1 Government Type Democratic Principals Rights and Responsibilities compared to US Study Guide for the Renaissance and Reformation How to study for your Assessments: START EARLY NOT THE NIGHT BEFORE THE TEST! Read through your Study Guide multiple times, then cover up part of it and see if you can say it back without looking. Read through the Study Guide some more and highlight the material that you can't say back. Read through the Study Guide some more, only looking at the highlighted parts. Use a different color highlighter to re-highlight the material you still don t know. Read through the Study Guide some more, only looking at the newly highlighted material. If there is material that you still don t know, use a 3 rd highlighter color to mark that stuff. When you read the Guide again, only look at that 3 rd color highlighted material. Keep going like this until you feel pretty confident that you know the material. Record yourself reading the material that you don t know well and listen to the playback while you do chores or are in the car. Draw little pictures of important ideas, or make up rhymes to help you remember. Have a family member quiz you over the material. Get with a friend and take turns asking each other test questions over the material. Rewrite the study guide in an outline or art-notes format. GOVERNMENT TARGETS TARGET: I can compare the source of power in this government to other governments. Italian city-states: During the Middle Ages, no ruler was able to unite Italy into a single kingdom. There were several reasons for this. First of all, the Roman Catholic Church did everything it could to stop the rise of a powerful kingdom in Italy. Church leaders were afraid that if a strong ruler united Italy, that same ruler would be able to control the pope and the Church. Also, the city states that developed in Italy were about equal in strength. They fought many wars and often captured territory from each other, but no state was able to defeat all the others. Probably the most important reason the city-states stayed independent was because they became very wealthy. With their great wealth, they could build large fleets and hire people to fight in their armies. The city-states also loaned money to the kings of Europe. The kings left the city-states alone so they could borrow more money in the future. At first, many of the city-states were republics. A republic is a government controlled by its citizens. Not everyone was a citizen, however, only the artisans and merchants who had membership in the city's guilds. In many cases, the cities were ruled by one powerful man who ran the government as a dictator. In Venice, the head of state was the duke, or doge. At first, the doge had great power over his council of nobles. Later, he lost power to a small group of nobles. In Florence, the powerful Medici family gained control of the government in The Medici ran Florence for many decades. Politics in Italy was complicated. Within each city, the rulers had to keep the poor from rebelling and prevent other wealthy people from seizing power. They had to make deals with merchants, bankers, landlords, church leaders, and mercenaries. At the same time, they had to deal with the leaders of the other city-states. To deal with the other states around them, the Italians developed diplomacy. Diplomacy is the art of negotiating, or making deals, with other countries. Each city-state sent ambassadors to live in the other city-states and act as representatives for their city. Many of the ideas of modern diplomacy first began in Italy's city-states. How could a ruler maintain power in the Italian city-states? Niccolò Machiavelli, a diplomat in Florence, tried to answer this question when he wrote The Prince. Machiavelli claimed that people were greedy and self-centered. Rulers should not try to be good, he argued. Rather, they should do whatever is necessary to keep power and protect their city, including killing and lying. Many kings of the time embraced his ideas. Today when we say someone is being Machiavellian, we mean they are being tricky and not thinking about being good. TARGET: I can describe how this government used democratic principles (justice, equality, responsibility, freedom). Responsibility: Calvinism became a powerful tool in society. It encouraged people to work hard at their business and to behave as good citizens. Choice in Government: Another important idea of Calvinism is that neither kings nor bishops should control the Church. Calvinists believed that congregations should choose their own elders and ministers to run the church for them. This idea had a strong impact on England and on many of the English settlers in America. The idea that a congregation should be allowed to choose its own leaders helped support the idea that the people should also be allowed to elect their own political leaders. Freedom of Worship: In 1562 a civil war that would last more than 30 years began in France between Protestants and Catholics. King Henry IV issued an edict to help end the fighting. The Edict of Nantes said Catholicism was France's official religion, but it also gave Protestants the right to worship freely. TARGET: I can compare the rights and responsibilities of individuals in this culture to the rights and responsibilities of US citizens today. Under the United States Constitution, the government cannot favor any one religion. People are free to join any religion they wish or to join no religion at all. In Europe, during the Reformation, kings decided what faith people had to follow. Many German rulers decided to become Lutherans for religious and political reasons. By doing so, their kingdom also became Lutheran.
