# The Appeal to Reason. Introductory Logic pt. 1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 The Appeal to Reason Introductory Logic pt. 1

2 Argument vs. Argumentation The difference is important as demonstrated by these famous philosophers.

3 The Origins of Logic: (highlights) Aristotle ( B.C.E.) Develops logic which remains relatively unchanged for nearly 2000 years, with some changes along the way. Specifically: the syllogism. Recognized that all sciences begin from certain postulates and axioms, explicitly stated. States laws of thought at foundation of logic.

4 The Origins of Logic (highlights) Aristotle s laws of thought the law of identity (A=A), the law of non-contradiction (A does not equal ~A), and the law of the excluded middle (either A or not A but not both A and ~A). Are these laws simply laws of thought? what other options?

5 The Origins of Logic (highlights) Plato had discussed affirmations and denials, and recognized the importance of syntax and grammar in argument in The Sophist Aristotle systematizes in the Organon which includes Categories and the Prior and Posterior Analytics

6 The Origins of Logic (highlights) For roughly 2000 years, the syllogistic is considered to be logic itself, and no substantial improvements are made. E.g: Ergo All A is B All B is C All A is C

7 The Origins of Logic (highlights) Theophrastus discovers the hypothetical syllogism, and thus anticipates the logic of non-categorical propositions: If A then B If B then C Thus, if A then C

8 The Origins of Logic (highlights) Indian and Chinese logic: We should note that the Chinese (Buddhist) and Indian (Hindu) traditions developed systematized grammars, syntax and rules of inference Arabic Logic: inherits Aristotle s and refines, including the innovation of the null set, and numerous other innovations on Aristotle s syllogistic

9 Problems with the Syllogism? What sorts of entities do categorical syllogisms deal with, and what sorts are omitted? Medieval logicians begin to deal with logic of material consequences. E.g If p then q. Pitfalls of the syllogism, once again, by our philosopher friends

10 Modern Logic Leibniz believes he can devise a completely universal, formal, logical language. Says logic is at heart mathematics Devises a logical algebra with 13 basic axioms Pascal believed these axioms could be the foundation for reasoning machines.

11 Modern Logic Father of modern logic may be Bolzano, who (like Aristotle) believes that the theory of logic is the theory of science. Claims all sentences are reducible to the form a has b Defines a proposition as logically analytic when all its descriptive constituent terms occur in it vacuously (anticipates Quine) Are there non-analytic propositions? Is that the realm of science?

12 Modern Logic Logically Analytic: all bachelors are nonmarried men (vs. synthetic ) Can you state a synthetic proposition? J.S. Mill and Bolzano do much to define inductive method. Question: does analytic truth add information to the world? If not, how is induction important to science?

13 Modern Logic By 19th and 20th c., Leibniz s vision of mathematizing logic had taken hold. This begins in earnest with Boole (1847) and then eventually Russell and Whitehead s Principia Mathematica Frege: ,and then Wittgenstein who develops a truth-table method of evaluating validity (which we will employ in our course)

14 Subject Matter of Logic What is logic about? Words? semantics/grammar Thoughts? laws of thought Objects? metaphysics Is it a science, and if it is, what are its fundamental axioms, if any? Keep asking yourself: what justifies accepting those axioms?

15 Pragmatism and Logic Pragmatism criticizes Aristotle s logic: Syllogistic principles do not reflect the way the mind works truly Formal logic tends to degenerate into verbal exercises regarding dialectical skills Is logic a science, a part of science, or something else? How does it relate, say, to mathematics?

16 Logic and Science Logic is not about the way we think or the way we reason (psychology) Why not? Logic is not about the way the world works (physics) Why not? Logic is the theory of inference

17 Logic and Science Logic helps rule out that which is absolutely impossible, and thus determines the field of what in the absence of empirical knowledge is abstractly possible Logic helps then to frame hypotheses essential in science

18 Logic and Science A theory of inference is necessary in all fields for attaining truth via the scientific method, as is a theory of induction Deductive reasoning enables us to discover what it is to which we must consistently commit ourselves if we accept certain propositions

19 Logic and Science A major role of deduction is the formulation of hypotheses. Mathematics and logic enable us to explore the possible outcomes of various hypotheses, and then we match experimental outcomes with predicted results.

