Philosophy 220. Truth Functional Properties Expressed in terms of Consistency

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Philosophy 220 Truth Functional Properties Expressed in terms of Consistency

2 The concepts of truth-functional logic: Truth-functional: Truth Falsity Indeterminacy Entailment Validity Equivalence Consistency

3 The concepts of truth-functional logic: The section of the text from aims to demonstrate that all of the other concepts of truthfunctional logic can be explained in terms of truthfunctional consistency. As it happens, all of the concepts of truth-functional logic can be explained in terms of any of the other concepts of truth-functional logic listed previously.

4 Why Consistency? If all of the other concepts of truth-functional logic can be explained via truth functional consistency, then a system that determines consistency can determine all of the other concepts as well. We will be replacing truth-tables with a system based on consistency (but that is much easier to learn if you already are very familiar with truth-tables). This new system, called the semantic tree system will be our primary system for determining validity, entailment, equivalency, etc. for the remainder of the course.

5 Truth-Functional Consistency (Review) A set of sentences of SL is truth-functionally consistent if and only if there is at least one truth value assignment [of the constituents of the set of sentences] on which all the members of the set are true.

6 Truth-Functional Falsity Definition A sentence of SL is truthfunctionally false if and only if it is false on every possible truth-value assignment of its constituents. Explained via consistency A sentence is truthfunctionally false if and only if { } is truth-functionally inconsistent. Since inconsistent sets are sets that can never all be true at the same time, and since the unit set of has only one member, it must always be false to be inconsistent.

7 Truth-Functional Truth Definition A sentence of SL is truthfunctionally true if and only if it is true on every possible truthvalue assignment of its constituents. Explained via Consistency A sentence is truthfunctionally true if and only if {~ } is truth-functionally inconsistent. Since inconsistent sets are sets that can never be true at the same time, and since the unit set ~ has only one member and is a negation.

8 Truth-Functional Indeterminacy Definition A sentence of SL is truthfunctionally indeterminate if and only if it is neither truthfunctionally true nor truthfunctionally false. Explained via consistency A sentence is truthfunctionally indeterminate if and only if both {~ } and { } are truth-functionally consistent. Since is truth functionally true or false if one of the above sets is inconsistent

9 Truth-Functional Equivalence Definition Sentences and of SL are truth-functionally equivalent if and only if there is no truth value assignment [for the components of and ] on which and have different truth-values. Explained via consistency Sentences and of SL are truthfunctionally equivalent if and only if {~( )} is truth-functionally inconsistent Since only truth-functionally false sentences are inconsistent as sole members of a set, the negation of a sentence asserting that and have different truth-values being truth functionally false means that and must have the same truthvalue.

10 A new symbol: To define validity and entailment by means of consistency, it is useful to introduce a new symbol: is the union symbol. The union symbol is used to express the combination of two sets together or to express the combination of a set and a sentence. Example: {A, B, C} D is {A, B, C, D}

11 Truth-functional entailment Definition A set of sentences of SL truth-functionally entails a sentence if and only if there is no truth-value assignment on which every member of is true and is false. Explained via Consistency if and only if {~ } is truth-functionally inconsistent. Next slide contains more detailed rationale

12 if and only if {~ } is truthfunctionally inconsistent. If the set entails, then there is no truth-value assignment that makes the members of true while is false. That means that whenever the members of are all true, is also, so {~ } would be inconsistent. Side note: If is inconsistent to begin with, then {~ } is still inconsistent, and still entails, because inconsistent sets entail anyhting.

13 Truth-Functional Validity Since validity is simply a special case of entailment, the same procedure can demonstrate that validity can be described in terms of consistency. If an argument is valid, then the union of the set of its premises and the negation of its conclusion will form a truth-functionally inconsistent set.

Introducing truth tables. Hello, I m Marianne Talbot and this is the first video in the series supplementing the Formal Logic podcasts.

