2 A. The Church as Sign and Instrument The Church is both the sign of the communion of humanity with God and the Instrument that makes that unity happen. This means the Church is the primary sacrament of salvation. The Catechism defines sacraments in CCC 1131: The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions.
3 A. The Church as Sign and Instrument The Second Vatican Council ( ) produced a document entitled Lumen Gentium, or Light of the Nations, which defined the Church and made important contributions to Ecclesiology. This document defined the Church as all the just, starting from Adam: all the just, from Adam and from Abel, the just one, to the last of the elect, will be gathered together with the Father in the universal Church, a people made one with the unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. This Church...subsists in the Catholic Church.
4 The Church as Sign and Instrument Lumen Gentium 48: Christ, having been lifted up from the earth has drawn all to Himself. Rising from the dead He sent His life-giving Spirit upon His disciples and through Him has established His body which is the Church as the universal sacrament of salvation. The Church in heaven is salvation; the visible Church on earth makes this Church visible and present here.
5 The Church as Sign and Instrument Reaction to Lumen Gentium: By defining the Church primarily as the Church in heaven, the Council left open the possibility that salvation might be possible for non- Catholics. This was generally well accepted, but some groups reacted negatively. The Sedevacantists find difficulty with the word subsists rather than is. They claim the seat (of Peter) has been vacant since the death of Pius XII in 1958, negating all of Vatican II. This circumvents the problem of infallibility. Problem: The Church has always maintained that the Church is visible, not hidden. The function of the pope is to guard doctrine and the deposit of faith. Difficulties: Interregnum, the 40-year Papal Schism
6 B. The Divine Purpose and Mission of the Church CCC 763: The purpose and mission of the Church is salvation for humanity. Mission and Authority originates with Jesus The Church is founded by Jesus, but operates within human history. Church within and transcending History Josef Stalin, dictator in the Soviet Union until 1953, mocked the idea of the power of the Church; it had no army, and so could be ignored. The Soviet Union had the most powerful military in the world, but the Church brought an end to it.
7 Divine Purpose and Mission The Church preaches the Gospel in every Age The Church remains connected to current events 1 Because of its grounding in the past, identification with its history 2 Because of its focus on eternal values of the Gospels 3 Because of the continuous action of the Holy Spirit.
8 C. The Church and Her Mission of Evangelization The Church is fundamentally Missionary: the gospel is proclaimed with words and the testimony of life. (CCC 905). This is intrinsic, not optional. The goal is to bring people into the Church to receive the sacraments and to find communion with fellow Christians. The New Evangelization Term coined by JPII. Focuses on territory that has already been Christianized, but which has lost those values, and forgotten who Christ is.
9 D. Visible Structure of the Church The Hierarchy: Hierarchical Communion 1.The Pope and Cardinals 2.The Bishops 3.Priests 4.Deacons 5.Laity
10 The Hierarchy: The Pope 1.The Pope The successor of Peter is the Vicar of Christ; he is the representative of Christ He is the pastor of all the baptized Head of the administration and chief legal authority Appoints bishops Calls ecumenical councils and synods, speaks authoritatively with them
11 The Hierarchy: The Pope and Cardinals Often bishops of large or important cities, sometimes Cardinals simply have important jobs in the Curia, or are distinguished theologians. The Cardinals Electors of the Pope Advisors to the Pope Members of the Supreme Council; originally members of the Roman clergy Three types: i. Cardinal-Bishops (Headed by the Dean); ii. Cardinal-Priests (headed by the First Cardinal-Priest) and iii. Cardinal Deacons (Headed by the First Cardinal Deacon)
12 The Hierarchy: bishops Bishops are successors of the Apostles Members of the College of bishops Share in the magisterium of the Pope, teach with authority Head of their own diocese, which they model on Rome Share authority in Regional/National Conferences (e.g., United States Conference of Catholic Bishops) Are gathered formally by the Pope in Synods to address particular issues May be gathered by the Pope in an Ecumenical Council to address the situation of the Universal Church. Represents/ embodies his diocese, and in a particular way embodies Christ to the diocese
13 The Hierarchy: Priests Priests normally lead parishes as a representative of the bishop Priests represent their bishop at all times Priests also represent their parish as a whole Priests are called to interpret the authoritative teachings of the bishop and the Church. Stand in persona Christi during the Eucharistic rite and while reading the gospel
14 The Hierarchy: Deacons Considered special assistants to the priests, chosen and sent by the bishop Have a special charism to be a servant, particularly to the poor, by teaching administer some sacraments (baptism, Matrimony) Can lead some liturgical celebrations, like funerals, Liturgy of the Hours, some sacraments. Can be married or single, but once ordained are not allowed to marry.