20 Critical Thinking Critical Thinking involves understanding and using various modes of language in accordance with various rules of thinking to form and analyze arguments. we use our critical thinking skills to develop convincing arguments and to discern whether the arguments of others are worthwhile. CT is a part of CI

21 We Must Understand: SYNTAX - relationships among symbols SEMANTICS - relationships of symbols to things in the world PRAGMATICS - relationships of language to the user of a language There are fixed rules of inference that allow us to examine certain sentences and combinations of sentences and determine whether they offer good reasons to believe them or not.

22 We Must Understand: LOGIC - is the study of arguments and argument forms ARGUMENTS - are composed of a conclusion and one or more premises VALID ARGUMENTS - have conclusions which follow from their premises SOUND ARGUMENTS - are VALID arguments whose premises are also TRUE

23 Logic and The World Remaining questions: What are the objects of logic? What are the objects of mathematics? How do they relate to each other, and to the objects of the real world? How do we account for abstract entities in science? In naturalism?

24 Logic and The World Are you a Rationalist? Or are you an empiricist? What are the implications for each for the nexus between logic and the sciences? How do we get new information about the world?

25 Logic and The World Leibniz: Natural science is naught but applied mathematics (and logic, by extension)

26 Logic and The World Royal Society We feel certain that the forms and qualities of things can best be explained by the principles of mechanics, and that all effects of Nature are produced by motion, figure, texture, and the varying combinations of these; and that there is no need to have recourse to inexplicable forms and occult qualities, as to a refuge from ignorance Boyle to Spinoza

27 Logic and The World But Boyle concluded from his observations: The world behaves as if there were diffused throughout the universe and intelligent being Whereas Halley: the doctrines of Christianity are now inconceivable

28 Logic and The World Why the divergence? Stems from the fact that the laws of logic and mathematics are axiomatic and seemingly immutable part of the firmament of nature itself E.g law of non-contradiction, law of excluded middle, law of identity Then what role for science and investigation? Tests, constantly, this firmament.

29 The Appeal to Reason Chap 1, Pt.2

30 Basic Assumptions of Critical Thinking EVERYONE is already skilled to a degree in the rational process of ANALYZING, DEFENDING and EVALUATING CLAIMS EVERYONE CAN IMPROVE these basic skills by becoming AWARE of PRINCIPLES behind them, and using them DELIBERATELY rather than instinctively THESE PRINCIPLES are IMPLICIT in ordinary practices of defending and evaluating claims - not invented

31 Basic Assumptions of Critical Thinking Few persons care to study logic, because everybody conceives himself to be proficient enough in the art of reasoning already. But I observe that this satisfaction is limited to one's own ratiocination, and does not extend to that of other men. Source: Charles Sanders Peirce, "The Fixation of Belief", Popular Science Monthly 12 (November 1877), pp

32 Q: What is an ARGUMENT? Definition: to make an ARGUMENT is to make a CLAIM and to OFFER other CLAIMS as reasons to accept it. Definition: In other words - an ARGUMENT is a set of claims, one of which is meant to be SUPPORTED by the others

33 NOT AN ARGUMENT By the end of September in New England, the leaves are already changing, the nights are cooler and the days are noticeably shorter. Some start feeling a sense of dread thinking about the long winter ahead.

34 Is this an ARGUMENT? Every person in the U.S. is entitled to a decent minimum level of the health care. But thousands must go without it because they cannot afford it. Clearly, then, justice demands that we change our health system.

35 Is this an ARGUMENT? She s armed, so she s dangerous.

36 Conclusion vs. Premise CONCLUSION: a claim meant to be supported by reasons offered in the argument. PREMISE: a claim put forth as a reason for a conclusion. Definition: All ARGUMENTS can be divided into a conclusion (at least one) and one or more premises.