2 Elements of Culture Social Institutions influence on behavior CULTURE TARGETS TARGET: I can explain how cultural elements in this society helped define this group and give them unique perspectives. Beliefs People were still very religious during the Renaissance, but they also began to celebrate human achievements. People became more secular. This means they were more interested in this world than in religion and getting to heaven. Language During the Renaissance, educated people wrote in "pure" Latin, the Latin used in ancient Rome. When authors began writing in the vernacular, many more people could read their work. The vernacular is the everyday language people speak in a region Italian, French, or German, for example. Literature Francesco Petrarch studied Roman writers like Cicero and wrote biographies of famous Romans. Dante Alighieri, a poet of Florence, wrote one of the world's greatest poems in the vernacular. It is called The Divine Comedy and tells the gripping tale of the main character's journey from hell to heaven. Another important writer who used the vernacular was Chaucer. Chaucer wrote in English. In his famous book, The Canterbury Tales, he describes 29 pilgrims on their journey to the city of Canterbury. The Canterbury Tales describes the levels of English society, from the nobles at the top to the poor at the bottom. The English Chaucer used in his writing is the ancestor of the English we speak today. In England, the Renaissance took place in writing and theater more than in art. The greatest English writer of that era was William Shakespeare. He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical plays. Arts Renaissance art portrayed people realistically and tried to show their emotions. Renaissance painters also used new techniques: perspective, a method that makes a drawing or painting look three-dimensional; chiaroscuro, using light and shadows instead of stiff outlines to separate objects. Frescos are paintings on wet plaster with watercolor paint. Frescoes were painted in churches all over Italy. Master artists worked for and were supported by patrons, people who pay to support someone else's work. Patrons were usually political and church leaders, organizations, and wealthy bankers and merchants. 3 master artists of the Italian Renaissance were Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Sanzio, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Two of Leonardo's most famous works are The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa. Raphael is famous for his Madonna (Jesus s mom) paintings and The School of Athens, a painting of Greek philosophers. A third great Renaissance artist was Michelangelo. Like many other artists of the time, Michelangelo painted, sculpted, and designed buildings. He painted one of the best-known Renaissance works the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Michelangelo's best-known sculptures are the 13-foot-tall statue David and a statue of the biblical Moses. The Northern Renaissance refers to the art in places we know today as Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. One important method they developed was oil painting. Oils let artists paint intricate details and surface textures, like the gold braid on a gown. Jan van Eyck was a master of oil painting. Albrecht Dürer is perhaps one of the greatest artists of the Northern Renaissance. Dürer was able to master both perspective and fine detail. He is best known for his engravings. Dürer's Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse is an outstanding example of a woodcut, a print made from carved wood. TARGET: I can investigate how social institutions in this society responded to human needs, structured society, and influenced behavior. Religion Lutheranism: Martin Luther's ideas led to the creation of a new denomination, or organized branch of Christianity. It was known as Lutheranism and was the first Protestant denomination. Lutheranism has three main ideas. The first is that faith in Jesus, not good works, brings salvation. The second is that the Bible is the final source for truth about God, not a church or its ministers. Finally, Lutheranism said that the church was made up of all its believers, not just the clergy. Calvinism: A Frenchman named John Calvin agreed with Luther that faith was more important than good works, but he added other ideas too. Calvinism became the basis of many Protestant churches, including the churches of Puritans and Presbyterians in England and Scotland. Calvin's main idea was that God's will is absolute and decides everything in the world in advance. God has decided who will go to heaven and who will not. This belief is called predestination, meaning that no matter what people do, the outcome of their life is already planned. More Culture
3 Impact of Cultural Differences Culture, continued. TARGET: I can explain how interactions between this society and others led to conflict, compromise, and cooperation. Conflict The Reformation: By the 1300s, many people felt the Roman Catholic Church had problems. It taxed peasants heavily, and some bishops behaved like they were kings. They built palaces, spent money on fine art, and made sure that their relatives had good jobs. In many villages, priests could barely read or give a good sermon. Many Catholics became angry at the Church's focus on money. One Church practice that especially angered them was the selling of indulgences. An indulgence was a pardon from the Church for a person's sins. The Church had given out indulgences before, but it did not usually sell them. In the 1500s, however, the pope needed money to repair the church of St. Peter's in Rome. To get that money, he decided to sell indulgences in northern Germany. The sale of indulgences outraged a monk named Martin Luther. Luther had looked in the Bible and found nothing that said an indulgence could pardon sin. The whole idea of selling God's forgiveness seemed unholy to him. He angrily prepared a list of 95 arguments against indulgences and sent them to his bishop. Some accounts say that Luther also nailed them to the door of Wittenberg Cathedral for everyone