Introducing truth tables Marianne: Hello, I m Marianne Talbot and this is the first video in the series supplementing the Formal Logic podcasts. Okay, introducing truth tables. (Slide 2) This video supplements

Module 5. Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5 Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Lesson 12 Propositional Logic inference rules 5.5 Rules of Inference Here are some examples of sound rules of inference. Each can be shown

Logic I, Fall 2009 Final Exam

24.241 Logic I, Fall 2009 Final Exam You may not use any notes, handouts, or other material during the exam. All cell phones must be turned off. Please read all instructions carefully. Good luck with the

(Some More) Vagueness

(Some More) Vagueness Otávio Bueno Department of Philosophy University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 E-mail: otaviobueno@mac.com Three features of vague predicates: (a) borderline cases It is common

Philosophy 240: Symbolic Logic

Philosophy 240: Symbolic Logic Russell Marcus Hamilton College Fall 2011 Class 27: October 28 Truth and Liars Marcus, Symbolic Logic, Fall 2011 Slide 1 Philosophers and Truth P Sex! P Lots of technical

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 02 Lecture - 03 So in the last

To better understand VALIDITY, we now turn to the topic of logical form.

LOGIC GUIDE 2 To better understand VALIDITY, we now turn to the topic of logical form. LOGICAL FORM The logical form of a statement or argument is the skeleton, or structure. If you retain only the words

A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November

Lecture 9: Propositional Logic I Philosophy 130 1 & 3 November 2016 O Rourke & Gibson I. Administrative A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November B. I am working on the group

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Alice Gao Lecture 6, September 26, 2017 Entailment 1/55 Learning goals Semantic entailment Define semantic entailment. Explain subtleties of semantic entailment.

Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions

Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions Christopher Menzel Texas A&M University March 16, 2008 Since Arthur Prior first made us aware of the issue, a lot of philosophical thought has gone into

An alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics

An alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics 1. In traditional (truth-theoretic) semantics, interpretations serve to specify when statements are true and when they are false.

Am I free? Freedom vs. Fate

Am I free? Freedom vs. Fate We ve been discussing the free will defense as a response to the argument from evil. This response assumes something about us: that we have free will. But what does this mean?

1 Clarion Logic Notes Chapter 4

1 Clarion Logic Notes Chapter 4 Summary Notes These are summary notes so that you can really listen in class and not spend the entire time copying notes. These notes will not substitute for reading the

PART III - Symbolic Logic Chapter 7 - Sentential Propositions

Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University 7.1 Introduction PART III - Symbolic Logic Chapter 7 - Sentential Propositions What has been made abundantly clear in the previous discussion

3.3. Negations as premises Overview

3.3. Negations as premises 3.3.0. Overview A second group of rules for negation interchanges the roles of an affirmative sentence and its negation. 3.3.1. Indirect proof The basic principles for negation

Testing semantic sequents with truth tables

Testing semantic sequents with truth tables Marianne: Hi. I m Marianne Talbot and in this video we are going to look at testing semantic sequents with truth tables. (Slide 2) This video supplements Session

KRISHNA KANTA HANDIQUI STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY Patgaon, Ranigate, Guwahati SEMESTER: 1 PHILOSOPHY PAPER : 1 LOGIC: 1 BLOCK: 2

GPH S1 01 KRISHNA KANTA HANDIQUI STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY Patgaon, Ranigate, Guwahati-781017 SEMESTER: 1 PHILOSOPHY PAPER : 1 LOGIC: 1 BLOCK: 2 CONTENTS UNIT 6 : Modern analysis of proposition UNIT 7 : Square

Logic: A Brief Introduction

Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University PART III - Symbolic Logic Chapter 7 - Sentential Propositions 7.1 Introduction What has been made abundantly clear in the previous discussion

In Reference and Definite Descriptions, Keith Donnellan makes a

Aporia vol. 16 no. 1 2006 Donnellan s Distinction: Pragmatic or Semantic Importance? ALAN FEUERLEIN In Reference and Definite Descriptions, Keith Donnellan makes a distinction between attributive and referential

Cognitivism about imperatives JOSH PARSONS 1 Introduction Sentences in the imperative mood imperatives, for short are traditionally supposed to not be truth-apt. They are not in the business of describing

A romp through the foothills of logic Session 3

A romp through the foothills of logic Session 3 It would be a good idea to watch the short podcast Understanding Truth Tables before attempting this podcast. (Slide 2) In the last session we learnt how

Semantic defectiveness and the liar

Philos Stud (2013) 164:845 863 DOI 10.1007/s11098-012-9915-6 Semantic defectiveness and the liar Bradley Armour-Garb James A. Woodbridge Published online: 8 April 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media

Basic Concepts and Skills!

Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential

Conditionals II: no truth conditions?