37 General Considerations Arguments can be of any length, occur in any context and regard any subject matter. Arguments are NOT MERE DISPUTES

38 General Considerations Arguments may fail for a number of reasons, including: PREMISES may be FALSE or IRRELEVANT or fail to adequately SUPPORT conclusion It hasn t rained in weeks. It is certain to rain tomorrow. May be of an invalid form

39 Recognizing Arguments Today is the 5th, yesterday was the 4th. Is this an argument? Which is premise and which is conclusion? Could be: PREMISE: Today is 5th CONCLUSION: Yesterday was 4th Could be: PREMISE: Yesterday was 4th CONCLUSION: Today is 5th Or: Could be totally unrelated observations

40 Inference Indicators Examples: So Thus Hence Therefore Consequently It follows that We can conclude that This entails that

41 Unstated (implicit) Premises and Conclusions Arguments with them are called enthymemes The bigger the burger the better. The burgers are bigger at Burger King. What is the unstated conclusion?

42 Unstated (implicit) Premises and Conclusions Herman cannot be the person who robbed the store because Herman does not have a snake tattoo on his left arm. What is the unstated premise?

43 Questions, Commands, Exclamations, and Exhortations Because arguments are sets of CLAIMS, certain sentences cannot comprise them: Questions Commands Exclamation Exhortations

44 Questions, Commands, Exclamations, and Exhortations Some sentences must be interpreted and not taken literally to work as parts of an argument

45 Questions, Commands, Exclamations, and Exhortations Example: Clouds are rolling in and the wind is picking up. Go check the boat now! What is the last sentence? -to be a conclusion, how must we interpret it? You should go check the boat now!

46 Multiple Conclusions and Complex Arguments Some large arguments are composed of numerous smaller arguments.

47 Multiple Conclusions and Complex Arguments Example: Eric forgot to pay his gas bill again. It looks like the poor guy is obsessed with finishing the novel he has been writing. Anyway, he will be cold this winter. PREMISE: Eric forgot to pay his gas bill again CONCLUSION 1: He is obsessed with finishing his novel CONCLUSION 2: He will be cold this winter

48 Simple and Complex Arguments Two types of conclusions in complex arguments: Intermediate - used as further premises Final - ultimate conclusion of an argument

49 Simple and Complex Arguments Simple arguments have no INTERMEDIATE CONCLUSIONS Consists of only ONE inference

50 Traditional Analysis Aristotle: All propositions either assert or deny something of something else. Subject is the thing about which the assertion is made. Predicate is the thing asserted. Any counterexamples?

51 Traditional Analysis How about it is raining? What is the subject? How about there was a parade? Aren t these propositions? What is the subject?

52 Traditional Analysis TERMS in an argument, either a class of objects, or a set of attributes which determine the objects. Called: Denotation/extension and connotation/intension. philosopher extension is Socrates, Plato, etc. and intension is lover of wisdom, intelligent, etc.

53 Some Questions to Ponder In what sense do the intension and extension of terms belong to the objects? Are they functions of nature? Mind? Of what? What assumptions do we make about objects and the use of terms in science?

### Richard L. W. Clarke, Notes REASONING

1 REASONING Reasoning is, broadly speaking, the cognitive process of establishing reasons to justify beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. It also refers, more specifically, to the act or process

### Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods delineating the scope of deductive reason Roger Bishop Jones Abstract. The scope of deductive reason is considered. First a connection is discussed between the

### MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC. 1. Logic is the science of A) Thought. B) Beauty. C) Mind. D) Goodness

MCQ IN TRADITIONAL LOGIC FOR PRIVATE REGISTRATION TO BA PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMME 1. Logic is the science of-----------. A) Thought B) Beauty C) Mind D) Goodness 2. Aesthetics is the science of ------------.