to read. The list became known as the Ninety-Five Theses. Thousands of copies were printed and read all across the German kingdoms. Catholic leadership feared Luther s ideas. If people believed Luther, they would rely on the Bible, not priests. The Catholic leadership would lose its power. The pope and Luther argued for several years, but Luther refused to change his position. Finally, the pope excommunicated Luther. This meant Luther was no longer a member of the Church and could no longer receive the sacraments. He was also no longer considered a monk. Eventually, his challenge to the pope s authority and his desire to reform the church led to the creation of new churches in Western Europe and a movement in Christianity known as Protestantism. The Counter-Reformation: The Catholic Church waged a war against Protestantism, but it also knew it needed to reform itself. This effort came to be called the Counter-Reformation. Pope Paul III called a church council at Trent, near Rome. The council held meetings for 20 years, from the 1540s to the 1560s. The Council of Trent made Catholic beliefs clear. It also set up strict rules for how bishops and priests should behave. To train new priests, seminaries were set up. A seminary is a special school for training and educating priests. The pope set up a new order of priests, the Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits. Jesuits were the pope's agents in Europe. They taught, preached, and fought heresy. A heresy is a religious belief that contradicts what the Church says is true. The Spanish Inquisition: In Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella set up the Spanish Inquisition to investigate people's beliefs and ensure religious unity. The Spanish Inquisition was a Catholic court, similar to the one the Catholic Church had set up in Europe to investigate heresy. The Spanish Inquisition was much crueler, however. Charges of heresy were made just to eliminate enemies. Horrible tortures were invented to force confessions of guilt. The Anglican Church: In England, King Henry VIII needed a son to succeed him, but Henry s wife Catherine had given birth only to daughters. Henry asked Pope Leo to annul, or cancel, his marriage to Catherine. The pope refused, so Henry decided to have the archbishop of Canterbury the highest bishop in England annul the marriage. In response, the pope excommunicated Henry from the Church. Henry then declared that the king, not the pope, was the head of the Church in England. Henry ordered all the priests and bishops in England to accept him as the new head of their church. Some refused and were killed. The most famous was Sir Thomas More, who was executed in Henry then seized the Catholic Church's land in England and gave some of it to his nobles. This kept the nobles loyal to the king and to the Church of England. The Church of England came to be known as the Anglican Church. It kept most of the rituals and sacraments of the Catholic Church. Compromise/cooperation A war in the Holy Roman Empire ended with the Peace of Augsburg. This agreement let each German ruler decide whether his kingdom would be Lutheran or Catholic. As a result most of northern Germany became Protestant, while the south stayed Catholic.
4 Scarcity: decisions about use of natural resources, human resources, & capital goods Supply & Demand How are goods & services exchanged Productivity increases from new knowledge, tools, & specialization ECONOMICS TARGETS TARGET: I can explain how scarcity required this civilization to make decisions about how to use productive resources. In most of Europe, the vast majority of people lived in the country, including the knights and nobles who owned estates. In Italy's city-states, the population was becoming more urban. That means more people were living in the city, rather than in the country. So many people living together in a city meant more customers for artists and more money for art. Before this time, European nobles got their wealth from land, not trade. In fact, they looked down on trade and believed themselves above the town merchants. The wealthy men of the Italian city-states were a new type of leader the urban noble. Their wealth came from trade rather than land ownership. Most people in Europe were peasants. The life of a peasant had always been hard, but in the 1520s, it was terrible. The crops had been poor for several years. On top of that, noble landowners increased the taxes that peasants had to pay. Because of their suffering and inspiration from the ideas of Martin Luther, the peasants decided that they must have a right to stand up to the nobles who controlled all of Europe s resources. The peasants began by listing their demands. Like Luther, they based their ideas on the Bible. One leader said the peasants would no longer work for the nobles, "unless it should be shown us from the Gospel that we are serfs." When the nobles did not give in, huge revolts broke out. It was not long, however, before the peasants were defeated. The nobles had better weapons and horses and won easily, killing at least 70,000 peasants. TARGET: I can explain how supply and demand functioned in this civilization. Probably the most important reason the Italian city-states stayed independent from kings was because they became very wealthy. With their great wealth, they could build large fleets and hire people to fight in their armies. A person who fights in an army for money is called a mercenary. The city-states also loaned money to the kings of Europe. The kings left the citystates alone so they could borrow more money in the future. From Middle Eastern traders, the Italians bought Chinese silk and Indian spices and sold them to people in Western Europe for very high prices. At the same time, from the Western Europe traders, they bought goods such as wool, wine, and glass that they could sell in the Middle East. The Italian cities also had many skilled artisans, who could take raw materials the merchants bought and make luxury goods that could be sold for high prices. When the Mongols controlled the Silk Road, it became cheaper and easier for caravans to carry goods