Conditionals II: no truth conditions? UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Arguments for the material conditional analysis As Edgington [1] notes, there are some powerful reasons

Logic & Proofs. Chapter 3 Content. Sentential Logic Semantics. Contents: Studying this chapter will enable you to:

Sentential Logic Semantics Contents: Truth-Value Assignments and Truth-Functions Truth-Value Assignments Truth-Functions Introduction to the TruthLab Truth-Definition Logical Notions Truth-Trees Studying

Russell on Denoting. G. J. Mattey. Fall, 2005 / Philosophy 156. The concept any finite number is not odd, nor is it even.

Russell on Denoting G. J. Mattey Fall, 2005 / Philosophy 156 Denoting in The Principles of Mathematics This notion [denoting] lies at the bottom (I think) of all theories of substance, of the subject-predicate

The way we convince people is generally to refer to sufficiently many things that they already know are correct.

Theorem A Theorem is a valid deduction. One of the key activities in higher mathematics is identifying whether or not a deduction is actually a theorem and then trying to convince other people that you

4.1 A problem with semantic demonstrations of validity

4. Proofs 4.1 A problem with semantic demonstrations of validity Given that we can test an argument for validity, it might seem that we have a fully developed system to study arguments. However, there

What are Truth-Tables and What Are They For?

PY114: Work Obscenely Hard Week 9 (Meeting 7) 30 November, 2010 What are Truth-Tables and What Are They For? 0. Business Matters: The last marked homework of term will be due on Monday, 6 December, at

Responses to the sorites paradox phil 20229 Jeff Speaks April 21, 2008 1 Rejecting the initial premise: nihilism....................... 1 2 Rejecting one or more of the other premises....................

Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic

Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic Standardizing and Diagramming In Reason and the Balance we have taken the approach of using a simple outline to standardize short arguments,

Today s Lecture 1/28/10

Chapter 7.1! Symbolizing English Arguments! 5 Important Logical Operators!The Main Logical Operator Today s Lecture 1/28/10 Quiz State from memory (closed book and notes) the five famous valid forms and

INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms

1 GLOSSARY INTERMEDIATE LOGIC BY JAMES B. NANCE INTERMEDIATE LOGIC Glossary of key terms This glossary includes terms that are defined in the text in the lesson and on the page noted. It does not include

Williams on Supervaluationism and Logical Revisionism

Williams on Supervaluationism and Logical Revisionism Nicholas K. Jones Non-citable draft: 26 02 2010. Final version appeared in: The Journal of Philosophy (2011) 108: 11: 633-641 Central to discussion

The distinction between truth-functional and non-truth-functional logical and linguistic

FORMAL CRITERIA OF NON-TRUTH-FUNCTIONALITY Dale Jacquette The Pennsylvania State University 1. Truth-Functional Meaning The distinction between truth-functional and non-truth-functional logical and linguistic

Horwich and the Liar

Horwich and the Liar Sergi Oms Sardans Logos, University of Barcelona 1 Horwich defends an epistemic account of vagueness according to which vague predicates have sharp boundaries which we are not capable

Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2013 Class 1 - Introduction to Introduction to Philosophy My name is Russell. My office is 202 College Hill Road, Room 210.

Elements of Science (cont.); Conditional Statements. Phil 12: Logic and Decision Making Fall 2010 UC San Diego 9/29/2010

Elements of Science (cont.); Conditional Statements Phil 12: Logic and Decision Making Fall 2010 UC San Diego 9/29/2010 1 Why cover statements and arguments Decision making (whether in science or elsewhere)

Epistemicism and the Liar

Epistemicism and the Liar Forthcoming in Synthese Jamin Asay University of Hong Kong asay@hku.hk Abstract One well known approach to the soritical paradoxes is epistemicism, the view that propositions

Semantic Pathology and the Open Pair

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXXI, No. 3, November 2005 Semantic Pathology and the Open Pair JAMES A. WOODBRIDGE University of Nevada, Las Vegas BRADLEY ARMOUR-GARB University at Albany,

SUPPOSITIONAL REASONING AND PERCEPTUAL JUSTIFICATION

SUPPOSITIONAL REASONING AND PERCEPTUAL JUSTIFICATION Stewart COHEN ABSTRACT: James Van Cleve raises some objections to my attempt to solve the bootstrapping problem for what I call basic justification

SAVING RELATIVISM FROM ITS SAVIOUR

CRÍTICA, Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía Vol. XXXI, No. 91 (abril 1999): 91 103 SAVING RELATIVISM FROM ITS SAVIOUR MAX KÖLBEL Doctoral Programme in Cognitive Science Universität Hamburg In his paper

