2 Describe the religious and economic conflicts in Europe during the Reformation Explain why the European powers continued to search for a new route to Asia Describe the outcome of the search by explorers John Cabot and Henry Hudson for a Northwest Passage around the Americas
3 Mercantilism the idea that colonies exist only to make their home country wealthy and powerful John Cabot Italian explorer inspired by Christopher Columbus Northwest Passage a sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific that passed through or around North America Henry Hudson English explorer who explored the Hudson River and Hudson Bay
4 A cultural movement throughout Europe that roughly spanned from the 14 th century to the 17 th century Based on what is now referred to as humanism Humanism was an activity of cultural and educational reform Some historians believe this was the true shift from medieval times into the modern world People shifted their focus from a strict practice of learning into making people more cultured and eloquent.
5 One of the most highly recognizable affects of the Renaissance is the affect it had on the world of art. Painters such as Leonardo Da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Donatello, and Raphael are still landmarks today Another area that experienced great change during this time period was the world of science. Leonardo Da Vinci made very accurate drawings and sketches relating to the world of Astronomy and the alignment of the planets This also led to the development of the New Scientific Method
6 The Last Supper Mona Lisa
7 The Creation of Adam The Sistine Chapel
8 Martin Luther and John Calvin were two of the most influential leaders in the religious reform that came about during the Renaissance which led to the Protestant Reformation They began to question the total authority of the Roman Catholic church and it s corrupt leaders that had existed and dominated all of society up until this point in European history. They primarily were concerned with indulgences - - where Catholics were able to be absolved of certain sins with a monetary contribution to the church itself
9 Began in 1517 with the publishing of Martin Luther s The 95 Theses and wouldn t end until the end of the Christian religious wars in 1648 The reforms sought after humanists in the Renaissance were growing impatient with their desire for change in the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant idea was that God was all powerful while man was not; in other words, God could save men, but another man could not (directed at the figured in the Roman Catholic Church)
10 #6 The pope himself cannot remit guilt but only declare and confirm that it has been remitted by God; or, at most, he can remit it in cases reserved to his discretion. Except for these cases, the guilt remains untouched.
11 As the appeal of the Reformation increased, the split between the Catholics and the Protestants increased religious and economic tensions between countries in Europe By 1513, the rulers of Sweden, Denmark, and several European states had split with the Roman Catholic Church and set up Protestant Churches in their countries. Elsewhere in Europe, the writings of humanistic thinkers, such as John Calvin, had a great influence on the development of Protestant churches in France, Switzerland, Scotland, and the Netherlands.
12 English Protestants found a supporter in King Henry VIII, of England, who was married to Catherine of Aragon The daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain When Catherine did not produce a male child, heir to the throne, Henry sought to divorce her and remarry The Catholic Church, however, did not support divorce, so he asked the Pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage The Pope refused, although this had been done before, and Henry broke with the Catholic Church in 1533 He then set up a Protestant Church and named it the Church of England
13 Religious tensions increased rivalries that already existed throughout Europe. Wars in this part of the world were quite common, and alliances often shifted This uncertainty made European rulers believe they could not depend on one another to protect their country s security This is one reason that countries were so eager to explore new lands and find gold; that could fuel and strengthen their armies They focused on mercantilism, which required that all colonies make their mother country wealthy and powerful
14 England s King Henry VIII died in He was succeeded by his son, Edward VI, with Anne Boleyn, who ruled only a short time before he died, too. The throne then passed to Mary I, the eldest daughter of Henry and Catherine, and only surviving heir, who made plans to restore the Roman Catholic Church in England Under the terms of succession set forth by England, and the will of her father, King Henry VIII, the next to take the throne was Elizabeth I, a Protestant. Mary attempted to marry and produce an heir to the throne to prevent this from happening. She did end up marrying Phillip II, Prince of Spain, later king, but did not produce an heir. She died in 1558, passing the throne to Elizabeth I.
15 Elizabeth I King Henry VIII Mary I Phillip II
16 The rule of the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I renewed the rivalry with Roman Catholic Spain. Spain s King Phillip II hoped to make England a Catholic nation again. Relations were also strained by English raids on Spanish ships at sea, many carrying gold from the America s England had also provided assistance to the rebels trying to win their independence in the Spanish province of Holland
17 In 1588, Phillip assembled a fleet of 130 warships known as the Spanish Armada, hoping to force Elizabeth from the throne A fleet of English ships met the Spanish just off the coast of France, their smaller and faster ships able to sink many of the Spanish quickly. Less than half were able to return to Spain The defeat of the Spanish Armada changed the balance of power in Europe, weakening Spain and its control of the sea This enabled countries like England and France to land, explore, and colonize the America s
18 How did economic concerns among European nations lead to conflicts?
19 How did economic concerns among European nations lead to conflicts? Because Europeans nations needed gold and goods from colonies to gain the wealth needed to strengthen their armies.
20 Columbus return from his first voyage to Asia had interested another Italian explorer, John Cabot. Cabot, however, decided that a more northern route to Asia would be shorter, and much easier Neither Spain nor Portugal expressed any interest in these ideas The English, however, were interested enough to finance a voyage of exploration Cabot left England with one ship in May, 1497.
21 Cabot crossed the North Atlantic and explored the region around Newfoundland. On a second voyage, in 1498, Cabot is believed to have explored the North American coast as far south as the Chesapeake Bay, however, this can t be certain, because his ships disappeared without a trace
22 Europeans soon realized that the lands Cabot had reached were not Asia, but a land not yet explored Upon this, England, France, and Holland all financed voyages of exploration to North America All of these voyages focused on finding a northwest passage
24 In 1524, another Italian explorer, Giovanni da Verranzo, searched for a passage for King Francis I, of France. Verrazano explored the Atlantic coastal region from North Carolina to Newfoundland. In doing so, he discovered the mouth of the Hudson river and New York Bay. French explorer Jacques Cartier made 3 trips to North America for France. In searching for a northwest passage he discovered the St. Lawrence River and explored it as far as present- day Montreal
25 English explorer, Henry Hudson made 4 voyages searching for a northwest passage 2 voyages, 1607 & 1608, made in the Arctic Ocean, were unsuccessful and England gave up on him The Dutch ended up financing his 3 rd voyage in He crossed the Atlantic and reached what is now New York and explored up the Hudson River, which he named after himself. This voyage caused England to give him more funding in 1610, and he got as far as Hudson Bay, also named for him, before the icy waters halted his voyage
26 In the Spring of 1611, Hudson s crew, unhappy about spending the winter in this harsh land, grew desperate They mutinied and set Hudson, his teenage son, and several loyal crew members adrift in a small boat. While the mutineers returned to England, Hudson, like John Cabot, was never heard from again.
27 1) How did the Reformation lead to religious conflict in England? 2) Why do you think the religious tensions in Europe spread to the Americas? 3) How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada change the political balance of power among European countries? 4) How did the shift in the political balance of power affect the exploration of North America?
28 Henry Hudson (1607) discovered the Hudson River and Hudson Bay, searching for a Northwest Passage Financed by England, Dutch, and England again Made 4 total voyages (1607, 1608, 1609, & 1610) John Cabot (1497) Explored Newfoundland and may have made it as far as Chesapeake bay, but was lost Financed by England Made 2 voyages (1497 & 1498)
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