from China and India to Muslim and Byzantine cities. As more and more silk and spices were shipped from Asia, the price of these goods fell. An increase in the supply of something leads to a decrease in its price. More Europeans could afford the luxuries, and demand for the items greatly increased. In turn, business for Italian merchants continued to grow. TARGET: I can describe how goods and services were exchanged by this civilization. The Italian city-state of Florence's wealth came from trading cloth, especially wool. The city's merchants sailed to England to get sheep's wool. Artisans in Florence then wove it into fine fabrics. Florentines also found another way to make money banking. With goods pouring into Italy from around the world, merchants needed to know the value of coins from different countries. Florentine bankers became the experts. They used the florin, the gold coin of Florence, to measure the value of other money. Bankers also began lending money and charging interest. Florence's richest family, the Medici, were bankers. They had branch banks as far away as London. TARGET: I can give examples of ways this civilization was able to increase productivity through inventions and innovations. Renaissance means "rebirth." The years from about 1350 to 1550 in European history are called the Renaissance because there was a rebirth of interest in art and learning. The Renaissance began in Italy for 3 reasons. 1. First of all, Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire. Ruins and art surrounded the Italians and reminded them of their past. It was only natural that they became interested in Greek and Roman art and tried to make their own art as good. 2. Another reason the Renaissance began in Italy was because by the 1300s, Italy's cities had become very wealthy. They could afford to pay painters, sculptors, architects, and other artists to produce new works. 3. A third reason was because the region was still divided into many small city-states. Florence, Venice, Genoa, Milan, and Rome were some of the most important cities of the Renaissance. The Italian city-states competed with each other. This helped bring about the Renaissance. Wealthy nobles and merchants wanted artists to produce works that increased the fame of their cities. Johannes Gutenberg, a German goldsmith, built a printing press modeled after a winepress. Once the press was completed, Gutenberg spent two years printing his first book. For each page, he set metal letters in a frame, rolled ink over the frame, and pressed the frame against paper. Around 1455, he completed printing what is now known as the Gutenberg Bible, or the 42 Line Bible. This was the first book printed using movable metal type, sparking a revolution in publishing and reading.
5 Human Environment Interactions GEOGRAPHY TARGETS TARGET: I can describe how this society s human/environment interactions impacted human activities and the environment. Exploration In the 1400s and 1500s, nations in Western Europe began exploring the world. They wanted the silks and spices of East Asia, but could no longer trade them through the Middle East without paying huge taxes to the people in control there. New technology that helped them navigate the dangerous Atlantic Ocean allowed the Europeans to look for a sea route to East Asia. From the Arabs, Europeans learned about the astrolabe and the compass. The astrolabe was an ancient Greek device that could be used to find latitude. The compass, invented by the Chinese, helped navigators find magnetic north. In the 1400s, they began using triangular sails developed by the Arabs. These sails let a ship zigzag into the wind. They also began building ships with many masts and smaller sails to make their ships go faster. A new type of rudder made steering easier. In the 1400s, these inventions came together in a Portuguese ship called the caravel. With ships like the caravel, Europeans could begin exploring the world. By the 1400s, most educated people in Europe knew the world was round, but they only had maps of Europe and the Mediterranean. When the Renaissance began, however, people began to study ancient maps as well as books written by Arab scholars. Twelve hundred years earlier, a Greek-educated Egyptian geographer named Claudius Ptolemy had drawn maps of the world. His book Geography was discovered by Europeans in 1406 and printed in With the invention of the printing press, books like Ptolemy's could be printed and sold all over Europe. Ptolemy's ideas about cartography, or the science of mapmaking, were very influential. His basic system of longitude and latitude is still used today. European cartographers also began reading a book written by al-idrisi, an Arab geographer. Al-Idrisi had published a book in 1154 showing the parts of the world known to Muslims. By studying the works of al-idrisi and Ptolemy, Europeans learned the geography of East Africa and the Indian Ocean. If they could find a way around Africa, they could get to Asia. In 1419 Prince Henry of Portugal, known as "Henry the Navigator", set up a research center in southern Portugal. He invited sailors, cartographers, and shipbuilders to come and help him explore the world. In 1420 Portugal began mapping Africa's coastline and trading with Africa's kingdoms. It also seized the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde islands. Soon after, the Portuguese discovered sugarcane would grow on the islands. To work their sugarcane fields, the Portuguese began bringing enslaved Africans to the islands. This was the beginning of a slave trade that would eventually bring millions of enslaved people to the Americas as well. In 1488 the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa. Nine years later, Vasco da Gama rounded the tip of Africa, raced across the Indian Ocean, and landed on India's coast. A water route to East Asia had at last been found. While the Portuguese explored Africa, an Italian navigator named Christopher Columbus came up with a daring plan to get to Asia. He would sail across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus needed money to make the trip and was financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. The 1492 expedition sailed west across the Atlantic and sighted land, probably the island of San Salvador. Columbus claimed the land for Spain and then explored the nearby islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. Columbus thought he was in Asia. He made three more voyages to the region but never realized he had arrived in the Americas. Eventually, Europeans realized they had found two huge continents. Settlement After Columbus, the Spanish went on to build a vast empire in America. They forced enslaved Native Americans to grow sugarcane and mine gold and silver. Later they brought enslaved Africans to the region to work on their farms. Spanish nobles called conquistadors traveled to America in the hopes of becoming rich. Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec, and Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca. Soon after their victories, vast amounts of gold and silver began to flow to Europe from Spain's empire in America. Trade The Italian city states became wealthy through trade. The geography of the long Italian peninsula meant that most of the city states had a coastline and ports where merchant ships could dock. They were also perfectly located on the Mediterranean Sea. Spain and France lay to the west, and the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires lay to the east. North Africa was only a short trip to the south. Human modifications of environment The wealthiest city-state of all was Venice, where Marco Polo was born. Venice is at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea. The Venetians were great sailors and shipbuilders. They built their city on many small, swampy islands just off the coast. Early Venetians learned how to drive long wooden poles into mud to support their buildings. Instead of paving roads, the Venetians cut canals through their swampy islands and used boats to move about. Even today, many of the streets in the older parts of Venice are canals and waterways. Gondolas a type of long, narrow boat still carry people along these canals.
6 Biggest Impacts on the future & today s cultures HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE TARGETS TARGET: I can analyze how this civilization influenced or had lasting impacts on modern societies. During the Renaissance, to deal with the other states around them, the Italians developed diplomacy. Diplomacy is the art of negotiating, or making deals, with other countries. Each city-state sent ambassadors to live in the other city-states and act as representatives for their city. Many of the ideas of modern diplomacy first began in Italy's city-states. The growing wealth of European nation-states and scientific advancements allowed Europeans to explore worlds beyond Europe. These explorations led to the discovery and settlement of the Americas and an exploitation of the native peoples from those continents and Africa. Many of the artistic products of the Renaissance can still be seen today in European cities and in museums around the world. New techniques such as the use of perspective and chiaroscuro helped artists create the realistic and emotional tones that characterize Renaissance art. Oil painting was developed during this time. Artists were often supported by wealthy patrons who paid for their work. One of the best Renaissance artists was also a scientist, Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo dissected corpses to learn anatomy and studied fossils to understand the world's history. He was also an inventor and an engineer. Most of what we know about Leonardo comes from his notebooks. Leonardo filled their pages with sketches of his scientific and artistic ideas. Centuries before the airplane was invented, Leonardo drew sketches of a glider, a helicopter, and a parachute. Other sketches show a version of a military tank and a scuba diving suit. The Renaissance also saw the invention of printing in Europe and the rise of literature as an important aspect in everyday life. The Renaissance thinkers and writers were able to distribute their works much more easily and cheaply because of the rise of the printed book and works written in the vernacular. The greatest English writer of that era was William Shakespeare. He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical plays. Some of his great tragedies include Hamlet, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet. In each tragedy, the characters' flaws cause their downfall. Among his most famous comedies are A Midsummer Night's Dream, Twelfth Night, and Much Ado About Nothing. His best-known historical plays include Henry V and Richard III. Shakespeare's plays are still performed today and remain very popular. Humanism was a way of thinking based on the values of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Humanists believed that the individual and human society were important. Humanists did not turn away from religious faith, but they wanted a balance between faith and reason. Their ideas encouraged men to increase their knowledge of many different topics, and education changed drastically. Prior to the Renaissance people focused mainly on religious teachings and the basics; reading, writing, and math. The humanistic thinking of the Renaissance opened up the studies of the humanities; arts, health and the sciences. This move to a more liberal education system is still a model that nearly all public and private schools follow today. Things such as performing arts, physical education and programs that deal with things such as computers and woodworking are modern day examples of the expansion that education went through during the Renaissance. As Europeans embraced humanist ideas and became more literate, people began to question the church s actions and cruelties. The power that the church had wielded for centuries began to crumble. Various groups began to split away from the Catholic church and new religions were created that have lasted to this day. The United States Constitution guarantees religious freedom to its citizens. People are free worship in their own way without fear of persecution.