Lecture 4: Deductive Validity

Lecture 4: Deductive Validity Right, I m told we can start. Hello everyone, and hello everyone on the podcast. This week we re going to do deductive validity. Last week we looked at all these things: have

THE PROBLEM OF CONTRARY-TO-FACT CONDITIONALS. By JOHN WATLING

THE PROBLEM OF CONTRARY-TO-FACT CONDITIONALS By JOHN WATLING There is an argument which appears to show that it is impossible to verify a contrary-to-fact conditional; so giving rise to an important and

Ling 98a: The Meaning of Negation (Week 1)

Yimei Xiang yxiang@fas.harvard.edu 17 September 2013 1 What is negation? Negation in two-valued propositional logic Based on your understanding, select out the metaphors that best describe the meaning

Illustrating Deduction. A Didactic Sequence for Secondary School

Illustrating Deduction. A Didactic Sequence for Secondary School Francisco Saurí Universitat de València. Dpt. de Lògica i Filosofia de la Ciència Cuerpo de Profesores de Secundaria. IES Vilamarxant (España)

A Primer on Logic Part 1: Preliminaries and Vocabulary. Jason Zarri. 1. An Easy \$10.00? a 3 c 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

A Primer on Logic Part 1: Preliminaries and Vocabulary Jason Zarri 1. An Easy \$10.00? Suppose someone were to bet you \$10.00 that you would fail a seemingly simple test of your reasoning skills. Feeling

In Defense of Truth functional Theory of Indicative Conditionals. Ching Hui Su Postdoctoral Fellow Institution of European and American Studies,

In Defense of Truth functional Theory of Indicative Conditionals Ching Hui Su Postdoctoral Fellow Institution of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica, Taiwan SELLC 2010 Outline Truth functional

Future Contingents, Non-Contradiction and the Law of Excluded Middle Muddle

Future Contingents, Non-Contradiction and the Law of Excluded Middle Muddle For whatever reason, we might think that contingent statements about the future have no determinate truth value. Aristotle, in

A Liar Paradox. Richard G. Heck, Jr. Brown University

A Liar Paradox Richard G. Heck, Jr. Brown University It is widely supposed nowadays that, whatever the right theory of truth may be, it needs to satisfy a principle sometimes known as transparency : Any

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

2.3. Failed proofs and counterexamples

2.3. Failed proofs and counterexamples 2.3.0. Overview Derivations can also be used to tell when a claim of entailment does not follow from the principles for conjunction. 2.3.1. When enough is enough

All things are possible Case study in the meaninglessness of all views By Colin leslie dean

All things are possible Case study in the meaninglessness of all views By Colin leslie dean All things are possible Case study in the meaninglessness of all views By Colin leslie dean 2 List of free Erotic

Chapter 8 - Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms

Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8 - Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truth-value of a given truth-functional compound proposition depends

A Romp through the Foothills of Logic: Session 2

A Romp through the Foothills of Logic: Session 2 You might find it easier to understand this podcast if you first watch the short podcast Introducing Truth Tables. (Slide 2) Right, by the time we finish

Aquinas' Third Way Modalized

Philosophy of Religion Aquinas' Third Way Modalized Robert E. Maydole Davidson College bomaydole@davidson.edu ABSTRACT: The Third Way is the most interesting and insightful of Aquinas' five arguments for

A Problem for a Direct-Reference Theory of Belief Reports. Stephen Schiffer New York University

A Problem for a Direct-Reference Theory of Belief Reports Stephen Schiffer New York University The direct-reference theory of belief reports to which I allude is the one held by such theorists as Nathan

2. Refutations can be stronger or weaker.

Lecture 8: Refutation Philosophy 130 October 25 & 27, 2016 O Rourke I. Administrative A. Schedule see syllabus as well! B. Questions? II. Refutation A. Arguments are typically used to establish conclusions.