### Logic: Deductive and Inductive by Carveth Read M.A. CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE

CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE Section 1. A Mediate Inference is a proposition that depends for proof upon two or more other propositions, so connected together by one or

### What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece

What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece Outline of this Talk 1. What is the nature of logic? Some history

### Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument

Broad on God Broad on Theological Arguments I. The Ontological Argument Sample Ontological Argument: Suppose that God is the most perfect or most excellent being. Consider two things: (1)An entity that

### PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0

1 2 3 4 5 PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 Hume and Kant! Remember Hume s question:! Are we rationally justified in inferring causes from experimental observations?! Kant s answer: we can give a transcendental

### 1. Introduction Formal deductive logic Overview

1. Introduction 1.1. Formal deductive logic 1.1.0. Overview In this course we will study reasoning, but we will study only certain aspects of reasoning and study them only from one perspective. The special

### Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori phil 43904 Jeff Speaks December 4, 2007 1 The problem of a priori knowledge....................... 1 2 Necessity and the a priori............................ 2

### Early Russell on Philosophical Grammar

Early Russell on Philosophical Grammar G. J. Mattey Fall, 2005 / Philosophy 156 Philosophical Grammar The study of grammar, in my opinion, is capable of throwing far more light on philosophical questions

### Lecture 1 The Concept of Inductive Probability

Lecture 1 The Concept of Inductive Probability Patrick Maher Philosophy 517 Spring 2007 Two concepts of probability Example 1 You know that a coin is either two-headed or two-tailed but you have no information

### Charles Saunders Peirce ( )

Charles Saunders Peirce (1839-1914) Few persons care to study logic, because everybody conceives himself to be proficient enough in the art of reasoning already. But I observe that this satisfaction is

### CHAPTER 2 THE LARGER LOGICAL LANDSCAPE NOVEMBER 2017

CHAPTER 2 THE LARGER LOGICAL LANDSCAPE NOVEMBER 2017 1. SOME HISTORICAL REMARKS In the preceding chapter, I developed a simple propositional theory for deductive assertive illocutionary arguments. This

### What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic?

1 2 What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? Wilfrid Hodges Herons Brook, Sticklepath, Okehampton March 2012 http://wilfridhodges.co.uk Ibn Sina, 980 1037 3 4 Ibn Sīnā

### KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire.

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism

### The Philosophy of Logic

The Philosophy of Logic PHL 430-001 Spring 2003 MW: 10:20-11:40 EBH, Rm. 114 Instructor Information Matthew McKeon Office: 503 South Kedzie/Rm. 507 Office hours: Friday--10:30-1:00, and by appt. Telephone:

### Argumentative Analogy versus Figurative Analogy

Argumentative Analogy versus Figurative Analogy By Timo Schmitz, Philosopher As argumentative analogy or simply analogism (ἀναλογισµός), one calls the comparison through inductive reasoning of at least

### 2.1 Review. 2.2 Inference and justifications

Applied Logic Lecture 2: Evidence Semantics for Intuitionistic Propositional Logic Formal logic and evidence CS 4860 Fall 2012 Tuesday, August 28, 2012 2.1 Review The purpose of logic is to make reasoning

### Logic: Deductive and Inductive by Carveth Read M.A. CHAPTER VI CONDITIONS OF IMMEDIATE INFERENCE

CHAPTER VI CONDITIONS OF IMMEDIATE INFERENCE Section 1. The word Inference is used in two different senses, which are often confused but should be carefully distinguished. In the first sense, it means

### Ayer on the criterion of verifiability

Ayer on the criterion of verifiability November 19, 2004 1 The critique of metaphysics............................. 1 2 Observation statements............................... 2 3 In principle verifiability...............................

### Deduction. Of all the modes of reasoning, deductive arguments have the strongest relationship between the premises

Deduction Deductive arguments, deduction, deductive logic all means the same thing. They are different ways of referring to the same style of reasoning Deduction is just one mode of reasoning, but it is

### Verificationism. PHIL September 27, 2011

Verificationism PHIL 83104 September 27, 2011 1. The critique of metaphysics... 1 2. Observation statements... 2 3. In principle verifiability... 3 4. Strong verifiability... 3 4.1. Conclusive verifiability

### Courses providing assessment data PHL 202. Semester/Year

1 Department/Program 2012-2016 Assessment Plan Department: Philosophy Directions: For each department/program student learning outcome, the department will provide an assessment plan, giving detailed information