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The Renaissance Chapter 15 How did Petrarch influence the Renaissance? He encouraged people to study the philosophy and literature of the past and to speak and write thoughtfully. What practices of the
Unit 1 Study Guide The Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution Study Guide 1a. What was the Renaissance? Description and Meaning: Critical rebirth of Greek and roman ideals era of creativity
UNIT 5 STUDY GUIDE Great Change in Europe: Exploration, Reformation & the Birth of the Nation-State Chapters 8 & 9 LESSON 1: Searching for a New Route to Asia (notes, pp. 243-246, 248-251) Ptolemy navigation
Name Block Notes: Chapter 11 - Renaissance and Reformation Introduction In this chapter, you will learn about important changes that led to the end of and the dawn of the modern age. The were major developments
CHAPTER SUMMARY Renaissance and Reformation Section 1: The Italian Renaissance THE BEGINNING OF THE RENAISSANCE In the 1300s, so many people died of the Black Death, starvation, and warfare that the population
World History Chapter 12 Renaissance and Reformation 1350-1600 What is the Renaissance? - The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many areas- - Most important- changes that took place in
Reformation and Counter Reformation The Reformation was a time of great discovery and learning that affected the way individuals viewed themselves and the world. The Beginning of the Reformation The Catholic
The Rise of Democracy Unit 1: World History I. Types of Government A. Types of Government 1. Monarchy king or queen rules the government 2. Theocracy the religious leader also rules the government 3. Dictatorship
The Renaissance and Reformation 1300-1650 Chapter 13 13-1 The Renaissance in Italy (pg 224) What was the Renaissance? (pg 225-226)! A New Worldview Renaissance it was a rebirth of political, social, economic,
Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 15 Why did the Renaissance Begin in Europe? Black Death, starvation, and warfare- Europe 1300s Farmers specialize= increased trade City-states developed Increased trade
RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION S. Anderson World History The Waning of the Middle Ages Starting in the 12 th Century, life in Europe began to change. The Crusades brought new goods from the East to Europe,
Protestant Reformation WHII.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Reformation in terms of its impact on Western civilization by a) explaining the effects of the theological, political, and economic
7 th Grade Review Use the 7 th Grade Reading Review packet provided by your teacher to complete pages 5-7 ½ of your survivor workbook. You decide how to get the information to ALL your tribe mates Remember
The Rise of Democracy Unit 1: World History I. The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome A. Limited Democracy in Athens, Greece 1. Wealth determined class 2. All free adult males were citizens and could participate
World History Chapter 5 Lecture Notes Names: Date Learning Goals o You will define what the Renaissance period was and what led to it. o You will explain what life was like for nobles and peasants in the
Renaissance The Rebirth of Europe The Rebirth of Knowledge The Renaissance was the rebirth and revolution of art, science, religion, and humanity in Western Europe. Areas of Study o The Rebirth o The Italian
The Reformation -a movement for religious reforms Main Idea: Martin Luther s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches. Immediate Causes: Selling of indulgences
Renaissance and Reformation 1350-1600 Chapter 5 Key Events Look for the following key events: Between 1350 and 1550 Italian intellectuals began to reexamine the culture of the Greeks and Romans. (Renaissance)
Chapter 12, Section 1 For use with textbook pages 375 381 THE RENAISSANCE KEY TERMS urban society a society in which many of the people in cities (page 375) secular worldly, rather than religious (page
Literature, like other Renaissance art forms, was changed by the rebirth of interest in classical ideas and the rise of humanism. During the Italian Renaissance, the topics that people wrote about changed.