THE LARGER LOGICAL PICTURE

THE LARGER LOGICAL PICTURE 1. ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS In this paper, I am concerned to articulate a conceptual framework which accommodates speech acts, or language acts, as well as logical theories. I will

Philosophy 1100: Ethics

Philosophy 1100: Ethics Topic 3 - Religious Approaches to Ethics 1.Religion and Morality 2.Divine Command Theory (DCT) 3.DCT and Atheism 4.Why believe DCT? 5.Plato 6.Euthyphro 7.An Argument against DCT:

Free will & divine foreknowledge

Free will & divine foreknowledge Jeff Speaks March 7, 2006 1 The argument from the necessity of the past.................... 1 1.1 Reply 1: Aquinas on the eternity of God.................. 3 1.2 Reply

Lecture 8: Refutation Philosophy 130 March 19 & 24, 2015 O Rourke I. Administrative A. Roll B. Schedule C. Exam #1 comments on difficult spots; if you have questions about this, please let me know D. Discussion

Final Paper. May 13, 2015

24.221 Final Paper May 13, 2015 Determinism states the following: given the state of the universe at time t 0, denoted S 0, and the conjunction of the laws of nature, L, the state of the universe S at

Figure 1 Figure 2 U S S. non-p P P

1 Depicting negation in diagrammatic logic: legacy and prospects Fabien Schang, Amirouche Moktefi schang.fabien@voila.fr amirouche.moktefi@gersulp.u-strasbg.fr Abstract Here are considered the conditions

1. Lukasiewicz s Logic

Bulletin of the Section of Logic Volume 29/3 (2000), pp. 115 124 Dale Jacquette AN INTERNAL DETERMINACY METATHEOREM FOR LUKASIEWICZ S AUSSAGENKALKÜLS Abstract An internal determinacy metatheorem is proved

Externalism and a priori knowledge of the world: Why privileged access is not the issue Maria Lasonen-Aarnio

Externalism and a priori knowledge of the world: Why privileged access is not the issue Maria Lasonen-Aarnio This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Lasonen-Aarnio, M. (2006), Externalism

Entailment, with nods to Lewy and Smiley

Entailment, with nods to Lewy and Smiley Peter Smith November 20, 2009 Last week, we talked a bit about the Anderson-Belnap logic of entailment, as discussed in Priest s Introduction to Non-Classical Logic.

BOOK REVIEWS. About a new solution to the problem of future contingents

Logic and Logical Philosophy Volume 26 (2017), 277 281 DOI: 10.12775/LLP.2016.024 BOOK REVIEWS About a new solution to the problem of future contingents Marcin Tkaczyk, Futura contingentia, Wydawnictwo

Deduction by Daniel Bonevac. Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Logic

Deduction by Daniel Bonevac Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Logic Logic defined Logic is the study of correct reasoning. Informal logic is the attempt to represent correct reasoning using the natural language

Criticizing Arguments

Kareem Khalifa Criticizing Arguments 1 Criticizing Arguments Kareem Khalifa Department of Philosophy Middlebury College Written August, 2012 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Step 1: Initial Evaluation

Is the law of excluded middle a law of logic?

Is the law of excluded middle a law of logic? Introduction I will conclude that the intuitionist s attempt to rule out the law of excluded middle as a law of logic fails. They do so by appealing to harmony

Overview. Is there a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine. Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant)

Overview Is there a priori knowledge? Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant) No: all a priori knowledge analytic (Ayer) No A Priori

Vagueness and supervaluations

Vagueness and supervaluations UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Supervaluations We saw two problems with the three-valued approach: 1. sharp boundaries 2. counterintuitive consequences

1.2. What is said: propositions

1.2. What is said: propositions 1.2.0. Overview In 1.1.5, we saw the close relation between two properties of a deductive inference: (i) it is a transition from premises to conclusion that is free of any

WRIGHT ON BORDERLINE CASES AND BIVALENCE 1

WRIGHT ON BORDERLINE CASES AND BIVALENCE 1 HAMIDREZA MOHAMMADI Abstract. The aim of this paper is, firstly to explain Crispin Wright s quandary view of vagueness, his intuitionistic response to sorites

INDETERMINACY AND VAGUENESS: LOGIC AND METAPHYSICS

INDETERMINACY AND VAGUENESS: LOGIC AND METAPHYSICS PETER VAN INWAGEN University of Notre Dame Vagueness is a special case of indeterminacy semantical indeterminacy. It may be indeterminate whether a sentence

Truth At a World for Modal Propositions

Truth At a World for Modal Propositions 1 Introduction Existentialism is a thesis that concerns the ontological status of individual essences and singular propositions. Let us define an individual essence

On Priest on nonmonotonic and inductive logic

On Priest on nonmonotonic and inductive logic Greg Restall School of Historical and Philosophical Studies The University of Melbourne Parkville, 3010, Australia restall@unimelb.edu.au http://consequently.org/

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods delineating the scope of deductive reason Roger Bishop Jones Abstract. The scope of deductive reason is considered. First a connection is discussed between the