### CHAPTER THREE Philosophical Argument

CHAPTER THREE Philosophical Argument General Overview: As our students often attest, we all live in a complex world filled with demanding issues and bewildering challenges. In order to determine those

### Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Father Frederick C. Copleston (Jesuit Catholic priest) versus Bertrand Russell (agnostic philosopher) Copleston:

### Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori PHIL 83104 November 2, 2011 Both Boghossian and Harman address themselves to the question of whether our a priori knowledge can be explained in

### Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

### Epistemology. Diogenes: Master Cynic. The Ancient Greek Skeptics 4/6/2011. But is it really possible to claim knowledge of anything?

Epistemology a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge (Dictionary.com v 1.1). Epistemology attempts to answer the question how do we know what

### Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation

Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation Okada Mitsuhiro Section I. Introduction. I would like to discuss proof formation 1 as a general methodology of sciences and philosophy, with a

### Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5

Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations

### Philosophy Courses-1

Philosophy Courses-1 PHL 100/Introduction to Philosophy A course that examines the fundamentals of philosophical argument, analysis and reasoning, as applied to a series of issues in logic, epistemology,

### Chapter 3: More Deductive Reasoning (Symbolic Logic)

Chapter 3: More Deductive Reasoning (Symbolic Logic) There's no easy way to say this, the material you're about to learn in this chapter can be pretty hard for some students. Other students, on the other

### CONTENTS A SYSTEM OF LOGIC

EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION NOTE ON THE TEXT. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY XV xlix I /' ~, r ' o>

### Critical Thinking. The Four Big Steps. First example. I. Recognizing Arguments. The Nature of Basics

Critical Thinking The Very Basics (at least as I see them) Dona Warren Department of Philosophy The University of Wisconsin Stevens Point What You ll Learn Here I. How to recognize arguments II. How to

### Philosophy 308 The Language Revolution Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2014

Philosophy 308 The Language Revolution Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2014 Class #14 The Picture Theory of Language and the Verification Theory of Meaning Wittgenstein, Ayer, and Hempel Marcus,

### 1/12. The A Paralogisms

1/12 The A Paralogisms The character of the Paralogisms is described early in the chapter. Kant describes them as being syllogisms which contain no empirical premises and states that in them we conclude

### The Development of Laws of Formal Logic of Aristotle

This paper is dedicated to my unforgettable friend Boris Isaevich Lamdon. The Development of Laws of Formal Logic of Aristotle The essence of formal logic The aim of every science is to discover the laws

### Based on the translation by E. M. Edghill, with minor emendations by Daniel Kolak.

On Interpretation By Aristotle Based on the translation by E. M. Edghill, with minor emendations by Daniel Kolak. First we must define the terms 'noun' and 'verb', then the terms 'denial' and 'affirmation',

### IDHEF Chapter 2 Why Should Anyone Believe Anything At All?

IDHEF Chapter 2 Why Should Anyone Believe Anything At All? -You might have heard someone say, It doesn t really matter what you believe, as long as you believe something. While many people think this is

### Anthony P. Andres. The Place of Conversion in Aristotelian Logic. Anthony P. Andres

[ Loyola Book Comp., run.tex: 0 AQR Vol. W rev. 0, 17 Jun 2009 ] [The Aquinas Review Vol. W rev. 0: 1 The Place of Conversion in Aristotelian Logic From at least the time of John of St. Thomas, scholastic

### - We might, now, wonder whether the resulting concept of justification is sufficiently strong. According to BonJour, apparent rational insight is

BonJour I PHIL410 BonJour s Moderate Rationalism - BonJour develops and defends a moderate form of Rationalism. - Rationalism, generally (as used here), is the view according to which the primary tool

### Pastor-teacher Don Hargrove Faith Bible Church September 8, 2011

Pastor-teacher Don Hargrove Faith Bible Church http://www.fbcweb.org/doctrines.html September 8, 2011 Building Mental Muscle & Growing the Mind through Logic Exercises: Lesson 4a The Three Acts of the