Western Europe: The Edge of the Old World SOCIETY Hierarchy and Authority Kings and nobles in European society had control over the average families. In turn, these families- unlike in the previously explored
Test Review The Reformation Which statement was NOT a result of the Protestant Reformation? A. The many years of conflict between Protestants and Catholics B. The rise of capitalism C. Northern Germany
Reformation, Renaissance, and Exploration Read the questions below and select the best choice. Unit Test WRITE YOUR ANSWERS IN THE SPACES PROVDED ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST!! 1. The
UNIT 1: The Renaissance Literally means rebirth- coined by French historian Jules Michelet although it began in Italy Does not refer to a specific time period, but took place at the same time as the Middle
European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600 Two movements, the Renaissance and the Reformation, usher in dramatic social and cultural changes in Europe. European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600
!e Quest of # Europeans (3$-1460AD) Middle Ages & Middle East After the Roman Empire fell in 300 AD, Western Europe went from being the home of the world s largest and most advanced empire to being a disparaged
European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600 Two movements, the Renaissance and the Reformation, usher in dramatic social and cultural changes in Europe. European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600
The Renaissance Form B Chapter 13 Test Part 1: Multiple Choice Choose the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) 1. Which Renaissance-era invention had the greatest impact? a. the long-bow b. the plow
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation Mr. Booth s World History 1300 1500 CE 2 OBJECTIVES TODAY 1. We will learn about Catholic Church Hierarchy. People were I.M.A.D! 2. Martin Luther s Protestant
The Protestant Revolt and the Catholic Reformation Chapter Five 1517 - Martin Luther posted a list on the door of his church in Wittenburg, Germany 95 things about the Roman Catholic Church that troubled
The Reformation B egins What s the Connection? During the Middle Ages, all of Western Europe s Christians were Catholic. The movement called the Reformation, however, questioned Catholic beliefs and power.
Intermediate World History B Unit 3: The Spread of New Ideas Lesson 1: Politics of the Renaissance Pg. 81-94 Lesson 2: The Renaissance Beyond Italy Pg. 95-106 Lesson 3: The Reformation Splits Christendom
Social Studies Assessments (WHG) page 1 of 9 World History and Geography (History - Era 5 - Renaissance - Europe) Academic Standard: TLW analyze major global political, religious, cultural, and economic
Textbook: Early Modern Britain 1509-1760 (Collins Knowing History, Unit 2: Age of Encounters BOOK 2, UNIT 2, THE AGE OF ENCOUNTERS Writing focus: Historical explanations Three paragraph balanced argument
Name Date CHAPTER 17 Section 3 RETEACHING ACTIVITY Luther Leads the Reformation Determining Main Ideas Choose the word that most accurately completes each sentence below. Write that word in the blank provided.
The Reformation As the intellectual freedoms of the Renaissance grew, many Christians lost confidence in the Catholic Church's ability to provide religious leadership. 1. The Babylonian captivity 2. The
In the Fall, we made it from approximately 10,000 BC to the 1500s. Next up: 1500s-today Finishing Unit 6- Changing Ideas: Renaissance & innovations in Europe Revolutions! People revolt around the world
Teacher Overview Objectives: European Culture and Politics ca. 1750 Objective 1. Examine events from the Middle Ages to the mid-1700s from multiple perspectives. Guiding Question and Activity Description
Name: Hour: RenaLssance 4 11 / F L 4 ]R(e1flhI LtSSaIlnI(ce 1L(ea11r1fl ng T(1]rg(etS 1. Explain the effects of re-opening the Silk Road between Europe and Asia. 2. Locate the influential city-states on
European Culture and Politics ca. 1750 Objective: Examine events from the Middle Ages to the mid-1700s from multiple perspectives. What s wrong with this picture??? What s wrong with this picture??? The
The Exchange of Ideas How did the Renaissance spark the growth and exchange of ideas across Europe???? Chapter Overview You will learn the influence that the exchange of ideas had on worldview by asking
Name Period Date Honors World History Midterm Review Your midterm will be given in two sections: DBQ (there will be 3 short documents and 1 essential question to answer) and multiple choice (45 items total,
The Crusades, The Black Plague, The Renaissance & The Reformation Mr. O The Crusades 1095 Pope Urban II calls for retaking of Holy Land (HL) from Muslims Sins will be forgiven to all Crusaders 1096-1099