# In more precise language, we have both conditional statements and bi-conditional statements.

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1 MATD Day 5. Feb. 3, 2010 Last updated Feb. 3, 2010 Logic. Sections 3-4, part 2, page 1 of 8 What does logic tell us about conditional statements? When I surveyed the class a couple of days ago, many students said that when someone tells you an if.. then statement you just think of it as the two things being related than instead of thinking it had a specific direction to the relationship. And I understand that. In common language, we can usually tell from the context whether there is a direction or not. For example, when you hear If it is raining when I leave home, then I will carry an umbrella, you think of associating raining and carrying an umbrella. Many of us will say that exact statement in dayto-day life, and it is true, and moreover, it is also true that if we are brought an umbrella when we left home, then it was raining, because we only bring out that umbrella when it rains. So many of us mean that to be a two-directional statement, even if we use the if, then words. This makes it confusing to come to a math, science, or social science class where we are supposed to use more precise language. In more precise language, we have both conditional statements and bi-conditional statements. Conditional: If a person is teaching college-level math at a Texas community college, then that person has earned 18 graduate hours in mathematics. Bi-conditional: An undergraduate student at Smith University earns a minor in mathematics if and only if he earns credit in 12 hours of upper-division mathematics. What is the difference between the structure of a conditional statement and a bi-conditional statement? Do you think that the conditional statement above is also true if you swap the two parts? (Answer: It is not.) Do you think the bi-conditional statement above is true if you swap the two parts? (Answer: It is.) Now we re going to spend some time looking at the conditional, which has one specific direction. The main form of a conditional statement is if p, then q. Here p is called the hypothesis and q is called the conclusion. First we will discuss different ways to say this relationship in an English sentence. Then we will discuss other, related, conditional statements and whether they are equivalent to the original conditional statement or not.

2 MATD Day 5. Feb. 3, 2010 Last updated Feb. 3, 2010 Logic. Sections 3-4, part 2, page 2 of 8 Common language Rewritten in If.. then Explanation I will go to the movie if you pay for it. G if P G = go to the movie P = you pay for it Mrs. Hernandez* will move to a nursing home only if she becomes unable to walk. M only if U M = move to nursing home U = unable to walk Your paying for it is necessary in order for me to go to the movie. P is necessary for G. G = go to the movie P = you pay for it For Mrs. Hernandez*, her moving to a nursing home is sufficient to tell us that she has become unable to walk. M is sufficient for U M = move to nursing home U = unable to walk I get scared when I go to a horror movie. S when H S = scared H = go to horror movie If you pay for it, then I will go to the movie. If P, then G. If Mrs. Hernandez* moves to a nursing home, then she became unable to walk. If M, then U. If I went to the movie, then you paid for it. If G, then P. For Mrs. Hernandez*, if she moves to a nursing home, then she has become unable to walk. If M, then U. If I go to a horror movie, then I get scared. If H, then S. The hypothesis is what follows the if in the sentence. If tells us what is sufficient for the other thing to happen. Only if in the middle of the sentence gives the opposite direction from if in the middle of the sentence. Since it is necessary, then if the other thing happens, that implies that the necessary thing happens. The necessary thing is the conclusion. Since it is sufficient, if it happens, then the other has to happen. The sufficient thing is the hypothesis. What comes after when is what it takes to make the other thing happen. What comes after when is the hypothesis. * Mrs. Hernandez is a friend of mine who is 89 years old, owns her three-bedroom home, has several family members who help her, and enough money to pay some paid care-givers. But she is fairly large, and one person cannot lift her.

3 MATD Day 5. Feb. 3, 2010 Last updated Feb. 3, 2010 Logic. Sections 3-4, part 2, page 3 of 8 Main result: When we have a conditional statement if p, then q then The converse, if q, then p may or may not be true. The statement if p, then q gives us no information about whether the converse is true. The contrapositive, if not q, then not p must be true. This is logically equivalent to the statement if p, then q. The inverse, if not p, then not q is logically equivalent to the converse, so it may or may not be true. I know that our textbook does a lot with truth tables here, but I find that less than satisfactory for several reasons. I think it is good to just think about these and do some examples, until you understand WHY this result is true: A conditional statement is logically equivalent to its contrapositive. Exercise: Here is a conditional statement that is true about me. If I ride on a roller coaster, I get dizzy. Write the converse. Write the contrapositive. Write the inverse. Look at the meanings here. Think about the fact that I also get dizzy when I close my eyes and whirl around in a circle several times. Which of those three statements is logically equivalent to the original statement? (Hint: There is only one of these that is equivalent.)

5 MATD Day 5. Feb. 3, 2010 Last updated Feb. 3, 2010 Logic. Sections 3-4, part 2, page 5 of 8 In real-world language, sometimes people do mean if and only if when they say if, then. But I caution you to avoid that and be clear when you mean that the implication goes both ways. Consider Section 3, number 46. Must you read the first sentence in problem 46 as if and only if even though it doesn t say that? Answer: No. It is possible that someone might say that sentence when they mean if and only if, but, then again, they might mean exactly what they say a one-directional conditional. Consider the following example. Example: On the registration site for my math conference, which is Nov. 7-11, it says Jul 1-Oct. 15, registration fee: \$320. Oct. 16 Nov. 10: registration fee: \$320 + \$40 late fee = \$360. So here are statements. a. If you pay after Oct. 31, you must pay the late fee. b. If you pay after Sept. 1, you must pay the late fee. c. If you pay after Oct. 20, you must pay the late fee. d. If you pay after Oct. 15, you must pay the late fee. e. You must pay the late fee if and only if you register after Oct. 15. Write True or False, as appropriate, for each of these statements a. e. (Write it beside each statement.) Which one of these statements (a through e) is the most useful statement for a person registering for the math conference? Which of the other statements is one that might be made instead of the most useful statement? Suppose my school won t approve my travel request until Oct. 20. Which of these statements is the most relevant to me?

6 MATD Day 5. Feb. 3, 2010 Last updated Feb. 3, 2010 Logic. Sections 3-4, part 2, page 6 of 8 Section 4. It is not necessary for you to use the exact language that the book uses for their identification of arguments. It IS necessary for you to be able to identify which of the arguments is being used, by some name or description, and whether it is valid or invalid. Valid Arguments and Invalid Arguments Read the four forms of valid arguments and the two forms of invalid arguments on page 74. Take notes that will help you remember what these mean. (Either copy the symbols or make up an example, or both.) Valid: Law of Detachment Valid: Law of Contrapositive Valid: Law of Syllogism (Chain) Valid: Disjoint Syllogism (Meaning of or ) INVALID: Fallacy of the Converse INVALID: Fallacy of the Inverse

8 MATD Day 5. Feb. 3, 2010 Last updated Feb. 3, 2010 Logic. Sections 3-4, part 2, page 8 of 8 From the text: Section 3: pages Class: 32, 28, 46, 48 HW: 27, 29, 31, 33, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59 Section 4: pages Class: 8, 10 HW: all odd-numbered problems. Quiz: Pages , 56, 60. Pages 76-79: 12, 16, 18

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