### The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic

The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic TANG Mingjun The Institute of Philosophy Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Shanghai, P.R. China Abstract: This paper is a preliminary inquiry into the main

### A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC FOR METAPHYSICIANS

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC FOR METAPHYSICIANS 0. Logic, Probability, and Formal Structure Logic is often divided into two distinct areas, inductive logic and deductive logic. Inductive logic is concerned

### Wednesday, April 20, 16. Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy In your notebooks answer the following questions: 1. Why am I here? (in terms of being in this course) 2. Why am I here? (in terms of existence) 3. Explain what the unexamined

### Reasoning INTRODUCTION

77 Reasoning I N the tradition of western thought, certain verbal expressions have become shorthand for the fundamental ideas in the discussion of which they happen to be so often repeated. This may be

### The problems of induction in scientific inquiry: Challenges and solutions. Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction Defining induction...

The problems of induction in scientific inquiry: Challenges and solutions Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction... 2 2.0 Defining induction... 2 3.0 Induction versus deduction... 2 4.0 Hume's descriptive

### 1/5. The Critique of Theology

1/5 The Critique of Theology The argument of the Transcendental Dialectic has demonstrated that there is no science of rational psychology and that the province of any rational cosmology is strictly limited.

### Phil 3304 Introduction to Logic Dr. David Naugle. Identifying Arguments i

Phil 3304 Introduction to Logic Dr. David Naugle Identifying Arguments Dallas Baptist University Introduction Identifying Arguments i Any kid who has played with tinker toys and Lincoln logs knows that

### Russell s Problems of Philosophy

Russell s Problems of Philosophy UNIVERSALS & OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEM F e b r u a r y 2 Today : 1. Review A Priori Knowledge 2. The Case for Universals 3. Universals to the Rescue! 4. On Philosophy Essays

### Informalizing Formal Logic

Informalizing Formal Logic Antonis Kakas Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus, Cyprus antonis@ucy.ac.cy Abstract. This paper discusses how the basic notions of formal logic can be expressed

### A (Very) Brief Introduction to Epistemology Lecture 2. Palash Sarkar

A (Very) Brief Introduction to Epistemology Lecture 2 Palash Sarkar Applied Statistics Unit Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata India palash@isical.ac.in Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Epistemology 1 /

### A Brief History of Thinking about Thinking Thomas Lombardo

A Brief History of Thinking about Thinking Thomas Lombardo "Education is nothing more nor less than learning to think." Peter Facione In this article I review the historical evolution of principles and

### Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays

Bernays Project: Text No. 26 Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays (Bemerkungen zur Philosophie der Mathematik) Translation by: Dirk Schlimm Comments: With corrections by Charles

### WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

### Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain

Predicate logic Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) 28040 Madrid Spain Synonyms. First-order logic. Question 1. Describe this discipline/sub-discipline, and some of its more

### UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BA PHILOSOPHY CORE COURSE II SEM PY II B 02 METHODOLOGY OF PHILOSOPHY QUESTION BANK Choose the correct answer 1. ------------------- is a vital instrument

### OSSA Conference Archive OSSA 5

University of Windsor Scholarship at UWindsor OSSA Conference Archive OSSA 5 May 14th, 9:00 AM - May 17th, 5:00 PM Commentary pm Krabbe Dale Jacquette Follow this and additional works at: http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/ossaarchive

### Department of Philosophy TCD. Great Philosophers. Dennett. Tom Farrell. Department of Surgical Anatomy RCSI Department of Clinical Medicine RCSI

Department of Philosophy TCD Great Philosophers Dennett Tom Farrell Department of Philosophy TCD Department of Surgical Anatomy RCSI Department of Clinical Medicine RCSI 1. Socrates 2. Plotinus 3. Augustine

### Vol 2 Bk 7 Outline p 486 BOOK VII. Substance, Essence and Definition CONTENTS. Book VII

Vol 2 Bk 7 Outline p 486 BOOK VII Substance, Essence and Definition CONTENTS Book VII Lesson 1. The Primacy of Substance. Its Priority to Accidents Lesson 2. Substance as Form, as Matter, and as Body.