15 Hierarchy: The Laity Families are Domestic Churches. Within the family, the gospel should be taught, sacraments shared, and charity manifested. Like the Church, families must have a structure. Also like the Church, the structure is in the interest of service. Service is performed out of love, and love is self-sacrifice. Some members of the laity are also called to the single life of prayer and dedication to the wider community. Laity may be members of religious orders, but not ordained.
16 The Consecrated Life u Some people, lay or ordained, are called to join particular religious Orders; i.e., devoting oneself to particular ways of life. u Examples: The Jesuits, The Franciscans, the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Salesians u Most orders dedicate themselves by taking vows to the Evangelical Counsels of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience. Often, they orders take a particular Fourth vow according to their charism. u Orders may be contemplative, active, or (often) both. u Priests and deacons may also join the Consecrated Life u Members of the Laity may join as a Third Order.
17 Other Forms of Consecrated Life Ancient Forms: Hermits, Widows, Consecrated Virgins More recent forms: u Secular Institutes consist of people who take vows of poverty, chastity, obedience, but live on their own u A society of Apostolic Life live in a common life dedicated to a certain apostolate, but do not take vows.
18 Religious Orders: Monasticism u In the Early Church, many people decided to live their lives apart from the world in order to concentrate on their relationship with God. These people are called hermits. u People would often visit these hermits and ask advice. Some of these hermits developed a reputation for giving good advice and as helpful guides. These individuals were known as the Desert Fathers. u Eventually, other people decided to live near these hermits in order to always be able to have their guidance in their relationships with God. These were the cenobites, meaning they lived a common life.
19 Monasticism continued u St. Anthony of the Desert is considered the Father of all monks. St. Anthony attempted to isolate himself completely from all society. u Others began to follow St. Anthony, simply to live near him. One of these was St. Pachomius, until he received inspiration from God to found a monastery in order to attract other monks. St. Pachomius is known as the Father of Cenobitic Monasticism. u Monastic Christianity spread to Europe through St. Benedict of Nursia, who founded monasteries in Italy and authored The Rule of Benedict. u Desert Monasticism found its way to Ireland, forming a distinctive type of Christianity.
20 Religious Orders u As Monasticism spread throughout Europe, it took on distinctive forms, varying from region to region, but maintaining the basic structure of an abbot surrounded by monks. u St. Benedict of Nursia was heavily influenced by the Conferences of St. John Cassian, which contained rules for living a common life. u St. Benedict wrote The Rule of Benedict, which emphasized obedience and charity. This became the standard for future western orders.
21 Monasticism: Celtic v. Benedictine After Constantine and the establishment of Christianity in the Roman Empire, there were three ways in which Christianity was established in Europe: 1. Episcopal Christianity: based on the authority of the bishop. This type of Christianity was centered on developed, urban areas where the power of the empire was strong. 2. Benedictine Monasticism: began in Italy as centers for people who wanted to avoid the distractions that go with city life. Focused on Benedict's Rule, a complete guide for the organization and spirituality of a monastery. 3. Celtic Monasticism: Influenced directly by Egyptian Monasticism. Based on the spiritual authority of an abbot. These abbeys became centers of learning and preserved Western civilization after the Fall of the Roman Empire.
22 The Rule of Benedict St. Benedict of Nursia authored The Rule of Benedict between 530 A.D. and 560 A.D. By the Ninth century, most of the Church was monastic in the Benedictine tradition. The Rule of Benedict covers many practical aspects of common living, including: u Common times for worship u Clothing u Food and drink u Sleeping arrangements u Recruitment of new members u Comportment while away from the monastery Aspects of life not covered in the Rule are left to the discretion of the Abbot. The point of the Rule was to devise a way of life so that every moment and activity was oriented toward prayer. It is a way of making time itself holy, and bringing about the Kingdom of God.
23 The Rule of Benedict Continued Via media u Benedictine Spirituality is associated with the Via Media, or Middle Way; it is not to austere, and provides for monks to have enough to survive, but to avoid excess food or luxuries. u Monks divide their time in solitude and in common prayer. u Authority is given to the Abbot, but the rights of individual monks are protected. Monastery and economy u Ora et Labora: Monasteries established the dignity of manual labor in Europe, and helped develop an agricultural economy. u Monasteries served as centers of trade and commerce. u Local rulers established monasteries on their lands for economic benefit and to establish centers of learning. Monasteries would in turn pray for their community.
