1534 an army of Catholics and other Protestants surrounded the city. Then in 1535, they captured it, torturing and killing the Anabaptist leaders.
26 Reformation & Society Guiding Question: How did the Reformation affect European society? The Protestant Reformation had an impact on the development of education in Europe. Protestant teachers employed humanist methods, though Protestant schools were aimed at a much wider audience than the humanist schools, which were mostly for the elite. Martin Luther urged the cities and villages of German states to provide schools paid for by the public. Protestants in Germany then established secondary schools, where teaching in Greek and Latin was combined with religious instruction.
27 Reformation & Society The Protestant Reformation had an economic impact as well. The seizing of Catholic monasteries and their assets in various Protestant states often resulted in a brief flood of wealth for their rulers. Additionally, Protestants Calvinists especially were not as concerned with laws and rules regarding the lending of money. This opened the door for small changes in personal lending and investment. To some extent, Protestantism also modified the traditional view of marriage. Protestants abolished (ended) monasticism (the practice of living the life of a monk) and the celibacy requirement for clergy. Traditional understanding of the roles of husband as the ruler and wife as the obedient servant and bearer of children remained unchanged. Calvin and Luther saw this role of women as part of the divine plan.
28 Reformation & Society Other traditional features of European society were unaffected by the Reformation. Anti-Semitism- which is hostility or discrimination against Jews, remained common in Europe after the Reformation. Martin Luther expected Jews to convert to Lutheranism. When they resisted, Luther recommended that Jewish houses of worship should be destroyed. The Catholic Church was no more tolerant. In Italy s Papal States, which were controlled by the popes, Jews who would not convert were forced to live in segregated areas called ghettos- formerly a district in a city in which Jews were required to live.
29 Catholic Reformation Guiding Question: What prompted the Catholic Reformation during the 16 th century? The situation in Europe did not appear favorable for the Catholic Church. Lutheranism had become rooted in Germany and Scandinavia, and Calvinism had taken hold in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, and Eastern Europe. In England, the split from Rome had resulted in the creation of a national church. However, the Catholic Church was revitalized in the 16 th century. It found new strength and regained much that it had lost to the Protestant Reformation. 3 elements supported this Catholic Reformation, which is also called the Counter- Reformation. The first was the establishment of a new religious order, the Jesuits. The second was the reform of the papacy (church). The third element was the Council of Trent.
30 Catholic Reformation A Spanish nobleman, Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits. Pope Paul III recognized Loyola s small group of followers as a religious order in All Jesuits took a special vow of absolute obedience to the pope, making them an important instrument for papal policy. Jesuits used education to spread their message and established schools. Jesuit missionaries were very successful in restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe and in spreading it to other parts of the world.
31 Catholic Reformation Later in the century, a Spanish nun, Teresa of Ávila, promoted the reform of the Carmelite order. The Carmelites were one of the 4 major religious orders founded in the Middle Ages who took a vow of complete poverty. In 1562, Teresa founded a small convent at Ávila where the nuns followed a very strict way of life. Reform of the papacy (church) was another important element in the Catholic Reformation. The participation of Renaissance popes in dubious (questionable) financial transactions and in Italy s politics and wars had encouraged corruption. It took the jolt of the Protestant Reformation to change the Catholic Church.
33 Catholic Reformation Pope Paul III saw the need for reform. Pope Paul III took the bold step of naming a Reform Commission in 1535 to determine the Church s ills (problems). The commission blamed the Church s problems on the popes corrupt policies. Pope Paul III also called the Council of Trent. Beginning in March 1545, a group of cardinals, archbishops, abbots, and theologians met off and on for 18 years in the city of Trent near the border with modern-day Italy.
35 Catholic Reformation The final decrees of the Council reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs. Both faith and good works were declared necessary for salvation. The 7 sacraments (Christian rites), the Catholic view of the Eucharist, and clerical celibacy were all upheld. Belief in purgatory and in the use of indulgences was strengthened, although the selling of indulgences was forbidden. The Roman Catholic Church now possessed a clear body of doctrine. It was unified under the pope s supreme leadership. Catholics were now more confident as defenders of their faith.
36 Assignment Complete Chapter 16, Lesson 2 Quiz. You are allowed to use your notes to assist you on completing your quiz, but NOT your Chromebook or phone! Turn your quiz into the organizer after you have finished completing it. Make sure your name is on your quiz before you turn it in!
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Test Review The Reformation Which statement was NOT a result of the Protestant Reformation? A. The many years of conflict between Protestants and Catholics B. The rise of capitalism C. Northern Germany
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W N S E Name Class Date Outline Map Europe About 1600 Directions: Locate and label the following cities and countries that were important during the Reformation: Scotland, England, Spain, France, Norway,