### But we may go further: not only Jones, but no actual man, enters into my statement. This becomes obvious when the statement is false, since then

CHAPTER XVI DESCRIPTIONS We dealt in the preceding chapter with the words all and some; in this chapter we shall consider the word the in the singular, and in the next chapter we shall consider the word

### LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN

LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN HTTP://MSTEENHAGEN.GITHUB.IO/TEACHING/2018TOM THE EINSTEIN-BERGSON DEBATE SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS Henri Bergson and Albert Einstein met on the 6th of

### Ayer and Quine on the a priori

Ayer and Quine on the a priori November 23, 2004 1 The problem of a priori knowledge Ayer s book is a defense of a thoroughgoing empiricism, not only about what is required for a belief to be justified

### Truth At a World for Modal Propositions

Truth At a World for Modal Propositions 1 Introduction Existentialism is a thesis that concerns the ontological status of individual essences and singular propositions. Let us define an individual essence

### (1) a phrase may be denoting, and yet not denote anything e.g. the present King of France

Main Goals: Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #14] Bertrand Russell: On Denoting/Descriptions Professor JeeLoo Liu 1. To show that both Frege s and Meinong s theories are inadequate. 2. To defend

### HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

### Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1A: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method

Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1A: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method Professor Tim Mazzarol UWA Business School MGMT6791 UWA Business School DBA Program tim.mazzarol@uwa.edu.au

### Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic

Logic Appendix: More detailed instruction in deductive logic Standardizing and Diagramming In Reason and the Balance we have taken the approach of using a simple outline to standardize short arguments,

### 2. Refutations can be stronger or weaker.

Lecture 8: Refutation Philosophy 130 October 25 & 27, 2016 O Rourke I. Administrative A. Schedule see syllabus as well! B. Questions? II. Refutation A. Arguments are typically used to establish conclusions.

### Aristotle ( ) His scientific thinking, his physics.

Aristotle (384-322) His scientific thinking, his physics. Aristotle: short biography Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote on many different

### - 1 - Outline of NICOMACHEAN ETHICS, Book I Book I--Dialectical discussion leading to Aristotle's definition of happiness: activity in accordance

- 1 - Outline of NICOMACHEAN ETHICS, Book I Book I--Dialectical discussion leading to Aristotle's definition of happiness: activity in accordance with virtue or excellence (arete) in a complete life Chapter

### PHILOSOPHY (PHIL) Philosophy (PHIL) 1. PHIL 56. Research Integrity. 1 Unit

Philosophy (PHIL) 1 PHILOSOPHY (PHIL) PHIL 2. Ethics. 3 Units Examination of the concepts of morality, obligation, human rights and the good life. Competing theories about the foundations of morality will

### Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10]

Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10] W. V. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism Professor JeeLoo Liu Main Theses 1. Anti-analytic/synthetic divide: The belief in the divide between analytic and synthetic

### On Interpretation. Section 1. Aristotle Translated by E. M. Edghill. Part 1

On Interpretation Aristotle Translated by E. M. Edghill Section 1 Part 1 First we must define the terms noun and verb, then the terms denial and affirmation, then proposition and sentence. Spoken words

### INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE

INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE Péter Érdi Henry R. Luce Professor Center for Complex Systems Studies Kalamazoo College, Michigan and Dept. Biophysics KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of

### A s a contracts professional, from

18 Contract Management June 2015 Contract Management June 2015 19 A s a contracts professional, from time to time you must answer a question, resolve an issue, explain something, or make a decision based

### HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

### Philosophy (PHILOS) Courses. Philosophy (PHILOS) 1

Philosophy (PHILOS) 1 Philosophy (PHILOS) Courses PHILOS 1. Introduction to Philosophy. 4 Units. A selection of philosophical problems, concepts, and methods, e.g., free will, cause and substance, personal

### MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A

I Holistic Pragmatism and the Philosophy of Culture MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A philosophical discussion of the main elements of civilization or culture such as science, law, religion, politics,