24 Catholic Religious Orders Approximately 300 Religious Orders exist in the Catholic Church. Most are for both men and women. The major ones include: u Benedictine: based on the Rule of St. Benedict in the sixth Century. u Carthusian: based on the Rule of St. Bruno (11th c.), combines the eremetical and cenobitic Life. u Cistercians (Trappists) are a reform of the Benedictine Order, formed in order to preserve a strict observance of the Rule of Benedict. u Franciscans: Formed by St. Francis of Assisi, dedicated living a life in imitation of the poverty of Christ and service to the poor u Capuchins: A reform of the Franciscan Order, formed because of the perception the Franciscans had strayed from strict observance u Dominicans: formed by St. Dominic, and Friend of St. Francis, dedicated to scholarship and preaching. St. Thomas Aquinas was an example u Society of Jesus (Jesuits) formed by St. Ignatius of Loyola (16 th c.) in order to bring the spiritual insights of the monastic life to the world.
25 E. The Teaching Office in the Church: The Magisterium The Church teaches that its faith was given to the Apostles and is preserved by the presence of the Holy Spirit. This authority is called the Magisterium Papal Infallibility: a charism given to the Pope on matters of Faith and morals, exercised ex cathedra ( From the chair ), or when he fully intends to pronounce a binding teaching, and is not just speaking speculatively. Episcopal Infallibility: similar to Papal Infallibility, bishops speak infallibly when pronouncing teachings in union with the Church, and give definitive interpretations for their diocese. Conciliar Infallibility: Bishops speak infallibly when gathered in and ecumenical council and in producing official documents. Ecumenical councils, because they are representations of the whole Church, speak with an authority similar to that of the Pope.
26 Indefectibility u Indefectibility: the Assurance the Church will never completely fail or be destroyed u The pope and bishops remain imperfect; indefectibility does not apply to them personally. u The Church remains indefectible through history because it is the Body of Christ and endures with the saints in heaven.
27 Hierarchy of Truths u The Magisterium organizes doctrine into a hierarchy of Truths according to their relation to the central truths of the Faith. u Fundamental teachings(higher Truths) have to do with the Incarnation and the Trinity. u Other teachings must be believed, but depend on an understanding of the Truths above them. u Example: Transubstantiation depends on the Resurrection. u Dormition of Mary?
28 Canon Law: The Law of the Church u Canon Law exists in The Code for the Western Church (revised 1983) and the Code for the Eastern Churches (revised 1991). Precepts of the Church: most important teachings and minimum moral effort required: 1. Attend Mass on Sundays and holy Days, rest from servile labor. 2. Confess once a year. 3. Receive the Eucharist at least during the Easter season 4. Observe days of Fasting and Abstinence 5. Provide for the Needs of the Church
29 Changing Disciplines and unchanging Moral Law u Precepts of the Church and other laws are distinct from unchanging Moral Law. u Teaching based on the Deposit of Faith may develop over time, and be understood in different contexts, but remains unchanged in itself. u The Pope or bishops may institute a particular practice because it is helpful at a particular time, but these may be changed. These are changes in discipline, not Moral Law. u E.g. Changes in rules concerning abstaining from meat on Friday, or institution of vigil Mass.
30 F. Sanctifying office of the Church u All the baptized have a responsibility to make the Church holy. Priests and bishops, especially, have this responsibility through prayer and the sacraments, particularly the Eucharist. Though the Eucharist, Christ is made present. u Through the sacraments, the Church itself becomes a sacrament to the world, making the world itself holy. u The goal of the Church as a pilgrimage is to bring the entire world to salvation; that is, communion with God.
31 G. Governing Office of the Church u u u As an organization of human beings, the Church needs governance. Essential to Church governance is the concept of obedience. Obedience: obedire: (Latin) to listen; to listen to the voice of God 1. Submission to the authority of God and divine law. Encompasses obedience to the Church, civil authority, and our parents. 2. Obedience of Faith: to listen freely and submit to the word of God 3. Obedience of Christ: Christ s submission to the will of the Father to the point of death. 4. Vow of Obedience: in imitation of Christ, the submission of a member of the Church to the authority of the Church as an evangelical counsel.
32 G. Governing Office Continued u Bishop is the ordinary of his diocese meaning he has all normal authority over matters of faith and morals in his diocese. u The Pope has supreme authority over the universal Church. u The Pope has immediate authority in all matters; that is, he does not have to involve himself in negotiations with local bishops. u The Pope is not the boss of bishops, but it is the responsibility of the bishop to make sure their governance is in accord with the papacy. u All the faithful have the right to appeal to the Pope or the Vatican.
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