Complications for Categorical Syllogisms. PHIL 121: Methods of Reasoning February 27, 2013 Instructor:Karin Howe Binghamton University

Complications for Categorical Syllogisms PHIL 121: Methods of Reasoning February 27, 2013 Instructor:Karin Howe Binghamton University Overall Plan First, I will present some problematic propositions and

Compatibilism vs. incompatibilism, continued

Compatibilism vs. incompatibilism, continued Jeff Speaks March 24, 2009 1 Arguments for compatibilism............................ 1 1.1 Arguments from the analysis of free will.................. 1 1.2

Logic -type questions

Logic -type questions [For use in the Philosophy Test and the Philosophy section of the MLAT] One of the questions on a test may take the form of a logic exercise, starting with the definition of a key

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

Informalizing Formal Logic

Informalizing Formal Logic Antonis Kakas Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus, Cyprus antonis@ucy.ac.cy Abstract. This paper discusses how the basic notions of formal logic can be expressed

Since Michael so neatly summarized his objections in the form of three questions, all I need to do now is to answer these questions.

Replies to Michael Kremer Since Michael so neatly summarized his objections in the form of three questions, all I need to do now is to answer these questions. First, is existence really not essential by

Presuppositions (Ch. 6, pp )

(1) John left work early again Presuppositions (Ch. 6, pp. 349-365) We take for granted that John has left work early before. Linguistic presupposition occurs when the utterance of a sentence tells the

MATH1061/MATH7861 Discrete Mathematics Semester 2, Lecture 5 Valid and Invalid Arguments. Learning Goals

MAH1061/MAH7861 Discrete Mathematics Semester 2, 2016 Learning Goals 1. Understand the meaning of necessary and sufficient conditions (carried over from Wednesday). 2. Understand the difference between

An Introduction to. Formal Logic. Second edition. Peter Smith, February 27, 2019

An Introduction to Formal Logic Second edition Peter Smith February 27, 2019 Peter Smith 2018. Not for re-posting or re-circulation. Comments and corrections please to ps218 at cam dot ac dot uk 1 What

Empty Names and Two-Valued Positive Free Logic

Empty Names and Two-Valued Positive Free Logic 1 Introduction Zahra Ahmadianhosseini In order to tackle the problem of handling empty names in logic, Andrew Bacon (2013) takes on an approach based on positive

Noncognitivism in Ethics, by Mark Schroeder. London: Routledge, 251 pp.

Noncognitivism in Ethics, by Mark Schroeder. London: Routledge, 251 pp. Noncognitivism in Ethics is Mark Schroeder s third book in four years. That is very impressive. What is even more impressive is that

Criteria of Identity

Philosophy 100 Introduction to Philosophy Section 002 (Johns) Criteria of Identity We saw that, according to Locke, you can t just point at two people and ask whether they re the same one, as the question

Indeterminacy, Degree of Belief, and Excluded Middle

Indeterminacy, Degree of Belief, and Excluded Middle 1. Referential indeterminacy (for instance, indeterminacy as to what a singular term stands for or what a general term has as its extension) is a widespread

Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture- 9 First Order Logic In the last class, we had seen we have studied

EXERCISES: (from

EXERCISES: (from http://people.umass.edu/klement/100/logic-worksheet.html) A. 2. Jane has a cat 3. Therefore, Jane has a pet B. 2. Jane has a pet 3. Therefore, Jane has a cat C. 2. It is not the case that

Russell: On Denoting

Russell: On Denoting DENOTING PHRASES Russell includes all kinds of quantified subject phrases ( a man, every man, some man etc.) but his main interest is in definite descriptions: the present King of

Review: Stephen Schiffer, Th e Th i n g s We Me a n, Oxford University Press 2003

Review: Stephen Schiffer, The Things We Mean 1 Review: Stephen Schiffer, Th e Th i n g s We Me a n, Oxford University Press 2003 Stephen Schiffer s latest book is on the things we mean somewhat surprising,

If we can t assert this, we undermine the truth of the scientific arguments too. So, Kanterian says: A full

Edward Kanterian: Frege: A Guide for the Perplexed. London/New York: Continuum, 2012. ISBN 978-0- 8264-8764-3; \$24.95, 14.99 (paperback); 248 pages. Gottlob Frege s Begriffsschrift founded modern logic.

I. In the ongoing debate on the meaning of logical connectives 1, two families of

What does & mean? Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia abarcelo@filosoficas.unam.mx Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, UNAM México Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy, Vol. 5, 2007.