### Philosophy Courses-1

Philosophy Courses-1 PHL 100/Introduction to Philosophy A course that examines the fundamentals of philosophical argument, analysis and reasoning, as applied to a series of issues in logic, epistemology,

### CLASS #17: CHALLENGES TO POSITIVISM/BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

CLASS #17: CHALLENGES TO POSITIVISM/BEHAVIORAL APPROACH I. Challenges to Confirmation A. The Inductivist Turkey B. Discovery vs. Justification 1. Discovery 2. Justification C. Hume's Problem 1. Inductive

Lecture 8: Refutation Philosophy 130 March 19 & 24, 2015 O Rourke I. Administrative A. Roll B. Schedule C. Exam #1 comments on difficult spots; if you have questions about this, please let me know D. Discussion

### The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism

The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism Issues: I. Problem of Induction II. Popper s rejection of induction III. Salmon s critique of deductivism 2 I. The problem of induction 1. Inductive vs.

### Bertrand Russell Proper Names, Adjectives and Verbs 1

Bertrand Russell Proper Names, Adjectives and Verbs 1 Analysis 46 Philosophical grammar can shed light on philosophical questions. Grammatical differences can be used as a source of discovery and a guide

### Philosophy of Mathematics Kant

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Owen Griffiths oeg21@cam.ac.uk St John s College, Cambridge 20/10/15 Immanuel Kant Born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Enrolled at the University of Königsberg in 1740 and

### A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November

Lecture 9: Propositional Logic I Philosophy 130 1 & 3 November 2016 O Rourke & Gibson I. Administrative A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November B. I am working on the group

### Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 02 Lecture - 03 So in the last

### GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks)

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) Chapter 1 CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY (4 marks allotted) MCQ 1X2 = 2 SAQ -- 1X2 = 2 (a) Nature of Philosophy: The word Philosophy is originated from two Greek words Philos

### Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics. Critical Thinking Lecture 1. Background Material for the Exercise on Validity

Philosophy 1100: Introduction to Ethics Critical Thinking Lecture 1 Background Material for the Exercise on Validity Reasons, Arguments, and the Concept of Validity 1. The Concept of Validity Consider

### CHAPTER 1 A PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF ASSERTIVE ILLOCUTIONARY ARGUMENTS OCTOBER 2017

CHAPTER 1 A PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF ASSERTIVE ILLOCUTIONARY ARGUMENTS OCTOBER 2017 Man possesses the capacity of constructing languages, in which every sense can be expressed, without having an idea how

### Basic Concepts and Skills!

Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential

### Department of Philosophy

The University of Alabama at Birmingham 1 Department of Philosophy Chair: Dr. Gregory Pence The Department of Philosophy offers the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in philosophy, as well as a minor

### Logical behaviourism

Michael Lacewing Logical behaviourism THE THEORY Logical behaviourism is a form of physicalism, but it does not attempt to reduce mental properties states, events and so on to physical properties directly.

### PHILOSOPHY-PHIL (PHIL)

Philosophy-PHIL (PHIL) 1 PHILOSOPHY-PHIL (PHIL) Courses PHIL 100 Appreciation of Philosophy (GT-AH3) Credits: 3 (3-0-0) Basic issues in philosophy including theories of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics,

### Scientific Method and Research Ethics Questions, Answers, and Evidence. Dr. C. D. McCoy

Scientific Method and Research Ethics 17.09 Questions, Answers, and Evidence Dr. C. D. McCoy Plan for Part 1: Deduction 1. Logic, Arguments, and Inference 1. Questions and Answers 2. Truth, Validity, and

### PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS & THE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE

PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS & THE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE Now, it is a defect of [natural] languages that expressions are possible within them, which, in their grammatical form, seemingly determined to designate

### Précis of Empiricism and Experience. Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh

Précis of Empiricism and Experience Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh My principal aim in the book is to understand the logical relationship of experience to knowledge. Say that I look out of my window

### 1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought

1/7 The Postulates of Empirical Thought This week we are focusing on the final section of the Analytic of Principles in which Kant schematizes the last set of categories. This set of categories are what